Water Exercise by Melissa Layne

52579db04d38a90.jpg Author Melissa Layne
Isbn 9781450498142
File size 101.9 MB
Year 2015
Pages 248
Language English
File format PDF
Category personality


Cataloging-in-Publication Data Layne, Melissa. Water exercise / Melissa Layne. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Aquatic exercises. 2. Aerobic exercises. I. Title. RA781.17.L39 2015 613.7’16--dc23 2015010724 ISBN: 978-1-4504-9814-2 (print) Copyright © 2015 by Melissa Layne All rights reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilization of this work in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including xerography, photocopying, and recording, and in any information storage and retrieval system, is forbidden without the written permission of the publisher. This publication is written and published to provide accurate and authoritative information relevant to the subject matter presented. It is published and sold with the understanding that the author and publisher are not engaged in rendering legal, medical, or other professional services by reason of their authorship or publication of this work. If medical or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. The web addresses cited in this text were current as of January 2015, unless otherwise noted. Acquisitions Editor: Michelle Maloney; Developmental Editor: Kevin Matz; Managing Editor: Nicole O’Dell; Copyeditor: Tom Tiller; Graphic Designer: Denise Lowry; Cover Designer: Keith Blomberg; Photographer (interior): David Haas; photos © Human Kinetics; Photo Production Manager: Jason Allen; Visual Production Assistant: Joyce Brumfield; Printer: Versa Press We thank the Hugh Mills Physical Education Complex at University of North Georgia, Gainesville, for assistance in providing the location for the photo shoot for this book. Human Kinetics books are available at special discounts for bulk purchase. Special editions or book excerpts can also be created to specification. For details, contact the Special Sales Manager at Human Kinetics. Printed in the United States of America  10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The paper in this book is certified under a sustainable forestry program. Human Kinetics Website: www.HumanKinetics.com United States: Human Kinetics, P.O. Box 5076, Champaign, IL 61825-5076 800-747-4457 e-mail: [email protected] Canada: Human Kinetics, 475 Devonshire Road Unit 100, Windsor, ON N8Y 2L5 800-465-7301 (in Canada only) e-mail: [email protected] Europe: Human Kinetics, 107 Bradford Road, Stanningley, Leeds LS28 6AT, United Kingdom +44 (0) 113 255 5665 e-mail: [email protected] Australia: Human Kinetics, 57A Price Avenue, Lower Mitcham, South Australia 5062 08 8372 0999 e-mail: [email protected] New Zealand: Human Kinetics, P.O. Box 80, Torrens Park, South Australia 5062 0800 222 062 e-mail: [email protected] E6332 WWW.EBOOK777.COM WATER EXERCISE WWW.EBOOK777.COM Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii PART I GETTING STARTED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter 1 Basics of Water Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Chapter 2 Preparing to Get Wet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 PART II CHOOSING YOUR EXERCISES . . . 25 Chapter 3 Warm-Up and Flexibility Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Chapter 4 Beginning Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Chapter 5 Intermediate Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Chapter 6 Advanced Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Chapter 7 Deep-Water Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 iv WWW.EBOOK777.COM Part III Exercises For Common Injuries and Conditions . . . 131 Chapter 8 Ankle Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Chapter 9 Knee Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Chapter 10 Hip Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Chapter 11 Spine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Chapter 12 Shoulder Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Chapter 13 Elbow and Wrist Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Part IV Water Exercise Programs . . 195 Chapter 14 Basic Water Fitness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Chapter 15 Advanced Cross-Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Chapter 16 Special Populations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 v WWW.EBOOK777.COM This page intentionally left blank WWW.EBOOK777.COM Preface Water exercise has been popular since 1978, and it is becoming more popular as an effective and gentle form of exercise. It is a great way to stay active regardless of your age and body shape. If you are just starting an activity or fitness program, water is an environment that keeps the joints virtually free of impact, supports you in an upright position (thereby decreasing the potential for falls), and cools the internal body temperature so that overheating is not an issue. If you need a more intense workout, water can provide resistance to your movement that is not found on land and can also be manipulated to challenge you even if you are extremely conditioned. If you have medical concerns, water is a gentle and forgiving environment because it allows you to take the weight off an injured body part while still engaging and strengthening the muscles surrounding that joint. It also permits you to take a break when needed and to set your own pace and intensity, allowing for a truly appropriate training stimulus based on your specific needs. For these and many other reasons, water exercise truly is for everyone. Water Exercise is for all who are interested in starting water exercise, including those seeking rehabilitation from surgery or injury. The book is divided into four parts. We start with the unique benefits of an aquatic environment and why it is such a valuable part of an activity program. Also in part I are the steps to preparing for a water exercise program, including what equipment, if any, you may need and where you can find it. We also address some specific safety concerns that you need to be aware of in the pool environment. Once you are ready to get wet, part II will guide you through basic exercises. Using step-by-step written instructions, we give you the basic information for completing the moves. The moves are divided into groups based on the specific body part the activity targets. We start with movements for beginners and then progress into intermediate and advanced options. If you are looking for a workout free of impact, we also have a chapter on deep-water exercise. Deepwater exercise is also a great way to target your heart with a cardiorespiratory workout. All of the exercises are accompanied by photos to help you with the movements. We also offer tips for making the movement easier and progressing the movement to the next level of intensity. The pool is an excellent place for you if you need specific adaptations after surgery or injury. In part III we address rehabilitation issues from specific injuries and common surgeries. Similar to the previous chapters in the book, the chapters in part III are arranged by the major joints involved, including the hip vii WWW.EBOOK777.COM viii  Preface and the spine. This makes it easy to find what you are looking for and start building a healthier body. The rehabilitation programs include recent research and a table of previously explained exercises for common joint replacements; overuse injuries such as tendinitis and sprains; and common traumatic injuries such as sprains, tears, and fractures. Part IV of Water Exercise provides a complete fitness workout using the exercises in the previous chapters, so it’s like having a fitness trainer take you through a workout at your own convenience. This is directed toward those looking for an all-inclusive cross-training regimen of cardiorespiratory training, muscular endurance, and flexibility. The final chapter is devoted to special populations, including pregnant women, and those with fibromyalgia and Parkinson’s disease. From the sedentary to the fit, aquatic exercise is adaptable to all. It is especially helpful for those with limitations in moving on land. Listen to what your body is telling you as you move through these exercises, and you will find your body responding in a positive way for a more positive life. WWW.EBOOK777.COM part I Getting Started As you begin your adventure in water exercise, chapter 1 introduces you to the unique properties of water that make the pool such a safe and effective place to exercise. The cooling and buoyant properties keep you comfortable while adding physiological benefits such as increased cardiorespiratory endurance and a balanced workout for any postural problems. General guidelines for frequency, duration, and intensity are included in chapter 1. Chapter 2 focuses on safety in the pool both for swimmers and nonswimmers. Exercise in the water is safe as long as you follow basic safety guidelines and procedures. Some equipment may make you feel more comfortable in the deeper areas of the pool, and other equipment will actually challenge your comfort level. We address many types of the equipment available, but it is important to remember that all you really need is your body and a pool. 1 WWW.EBOOK777.COM This page intentionally left blank WWW.EBOOK777.COM chapter 1 Basics of Water Exercise Water exercise offers a great way to get in shape, stay in shape, or rehabilitate an injured part of the body. The pool is a forgiving environment because the water cushions and supports your body while reducing the impact on your bones and joints. Another reason that aquatic activity remains popular is that it offers a fabulous way to exercise regardless of what kind of shape you are in. You can easily individualize each workout in terms of speed, intensity, and amount of rest. Water exercise offers a range of therapeutic and health care benefits for everyone. It also improves all of the fitness components addressed by land exercise. Over time, aquatic exercise can improve your overall health, increase your longevity, and make the activities of your daily life easier while also protecting your body from unnecessary physical stress. Properties of Water The properties of water that make aquatic exercise safe and effective are buoyancy, hydrostatic pressure, and viscosity. These properties enable a balanced, low-impact workout that is safe both for people who want to increase their overall fitness and for those seeking rehabilitation after surgery or injury. In addition, the dynamics of thermoregulation in the pool help keep the body cool, thus making aquatic activity a safer and more comfortable mode of exercise, especially for people with certain health conditions, such as pregnancy and fibromyalgia. Buoyancy The greatest advantage provided by working in the pool is buoyancy, which is the upward pressure exerted by fluid—in other words, the opposite of gravity’s downward pull. You can easily observe the effect of buoyancy by holding an object, such as a playground ball, at the bottom of the pool, then releasing it 3 WWW.EBOOK777.COM 4  Water Exercise and watching it pop up to the water’s surface. Buoyancy accounts for the feeling of relative weightlessness that we experience in water. It also decreases the compressive forces experienced by the joints, including those in the spine. As a result, aquatic exercise is a low-impact activity. The amount of benefit provided by buoyancy for exercise depends on the depth of the water. If you stand in water that reaches your navel or belly button (see figure 1.1a), you reduce the impact on your joints by 50 percent. However, though this reduction is sizable, it may not be enough to enable the majority of people to exercise comfortably. If, instead, you position yourself in water that reaches mid-chest or nipple level (see figure 1.1b), you reduce the impact by 75 percent. This depth is comfortable for most people, even those who do not possess strong swimming skills. People who are fit and looking to cross-train in the water may want to do so at a depth where the water reaches the collar bone (see figure 1.1c). This depth reduces impact by 90 percent and makes it more difficult to maintain one’s balance. When balance is challenged, the core muscles in the torso will be forced to contract so the abdominal muscles are more greatly challenged. For the same reason, however, it is often uncomfortable for people who are not strong swimmers. Moving into the deep end to perform suspended exercises removes all impact from the joints but most often requires a flotation device, such as a suspension belt or noodle. It also requires a high level of self-confidence a b c Figure 1.1  The depth of the water determines the amount of impact placed on the body. The chest level is the most common depth for successful water exercise. WWW.EBOOK777.COM Basics of Water Exercise  5 in the water because the body often tilts away from the upright position. For example, your feet may float, which may leave you horizontal in the water, either faceup or facedown. With all of these factors in mind, chest level is the most common depth for successful water exercise. Buoyancy also aids flexibility—the range of motion around a joint—which is a primary component of rehabilitation after injury or surgery. Because water provides buoyancy and reduces gravitational force, it allows the exerciser to move his or her limbs more freely, and possibly without pain, toward the surface of the water. Because buoyancy is greatest in deep water, rehabilitation often begins in water deep enough to eliminate gravitational pull on the injured body part and allow the joint to float freely to the water’s surface. Hydrostatic Pressure Hydrostatic pressure can be defined as the pressure exerted or transmitted by a fluid to an object. The hydrostatic pressure of water molecules creates equal pressure on all parts of the body, and this pressure increases with the depth of the water. This characteristic of water provides great benefits for persons with swelling due to injury, edema from pregnancy, or cardiac concerns. Specifically, any edema or swelling of a joint is decreased when the joint is submerged in water because the fluid in the joint is forced into the capillaries by the hydrostatic pressure of the water against the body, thus returning to the bloodstream. From there, it eventually passes through the kidneys for elimination from the body. This benefit is more noticeable in the lower limbs because they are positioned at a greater depth where the pressure is greater. As a result, for example, pregnant women see a noticeable decrease in ankle swelling. The hydrostatic pressure of water also facilitates the efficiency of the cardiovascular system, thus making the pool a popular environment for persons recovering from a cardiac incident. Because hydrostatic pressure causes constriction of blood vessels, the heart is pumping blood through a smaller area; as a result, it does not have to pump as often, and the heart rate decreases. Therefore, if you monitor your heart rate while exercising in the water, you may find fewer heartbeats even if you feel you are working more intensely. Viscosity Water molecules also provide resistance in every direction, which means that you work opposing muscle groups at the same time. This resistance is caused by the fact that water molecules are cohesive; that is, they stick to each other, and this quality is often referred to as “drag.” To push through these sticky molecules, your body must exert muscular force that is 12 to 15 times greater than the force needed when moving through air. Therefore, water’s viscosity helps you develop muscular fitness. It also provides a stabilizing effect that helps the body remain upright, which makes the water a safe place to exercise for people with conditions that affect balance, WWW.EBOOK777.COM 6  Water Exercise such as multiple sclerosis and hip replacement. For example, if you lose your balance in the pool, there is no danger of falling and breaking a bone because the water supports you. Water molecules also possess a property called adhesion, which causes them to stick to other things in the pool, such as pool noodles, clothing, webbed gloves, and even skin. As a result, you can make your workout either more or less intense by adjusting factors such as how you dress, how you hold your hands in the pool, and the position in which you hold a pool noodle (either horizontal or vertical (see figure 1.2). If such factors allow water molecules to adhere to more surface area, your workout is harder. For example, more clothing or baggy clothing creates more surface area, thus making it harder for you to move. A tight-fitting swimsuit, however, provides less surface area to which molecules can stick, thus making your workout easier. The same thing applies to how you move your hand. Positioning your hand so that it slices through the water with a point leading the way makes your movement easier—similar to the way in which a boat’s pointed nose cuts through the a b Figure 1.2  Holding a noodle horizontal makes the exercise more difficult (a) than holding it vertical (b). WWW.EBOOK777.COM Basics of Water Exercise  7 water. In contrast, holding your hand open in a flat palm that meets the water’s surface provides more surface area to which water molecules can stick, thus making it harder for you to move—similar to a pontoon boat with a squared front end. If your focus is rehabilitation, water’s viscosity helps you develop strength and endurance in the injured joint and surrounding muscles. Specifically, the viscosity provides you with balanced resistance regardless of the direction in which you move a limb. Imagine, for instance, that you are rehabbing after an injury to your back. You move your arms forward, as if hugging a tree, then move your arms behind your back as if stretching after getting out of bed. As you perform these movements, the water provides resistance both while you move your arms forward and while you move them backward. This balanced resistance prevents one muscle from getting stronger than the other—a condition that can result in uneven pulling on a tendon, which in turn can cause inflammation or tendinitis. Thermoregulation Thermoregulation is a property of the body that increases your comfort level during exercise in the water. In the case of water exercise, the dynamics of thermoregulation mean simply that, as long as you exercise in water that is cooler than you are, you can regulate your body temperature by transferring body heat directly to the water rather than by sweating. Thermoregulation becomes more important as we age due to changes in sweat glands that occur with age; older people experience a progressive decline in the ability to perspire. The typical temperature range of water in a climate-controlled pool is 78 to 82 degrees Fahrenheit (about 25 to 28 degrees Celsius), which allows the body to regulate itself by passing heat to the water molecules. Although thermoregulation is a property of the human body, it plays a role in the property of water called the specific heat capacity. There are very few other substances that have a higher specific heat capacity than water. This simply means, for our information, that the water requires a large amount of heat to raise the temperature and once the temperature is raised, it takes a good bit of time to cool. The breaking of hydrogen bonds in the H20 molecules requires a large amount of energy, so the energy that is transferred to the water is held in the molecules. You can observe the effects of thermoregulation and the specific heat capacity of water by comparing a pool full of people to a pool only containing water. The crowded pool is warmer because the people pass body heat to the cooler surrounding water but it will not get to the temperature that breaks the hydrogen bonds and turns water into steam because of the high specific heat capacity. This property makes water exercise a comfortable mode of activity for everyone. There are variables to consider in certain situations. For example, if you are focused on decreasing spasticity—as may be the case with Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, or stroke—you might want to exercise in water WWW.EBOOK777.COM 8  Water Exercise that is warmer than 85 degrees Fahrenheit (about 29 degrees Celsius). Using warmer water decreases the body’s ability to thermoregulate, which is helpful in this case because warming the muscles decreases spasticity. General Benefits of Water Exercise In addition to providing the specific exercise benefits we have just discussed, water also provides the same general benefits offered by land exercise. These benefits can help you increase your life span, improve the quality of your life, and handle daily life activities more comfortably and perhaps more easily. Let’s look more closely at four of these benefits: better cardiac health, better body composition, reduced stress, and improved musculoskeletal fitness. Improved Cardiac Health Water exercise improves all facets of heart health, which is also known as cardiovascular or cardiorespiratory fitness. Cardiovascular fitness involves the ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to carry oxygen to working muscles. Many people consider this ability to be centrally important for any fitness program because heart disease remains the number one killer of people throughout the world. Cardiovascular fitness is developed with activities that use large muscle groups in continuous movement, including water exercise. One of the best and easiest ways to assess your cardiovascular health on a regular basis is to monitor your resting heart rate. Choose a day when you can wake up naturally—that is, not due to anything like an alarm, the sound of garbage cans being slammed outside your home, or a cat jumping on your head. When you first wake up, while you are still horizontal in bed, find your pulse by placing your hand over your heart and counting the “lub” of the “lub-dub” sound. Count for one full minute. The result is your resting heart rate. As you progress through your workouts, you should see a drop in your resting heart rate. This change means that your heart is becoming more efficient. The better shape you are in, the lower your resting heart rate. Your resting heart rate is one of the most effective indicators of your heart’s health. As your heart gets bigger and stronger, it can pump more blood per stroke. As a result, it doesn’t have to pump as often, which means that it beats fewer times per minute at rest. Therefore, your heart rate gives you an easy indicator for self-monitoring your heart health. If you take your heart rate in the morning by counting your pulse for one minute before you get out of bed, you can see the changes that occur as your exercise program progresses. As you strengthen your heart through exercise, you will see that your resting heart rate decreases because your heart doesn’t have to work as hard. Simply put, as your heart becomes stronger, it will be able to fulfill its function with less stress. Regular exercise also decreases your blood pressure partly because it strengthens your heart and also because it reduces the plaque lining in your veins and arteries. As you make exercise a regular part of your life, your liver makes more WWW.EBOOK777.COM Basics of Water Exercise  9 of the healthy (HDL) cholesterol, which acts as a scavenger to remove the unhealthy (LDL) cholesterol from the walls of your arteries. This process gives your blood more room to pass freely through your vessels, which decreases your blood pressure. Another way in which resistance exercise reduces your blood pressure is by prompting your body to create more capillaries. As you push your arms and legs through the water, you slowly increase the size of your muscle fibers. As these fibers increase in size, your body creates more capillaries to carry blood to your muscles. The more capillaries you have, the more room there is for your blood to flow, thus decreasing your blood pressure. One easy way to understand this process is to think of rush hour traffic. If you have fewer streets (capillaries) and lots of cars (blood cells), the pressure is high. When you build more streets or capillaries, you have more room for the cars or blood cells, and the pressure decreases. In addition, since your heart works closely with your lungs, exercise improves your lung capacity and breathing efficiency. Through this improvement in your breathing processes, exercise also aids in the circulation of oxygen and nutrients throughout your body, thereby helping it operate more efficiently. Improved Body Composition Any type of exercise that causes your body to burn more calories for energy increases your chance of changing your body composition, which is determined by the proportions of lean and non-lean tissue in your body mass. Lean tissue components are tendons, ligaments, and muscle, whereas non-lean tissue is adipose or fat tissue. You burn more fat cells as a form of energy when you increase your caloric expenditure by exercising in the pool. In order to decrease the fat mass in your body, you must create a calorie deficit; that is, you must burn more calories than you take in. As your fat-to-lean tissue ratio drops, your percentage of lean tissue (fat-free mass) increases. You can also directly increase your fat-free mass or lean tissue by increasing your resistance work. As we have seen, the pool facilitates this work by providing built-in resistance due to the viscosity of the water that you must push through every time you move. As a result, over time, your clothes may begin to fit better, and you may start to see small changes when you stand on the scale. Of course, body composition can also be affected positively by initiating and maintaining healthy eating patterns. If you eat a well-balanced diet, you should see a shift in your body composition to a higher percentage of lean mass and a lower percentage of fat mass. The benefits of this change include an increase in the ability of most organs to function effectively while experiencing less stress, thereby possibly increasing your life span and your quality of life. Reduced Stress Psychological stress can damage our DNA and increase our risk of age-related disease. In contrast, exercise protects DNA and slows down the aging process. In fact, though it may sound odd, exercise itself constitutes a certain type of WWW.EBOOK777.COM 10  Water Exercise stress—called hormesis—that is good for the body. Specifically, moderateintensity exercise increases certain brain-derived factors that maintain brain health; this type of stress may even reverse the effects of chronic negative stress on the brain. Other psychological benefits of exercise include improved self-image, more efficient brain function, and an increase in one’s sense of well-being. Research also shows that exercise helps slow memory loss and may even improve shortterm memory. All of these benefits can improve our quality of life and help us become happier people. Improved Musculoskeletal Fitness Exercise also benefits our bones and muscles in many ways, and these benefits are particularly important in societies where a sedentary lifestyle is the norm. Musculoskeletal fitness includes muscular endurance and muscular strength. Muscular endurance consists of a muscle’s ability to contract repeatedly against a force—for our purposes here, the resistance exerted by water. Muscular strength, on the other hand, consists of a muscle’s ability to contract one time as forcefully as possible. The majority of your work in the water targets endurance, but some people starting a rehabilitation program also see an increase in strength because the injured limb, joint, or muscle has decreased in size, mobility, or strength. The benefits of working the musculoskeletal system include improved posture, reduced blood pressure, and decreased risk of injury in daily life. On a practical level, you will find it easier to perform the activities of daily living. For example, you may notice that it is easier than it used to be to get up from the floor or sit down in a chair because your leg muscles are stronger. Similarly, you may see strength gains that make activities easier. For example, you may be able to move furniture on your own or find that your gait or walking pattern has become more stable because the muscles surrounding your hip joints are stronger. Muscular exercise also makes your bones stronger and increases their density, thus decreasing your risk of osteoporosis. This condition, characterized by loss of bone mass, is seen more often in females than in males and tends to affect the hips, spine, and wrists. Muscular endurance also helps protect your bones by increasing your body’s efficiency of skeletal support, which is the ability to hold your body erect so that you are less likely to lose your balance and fall. In addition, exercise increases the flow of synovial fluid (a lubricant) around the joints and slows the degeneration of joints. One quality that is closely related to muscular fitness is flexibility, which is the range of motion around a joint. Flexibility is most often associated with stretching, but it can also be aided simply by moving your muscles through a full range of motion, even if you don’t hold the stretch. This work is facilitated in the water by the buoyancy factor. To see how, stand in chest-deep water and relax your arms by your side. If you are truly relaxed and not thinking about it, your arms rise to the surface of the water. The same thing happens if you stand in WWW.EBOOK777.COM Basics of Water Exercise  11 chest-deep water and begin to lift one leg in front of you slightly off the bottom of the pool. Once you have initiated the movement, the leg will continue to lift due to buoyancy. As these examples illustrate, the pool is a great place to increase a joint’s range of motion after injury or surgery because no one has to exert pressure or undue force on the joint. Generally, the benefits of a flexible body are similar to the benefits of a strong body. They also include decreased chronic back pain and a reduced chance of strains and sprains. The muscular improvements provided by exercise also reduce your risk of injury by strengthening your tendons and ligaments, thus helping you keep your balance. If you maintain a good exercise program for an extended period of time, you will experience increases in your muscular strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility. Most important, consistent exercise helps you maintain muscle mass, which slows the typical age-related decline in metabolism. Metabolism is the combination of physical and chemical processes occurring within the body’s cells that are necessary for the maintenance of life. We want to elevate our rate of metabolism as much as possible. Maintaining muscle mass or adding muscle mass increases the amount of energy that our body needs to continue life processes. Exercise Guidelines and Progressive Overload The first step in undertaking any exercise or rehabilitation program is to get clearance from your doctor. If you are beginning a program for rehabilitation, get approval for water exercise from a medical specialist who possesses current knowledge of your situation. Your specialist may set specific guidelines for how often or how long you should perform aquatic activity. If you are beginning a fitness regimen and are a healthy adult, obtain approval from your general practitioner for your water exercise program. Exercise guidelines for injury-free adults are provided by the American College of Sports Medicine. These guidelines include protocols for key aspects of exercise: frequency, intensity, and duration. Frequency is how often you perform an activity. The general recommendation is to exercise three to five times per week or to do easier activities (such as gardening or taking the stairs instead of the elevator) on most or all days of the week. Intensity is determined by how hard you work, and it is inversely proportional to how long you work out. For example, if you are just beginning, the guidelines suggest starting at a lower intensity for 15 to 20 minutes. As your body adjusts to the workload, you can either increase your intensity (while maintaining the same duration) or increase your duration (while sticking with the lower intensity). This process is called progressive overload, and it simply means that you make your workout either a bit more intense or a bit longer each week. Another simple way to progressively overload your program is to increase the frequency of your workouts. As you begin your program, always take a day off WWW.EBOOK777.COM 12  Water Exercise between exercise sessions. This approach gives your muscles—including your heart—a chance to rest and recover. Thanks to the day off, your rested muscles will be ready to perform again 48 hours after your last workout. Over time, your muscles adapt to the exercises and perform more efficiently. As a result, as you progress through the program, you may not need as long to recover. Therefore, you may progress to daily workouts. One good tip to remember is to alternate the intensity of your workouts on consecutive days. For example, if you do a shorter but more intense workout on Monday, do a longer but less intense workout on Tuesday. As you begin your water exercise program, be sure to progress safely and slowly. This deliberate approach both minimizes the risk of injury and keeps you psychologically fresh. If you progress gradually, you will begin to look forward to the many benefits of exercise, including the release of endorphins—the chemical messengers that tell your brain how great you feel after a workout. As you work through the exercises in this book, remember that drag increases as movement increases. As a result, when you travel through the water, drag makes your workout more intense. Therefore, when you first attempt an exercise, do it in place, without traveling. For example, consider the staples of water exercise: walking, jogging, and running. These activities are easier to perform when remaining in place than when moving across the pool. Progressing from doing any exercise in place to doing that same exercise moving across the pool will make it more intense due to the fact that drag increases as movement increases. This is a simple example of progressive overload. Another way to slowly progress an exercise is to increase the length of what we might refer to as a bodily lever. For our purposes here, the main levers of your body are your arms and legs. When you use a short lever, the load is easier to lift. When you use a long lever, the load is more difficult to lift. Think of it in terms of moving a large rock with a plank. You can move the rock more readily with a shorter lever (plank) under the rock than with a longer lever. It works the same way in the water. For example, it is easier on your shoulder joint to perform a jumping jack with your elbows bent at a ninety-degree angle than with a straight elbow. Imagine yourself in the water doing knee lifts. A knee lift involves a ninetydegree bend of the knee joint. It is less difficult for your hip joint to lift the bone in your thigh (see figure 1.3a) than to lift a longer lever composed of the bones in both your upper leg and your lower leg (see figure 1.3b). Straight arms and straight legs also create more drag than bent limbs. Keep these helpful hints in mind as you choose the exercises for your daily workout so that you can make it less intense or more intense as needed on any given day. You can also increase the intensity of your workout by using certain types of equipment. For example, you can use various pieces of equipment (such as webbed gloves) to increase the surface area of your body and thereby increase drag. Other pieces of equipment (such as pool noodles) are buoyant and therefore require you to use more muscular strength to push beneath the WWW.EBOOK777.COM

Author Melissa Layne Isbn 9781450498142 File size 101.9 MB Year 2015 Pages 248 Language English File format PDF Category Personality Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare Exercising in water is particularly effective because it offers a wide range of therapeutic and health benefits without the hard impact of land exercise. No matter what an individual’s current fitness level, Water Exercise allows for each workout plan to be personalised by changing the speed, intensity or amount of rest based on their needs. It is ideal for cross-training workouts, simple to advanced fitness workouts and as an aid to recovery from injury or management of chronic conditions.     Download (101.9 MB) Trigger Point Therapy For Repetitive Strain Injury Make the Pool Your Gym The Pain Antidote Strength Training: The Complete Step-by-step Guide To A Stronger, Sculpted Body Cassey Ho’s Hot Body Year-Round Load more posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *