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Water exercise / Melissa Layne.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Aquatic exercises. 2. Aerobic exercises. I. Title.
ISBN: 978-1-4504-9814-2 (print)
Copyright © 2015 by Melissa Layne
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Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
GETTING STARTED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Basics of Water Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Preparing to Get Wet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
CHOOSING YOUR EXERCISES . . . 25
Warm-Up and Flexibility Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Beginning Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Intermediate Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Advanced Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Deep-Water Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Part III Exercises For Common
Injuries and Conditions . . . 131
Ankle Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Knee Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Chapter 10 Hip Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Chapter 11 Spine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Chapter 12 Shoulder Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Chapter 13 Elbow and Wrist Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Part IV Water Exercise Programs . . 195
Chapter 14 Basic Water Fitness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Chapter 15 Advanced Cross-Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Chapter 16 Special Populations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
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Water exercise has been popular since 1978, and it is becoming more popular
as an effective and gentle form of exercise. It is a great way to stay active regardless of your age and body shape. If you are just starting an activity or fitness
program, water is an environment that keeps the joints virtually free of impact,
supports you in an upright position (thereby decreasing the potential for falls),
and cools the internal body temperature so that overheating is not an issue. If
you need a more intense workout, water can provide resistance to your movement that is not found on land and can also be manipulated to challenge you
even if you are extremely conditioned. If you have medical concerns, water is
a gentle and forgiving environment because it allows you to take the weight off
an injured body part while still engaging and strengthening the muscles surrounding that joint. It also permits you to take a break when needed and to set
your own pace and intensity, allowing for a truly appropriate training stimulus
based on your specific needs. For these and many other reasons, water exercise
truly is for everyone.
Water Exercise is for all who are interested in starting water exercise, including those seeking rehabilitation from surgery or injury. The book is divided into
four parts. We start with the unique benefits of an aquatic environment and
why it is such a valuable part of an activity program. Also in part I are the steps
to preparing for a water exercise program, including what equipment, if any,
you may need and where you can find it. We also address some specific safety
concerns that you need to be aware of in the pool environment.
Once you are ready to get wet, part II will guide you through basic exercises.
Using step-by-step written instructions, we give you the basic information for
completing the moves. The moves are divided into groups based on the specific body part the activity targets. We start with movements for beginners and
then progress into intermediate and advanced options. If you are looking for a
workout free of impact, we also have a chapter on deep-water exercise. Deepwater exercise is also a great way to target your heart with a cardiorespiratory
workout. All of the exercises are accompanied by photos to help you with the
movements. We also offer tips for making the movement easier and progressing
the movement to the next level of intensity.
The pool is an excellent place for you if you need specific adaptations after
surgery or injury. In part III we address rehabilitation issues from specific injuries and common surgeries. Similar to the previous chapters in the book, the
chapters in part III are arranged by the major joints involved, including the hip
and the spine. This makes it easy to find what you are looking for and start
building a healthier body. The rehabilitation programs include recent research
and a table of previously explained exercises for common joint replacements;
overuse injuries such as tendinitis and sprains; and common traumatic injuries
such as sprains, tears, and fractures.
Part IV of Water Exercise provides a complete fitness workout using the exercises in the previous chapters, so it’s like having a fitness trainer take you through
a workout at your own convenience. This is directed toward those looking for
an all-inclusive cross-training regimen of cardiorespiratory training, muscular
endurance, and flexibility. The final chapter is devoted to special populations,
including pregnant women, and those with fibromyalgia and Parkinson’s disease.
From the sedentary to the fit, aquatic exercise is adaptable to all. It is especially helpful for those with limitations in moving on land. Listen to what your
body is telling you as you move through these exercises, and you will find your
body responding in a positive way for a more positive life.
As you begin your adventure in water exercise, chapter 1 introduces you to the
unique properties of water that make the pool such a safe and effective place
to exercise. The cooling and buoyant properties keep you comfortable while
adding physiological benefits such as increased cardiorespiratory endurance and
a balanced workout for any postural problems. General guidelines for frequency,
duration, and intensity are included in chapter 1.
Chapter 2 focuses on safety in the pool both for swimmers and nonswimmers.
Exercise in the water is safe as long as you follow basic safety guidelines and
procedures. Some equipment may make you feel more comfortable in the deeper
areas of the pool, and other equipment will actually challenge your comfort
level. We address many types of the equipment available, but it is important to
remember that all you really need is your body and a pool.
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Water exercise offers a great way to get in shape, stay in shape, or rehabilitate
an injured part of the body. The pool is a forgiving environment because the
water cushions and supports your body while reducing the impact on your bones
and joints. Another reason that aquatic activity remains popular is that it offers
a fabulous way to exercise regardless of what kind of shape you are in. You can
easily individualize each workout in terms of speed, intensity, and amount of rest.
Water exercise offers a range of therapeutic and health care benefits for everyone. It also improves all of the fitness components addressed by land exercise.
Over time, aquatic exercise can improve your overall health, increase your
longevity, and make the activities of your daily life easier while also protecting
your body from unnecessary physical stress.
Properties of Water
The properties of water that make aquatic exercise safe and effective are buoyancy, hydrostatic pressure, and viscosity. These properties enable a balanced,
low-impact workout that is safe both for people who want to increase their overall
fitness and for those seeking rehabilitation after surgery or injury. In addition, the
dynamics of thermoregulation in the pool help keep the body cool, thus making
aquatic activity a safer and more comfortable mode of exercise, especially for
people with certain health conditions, such as pregnancy and fibromyalgia.
The greatest advantage provided by working in the pool is buoyancy, which is
the upward pressure exerted by fluid—in other words, the opposite of gravity’s
downward pull. You can easily observe the effect of buoyancy by holding an
object, such as a playground ball, at the bottom of the pool, then releasing it
4 Water Exercise
and watching it pop up to the water’s surface. Buoyancy accounts for the feeling of relative weightlessness that we experience in water. It also decreases the
compressive forces experienced by the joints, including those in the spine. As
a result, aquatic exercise is a low-impact activity.
The amount of benefit provided by buoyancy for exercise depends on the
depth of the water. If you stand in water that reaches your navel or belly button
(see figure 1.1a), you reduce the impact on your joints by 50 percent. However,
though this reduction is sizable, it may not be enough to enable the majority of
people to exercise comfortably. If, instead, you position yourself in water that
reaches mid-chest or nipple level (see figure 1.1b), you reduce the impact by
75 percent. This depth is comfortable for most people, even those who do not
possess strong swimming skills.
People who are fit and looking to cross-train in the water may want to do
so at a depth where the water reaches the collar bone (see figure 1.1c). This
depth reduces impact by 90 percent and makes it more difficult to maintain
one’s balance. When balance is challenged, the core muscles in the torso will
be forced to contract so the abdominal muscles are more greatly challenged.
For the same reason, however, it is often uncomfortable for people who are not
strong swimmers. Moving into the deep end to perform suspended exercises
removes all impact from the joints but most often requires a flotation device, such
as a suspension belt or noodle. It also requires a high level of self-confidence
Figure 1.1 The depth of the water determines the amount of impact placed on the body. The chest
level is the most common depth for successful water exercise.
Basics of Water Exercise 5
in the water because the body often tilts away from the upright position. For
example, your feet may float, which may leave you horizontal in the water,
either faceup or facedown.
With all of these factors in mind, chest level is the most common depth for
successful water exercise.
Buoyancy also aids flexibility—the range of motion around a joint—which
is a primary component of rehabilitation after injury or surgery. Because water
provides buoyancy and reduces gravitational force, it allows the exerciser to
move his or her limbs more freely, and possibly without pain, toward the surface
of the water. Because buoyancy is greatest in deep water, rehabilitation often
begins in water deep enough to eliminate gravitational pull on the injured body
part and allow the joint to float freely to the water’s surface.
Hydrostatic pressure can be defined as the pressure exerted or transmitted by
a fluid to an object. The hydrostatic pressure of water molecules creates equal
pressure on all parts of the body, and this pressure increases with the depth of
the water. This characteristic of water provides great benefits for persons with
swelling due to injury, edema from pregnancy, or cardiac concerns. Specifically,
any edema or swelling of a joint is decreased when the joint is submerged in
water because the fluid in the joint is forced into the capillaries by the hydrostatic
pressure of the water against the body, thus returning to the bloodstream. From
there, it eventually passes through the kidneys for elimination from the body.
This benefit is more noticeable in the lower limbs because they are positioned at
a greater depth where the pressure is greater. As a result, for example, pregnant
women see a noticeable decrease in ankle swelling.
The hydrostatic pressure of water also facilitates the efficiency of the cardiovascular system, thus making the pool a popular environment for persons recovering from a cardiac incident. Because hydrostatic pressure causes constriction
of blood vessels, the heart is pumping blood through a smaller area; as a result,
it does not have to pump as often, and the heart rate decreases. Therefore, if
you monitor your heart rate while exercising in the water, you may find fewer
heartbeats even if you feel you are working more intensely.
Water molecules also provide resistance in every direction, which means that
you work opposing muscle groups at the same time. This resistance is caused
by the fact that water molecules are cohesive; that is, they stick to each other,
and this quality is often referred to as “drag.” To push through these sticky
molecules, your body must exert muscular force that is 12 to 15 times greater
than the force needed when moving through air.
Therefore, water’s viscosity helps you develop muscular fitness. It also provides a stabilizing effect that helps the body remain upright, which makes the
water a safe place to exercise for people with conditions that affect balance,
6 Water Exercise
such as multiple sclerosis and hip replacement. For example, if you lose your
balance in the pool, there is no danger of falling and breaking a bone because
the water supports you.
Water molecules also possess a property called adhesion, which causes them
to stick to other things in the pool, such as pool noodles, clothing, webbed
gloves, and even skin. As a result, you can make your workout either more or
less intense by adjusting factors such as how you dress, how you hold your
hands in the pool, and the position in which you hold a pool noodle (either
horizontal or vertical (see figure 1.2). If such factors allow water molecules to
adhere to more surface area, your workout is harder. For example, more clothing or baggy clothing creates more surface area, thus making it harder for you
to move. A tight-fitting swimsuit, however, provides less surface area to which
molecules can stick, thus making your workout easier.
The same thing applies to how you move your hand. Positioning your hand so
that it slices through the water with a point leading the way makes your movement easier—similar to the way in which a boat’s pointed nose cuts through the
Figure 1.2 Holding a noodle horizontal makes the exercise more difficult (a) than holding it vertical (b).
Basics of Water Exercise 7
water. In contrast, holding your hand open in a flat palm that meets the water’s
surface provides more surface area to which water molecules can stick, thus
making it harder for you to move—similar to a pontoon boat with a squared
If your focus is rehabilitation, water’s viscosity helps you develop strength
and endurance in the injured joint and surrounding muscles. Specifically, the
viscosity provides you with balanced resistance regardless of the direction in
which you move a limb. Imagine, for instance, that you are rehabbing after an
injury to your back. You move your arms forward, as if hugging a tree, then
move your arms behind your back as if stretching after getting out of bed. As
you perform these movements, the water provides resistance both while you
move your arms forward and while you move them backward. This balanced
resistance prevents one muscle from getting stronger than the other—a condition that can result in uneven pulling on a tendon, which in turn can cause
inflammation or tendinitis.
Thermoregulation is a property of the body that increases your comfort level
during exercise in the water. In the case of water exercise, the dynamics of thermoregulation mean simply that, as long as you exercise in water that is cooler
than you are, you can regulate your body temperature by transferring body heat
directly to the water rather than by sweating. Thermoregulation becomes more
important as we age due to changes in sweat glands that occur with age; older
people experience a progressive decline in the ability to perspire. The typical
temperature range of water in a climate-controlled pool is 78 to 82 degrees
Fahrenheit (about 25 to 28 degrees Celsius), which allows the body to regulate
itself by passing heat to the water molecules.
Although thermoregulation is a property of the human body, it plays a role
in the property of water called the specific heat capacity. There are very few
other substances that have a higher specific heat capacity than water. This simply
means, for our information, that the water requires a large amount of heat to
raise the temperature and once the temperature is raised, it takes a good bit of
time to cool. The breaking of hydrogen bonds in the H20 molecules requires
a large amount of energy, so the energy that is transferred to the water is held
in the molecules. You can observe the effects of thermoregulation and the
specific heat capacity of water by comparing a pool full of people to a pool
only containing water. The crowded pool is warmer because the people pass
body heat to the cooler surrounding water but it will not get to the temperature
that breaks the hydrogen bonds and turns water into steam because of the high
specific heat capacity. This property makes water exercise a comfortable mode
of activity for everyone.
There are variables to consider in certain situations. For example, if you are
focused on decreasing spasticity—as may be the case with Parkinson’s disease,
multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, or stroke—you might want to exercise in water
8 Water Exercise
that is warmer than 85 degrees Fahrenheit (about 29 degrees Celsius). Using
warmer water decreases the body’s ability to thermoregulate, which is helpful
in this case because warming the muscles decreases spasticity.
General Benefits of Water Exercise
In addition to providing the specific exercise benefits we have just discussed,
water also provides the same general benefits offered by land exercise. These
benefits can help you increase your life span, improve the quality of your life,
and handle daily life activities more comfortably and perhaps more easily. Let’s
look more closely at four of these benefits: better cardiac health, better body
composition, reduced stress, and improved musculoskeletal fitness.
Improved Cardiac Health
Water exercise improves all facets of heart health, which is also known as cardiovascular or cardiorespiratory fitness. Cardiovascular fitness involves the ability
of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to carry oxygen to working muscles. Many
people consider this ability to be centrally important for any fitness program
because heart disease remains the number one killer of people throughout the
world. Cardiovascular fitness is developed with activities that use large muscle
groups in continuous movement, including water exercise.
One of the best and easiest ways to assess your cardiovascular health on a
regular basis is to monitor your resting heart rate. Choose a day when you can
wake up naturally—that is, not due to anything like an alarm, the sound of garbage cans being slammed outside your home, or a cat jumping on your head.
When you first wake up, while you are still horizontal in bed, find your pulse
by placing your hand over your heart and counting the “lub” of the “lub-dub”
sound. Count for one full minute. The result is your resting heart rate. As you
progress through your workouts, you should see a drop in your resting heart
rate. This change means that your heart is becoming more efficient. The better
shape you are in, the lower your resting heart rate.
Your resting heart rate is one of the most effective indicators of your heart’s
health. As your heart gets bigger and stronger, it can pump more blood per
stroke. As a result, it doesn’t have to pump as often, which means that it beats
fewer times per minute at rest. Therefore, your heart rate gives you an easy
indicator for self-monitoring your heart health.
If you take your heart rate in the morning by counting your pulse for one
minute before you get out of bed, you can see the changes that occur as your
exercise program progresses. As you strengthen your heart through exercise,
you will see that your resting heart rate decreases because your heart doesn’t
have to work as hard. Simply put, as your heart becomes stronger, it will be
able to fulfill its function with less stress.
Regular exercise also decreases your blood pressure partly because it strengthens your heart and also because it reduces the plaque lining in your veins and
arteries. As you make exercise a regular part of your life, your liver makes more
Basics of Water Exercise 9
of the healthy (HDL) cholesterol, which acts as a scavenger to remove the
unhealthy (LDL) cholesterol from the walls of your arteries. This process gives
your blood more room to pass freely through your vessels, which decreases
your blood pressure.
Another way in which resistance exercise reduces your blood pressure is by
prompting your body to create more capillaries. As you push your arms and legs
through the water, you slowly increase the size of your muscle fibers. As these
fibers increase in size, your body creates more capillaries to carry blood to your
muscles. The more capillaries you have, the more room there is for your blood
to flow, thus decreasing your blood pressure. One easy way to understand this
process is to think of rush hour traffic. If you have fewer streets (capillaries) and lots
of cars (blood cells), the pressure is high. When you build more streets or capillaries, you have more room for the cars or blood cells, and the pressure decreases.
In addition, since your heart works closely with your lungs, exercise improves
your lung capacity and breathing efficiency. Through this improvement in your
breathing processes, exercise also aids in the circulation of oxygen and nutrients
throughout your body, thereby helping it operate more efficiently.
Improved Body Composition
Any type of exercise that causes your body to burn more calories for energy
increases your chance of changing your body composition, which is determined
by the proportions of lean and non-lean tissue in your body mass. Lean tissue
components are tendons, ligaments, and muscle, whereas non-lean tissue is
adipose or fat tissue. You burn more fat cells as a form of energy when you
increase your caloric expenditure by exercising in the pool.
In order to decrease the fat mass in your body, you must create a calorie
deficit; that is, you must burn more calories than you take in. As your fat-to-lean
tissue ratio drops, your percentage of lean tissue (fat-free mass) increases. You
can also directly increase your fat-free mass or lean tissue by increasing your
resistance work. As we have seen, the pool facilitates this work by providing
built-in resistance due to the viscosity of the water that you must push through
every time you move. As a result, over time, your clothes may begin to fit better,
and you may start to see small changes when you stand on the scale.
Of course, body composition can also be affected positively by initiating and
maintaining healthy eating patterns. If you eat a well-balanced diet, you should
see a shift in your body composition to a higher percentage of lean mass and a
lower percentage of fat mass. The benefits of this change include an increase in
the ability of most organs to function effectively while experiencing less stress,
thereby possibly increasing your life span and your quality of life.
Psychological stress can damage our DNA and increase our risk of age-related
disease. In contrast, exercise protects DNA and slows down the aging process.
In fact, though it may sound odd, exercise itself constitutes a certain type of
10 Water Exercise
stress—called hormesis—that is good for the body. Specifically, moderateintensity exercise increases certain brain-derived factors that maintain brain
health; this type of stress may even reverse the effects of chronic negative stress
on the brain.
Other psychological benefits of exercise include improved self-image, more
efficient brain function, and an increase in one’s sense of well-being. Research
also shows that exercise helps slow memory loss and may even improve shortterm memory. All of these benefits can improve our quality of life and help us
become happier people.
Improved Musculoskeletal Fitness
Exercise also benefits our bones and muscles in many ways, and these benefits
are particularly important in societies where a sedentary lifestyle is the norm.
Musculoskeletal fitness includes muscular endurance and muscular strength.
Muscular endurance consists of a muscle’s ability to contract repeatedly against
a force—for our purposes here, the resistance exerted by water. Muscular
strength, on the other hand, consists of a muscle’s ability to contract one time
as forcefully as possible. The majority of your work in the water targets endurance, but some people starting a rehabilitation program also see an increase
in strength because the injured limb, joint, or muscle has decreased in size,
mobility, or strength.
The benefits of working the musculoskeletal system include improved posture,
reduced blood pressure, and decreased risk of injury in daily life. On a practical
level, you will find it easier to perform the activities of daily living. For example,
you may notice that it is easier than it used to be to get up from the floor or sit
down in a chair because your leg muscles are stronger. Similarly, you may see
strength gains that make activities easier. For example, you may be able to move
furniture on your own or find that your gait or walking pattern has become more
stable because the muscles surrounding your hip joints are stronger.
Muscular exercise also makes your bones stronger and increases their density,
thus decreasing your risk of osteoporosis. This condition, characterized by loss
of bone mass, is seen more often in females than in males and tends to affect
the hips, spine, and wrists. Muscular endurance also helps protect your bones
by increasing your body’s efficiency of skeletal support, which is the ability to
hold your body erect so that you are less likely to lose your balance and fall. In
addition, exercise increases the flow of synovial fluid (a lubricant) around the
joints and slows the degeneration of joints.
One quality that is closely related to muscular fitness is flexibility, which is
the range of motion around a joint. Flexibility is most often associated with
stretching, but it can also be aided simply by moving your muscles through a full
range of motion, even if you don’t hold the stretch. This work is facilitated in the
water by the buoyancy factor. To see how, stand in chest-deep water and relax
your arms by your side. If you are truly relaxed and not thinking about it, your
arms rise to the surface of the water. The same thing happens if you stand in
Basics of Water Exercise 11
chest-deep water and begin to lift one leg in front of you slightly off the bottom
of the pool. Once you have initiated the movement, the leg will continue to lift
due to buoyancy. As these examples illustrate, the pool is a great place to
increase a joint’s range of motion after injury or surgery because no one has to
exert pressure or undue force on the joint. Generally, the benefits of a flexible
body are similar to the benefits of a strong body. They also include decreased
chronic back pain and a reduced chance of strains and sprains.
The muscular improvements provided by exercise also reduce your risk of
injury by strengthening your tendons and ligaments, thus helping you keep your
balance. If you maintain a good exercise program for an extended period of time,
you will experience increases in your muscular strength, muscular endurance,
and flexibility. Most important, consistent exercise helps you maintain muscle
mass, which slows the typical age-related decline in metabolism. Metabolism
is the combination of physical and chemical processes occurring within the
body’s cells that are necessary for the maintenance of life. We want to elevate
our rate of metabolism as much as possible. Maintaining muscle mass or adding
muscle mass increases the amount of energy that our body needs to continue
and Progressive Overload
The first step in undertaking any exercise or rehabilitation program is to get
clearance from your doctor. If you are beginning a program for rehabilitation,
get approval for water exercise from a medical specialist who possesses current
knowledge of your situation. Your specialist may set specific guidelines for how
often or how long you should perform aquatic activity. If you are beginning
a fitness regimen and are a healthy adult, obtain approval from your general
practitioner for your water exercise program.
Exercise guidelines for injury-free adults are provided by the American College of Sports Medicine. These guidelines include protocols for key aspects of
exercise: frequency, intensity, and duration. Frequency is how often you perform
an activity. The general recommendation is to exercise three to five times per
week or to do easier activities (such as gardening or taking the stairs instead of
the elevator) on most or all days of the week.
Intensity is determined by how hard you work, and it is inversely proportional
to how long you work out. For example, if you are just beginning, the guidelines
suggest starting at a lower intensity for 15 to 20 minutes. As your body adjusts
to the workload, you can either increase your intensity (while maintaining the
same duration) or increase your duration (while sticking with the lower intensity).
This process is called progressive overload, and it simply means that you make
your workout either a bit more intense or a bit longer each week.
Another simple way to progressively overload your program is to increase the
frequency of your workouts. As you begin your program, always take a day off
12 Water Exercise
between exercise sessions. This approach gives your muscles—including your
heart—a chance to rest and recover. Thanks to the day off, your rested muscles
will be ready to perform again 48 hours after your last workout. Over time,
your muscles adapt to the exercises and perform more efficiently. As a result,
as you progress through the program, you may not need as long to recover.
Therefore, you may progress to daily workouts. One good tip to remember is
to alternate the intensity of your workouts on consecutive days. For example,
if you do a shorter but more intense workout on Monday, do a longer but less
intense workout on Tuesday.
As you begin your water exercise program, be sure to progress safely and
slowly. This deliberate approach both minimizes the risk of injury and keeps
you psychologically fresh. If you progress gradually, you will begin to look forward to the many benefits of exercise, including the release of endorphins—the
chemical messengers that tell your brain how great you feel after a workout.
As you work through the exercises in this book, remember that drag increases
as movement increases. As a result, when you travel through the water, drag
makes your workout more intense. Therefore, when you first attempt an exercise, do it in place, without traveling. For example, consider the staples of water
exercise: walking, jogging, and running. These activities are easier to perform
when remaining in place than when moving across the pool. Progressing from
doing any exercise in place to doing that same exercise moving across the pool
will make it more intense due to the fact that drag increases as movement
increases. This is a simple example of progressive overload.
Another way to slowly progress an exercise is to increase the length of what
we might refer to as a bodily lever. For our purposes here, the main levers of
your body are your arms and legs. When you use a short lever, the load is
easier to lift. When you use a long lever, the load is more difficult to lift. Think
of it in terms of moving a large rock with a plank. You can move the rock more
readily with a shorter lever (plank) under the rock than with a longer lever. It
works the same way in the water. For example, it is easier on your shoulder
joint to perform a jumping jack with your elbows bent at a ninety-degree angle
than with a straight elbow.
Imagine yourself in the water doing knee lifts. A knee lift involves a ninetydegree bend of the knee joint. It is less difficult for your hip joint to lift the bone
in your thigh (see figure 1.3a) than to lift a longer lever composed of the bones
in both your upper leg and your lower leg (see figure 1.3b). Straight arms and
straight legs also create more drag than bent limbs. Keep these helpful hints in
mind as you choose the exercises for your daily workout so that you can make
it less intense or more intense as needed on any given day.
You can also increase the intensity of your workout by using certain types
of equipment. For example, you can use various pieces of equipment (such
as webbed gloves) to increase the surface area of your body and thereby
increase drag. Other pieces of equipment (such as pool noodles) are buoyant
and therefore require you to use more muscular strength to push beneath the
Author Melissa Layne Isbn 9781450498142 File size 101.9 MB Year 2015 Pages 248 Language English File format PDF Category Personality Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare Exercising in water is particularly effective because it offers a wide range of therapeutic and health benefits without the hard impact of land exercise. No matter what an individual’s current fitness level, Water Exercise allows for each workout plan to be personalised by changing the speed, intensity or amount of rest based on their needs. It is ideal for cross-training workouts, simple to advanced fitness workouts and as an aid to recovery from injury or management of chronic conditions. Download (101.9 MB) Trigger Point Therapy For Repetitive Strain Injury Make the Pool Your Gym The Pain Antidote Strength Training: The Complete Step-by-step Guide To A Stronger, Sculpted Body Cassey Hos Hot Body Year-Round Load more posts