Visual Word Recognition Volume 1: Models And Methods, Orthography And Phonology by James S. Adelman


0057adaf700266c.jpg Author James S. Adelman
Isbn 9781848720589
File size 3.3 MB
Year 2012
Pages 248
Language English
File format PDF
Category psychology



 

Visual Word Recognition Word recognition is the component of reading which involves the identification of individual words. Together the two volumes of Visual Word Recognition offer a state-of-the-art overview of contemporary research from leading figures in the field. This first volume outlines established theory, new models and key experimental evidence used to investigate visual word recognition: lexical decision and word naming. It also considers methodological concerns: new developments in large databases, and how these have been applied to theoretical questions; and control considerations when dealing with words as stimuli. Finally, the book considers the visual-orthographic input to the word recognition system: from the left- and right-hand sides of vision, through the processing of letters and their proximity, to the similarity and confusability of words, and the contribution of the spoken-phonological form of the word. The two volumes serve as a state-of-the-art, comprehensive overview of the field. They are essential reading for researchers of visual word recognition, as well as undergraduate and postgraduate students of cognition and cognitive psychology, specifically the psychology of language and reading. They will also be of use to those working in education and speech-language therapy. James S. Adelman first became involved in visual word recognition research whilst reading for a degree in Mathematics and Psychology at the University of Liverpool. From there, he went on to complete a PhD and various externally funded research projects at the University of Warwick, where he has been an Assistant Professor since 2010. Current Issues in the Psychology of Language Series Editor: Trevor A. Harley Current Issues in the Psychology of Language is a series of edited books that will reflect the state-of-the-art in areas of current and emerging interest in the psychological study of language. Each volume is tightly focused on a particular topic and consists of seven to ten chapters contributed by international experts. The editors of individual volumes are leading figures in their areas and provide an introductory overview. Example topics include: language development, bilingualism and second language acquisition, word recognition, word meaning, text processing, the neuroscience of language, and language production, as well as the inter-relations between these topics. Visual Word Recognition Volume 1 Edited by James S. Adelman Visual Word Recognition Volume 2 Edited by James S. Adelman Forthcoming Titles: Sentence Processing Edited by Roger van Gompel Visual Word Recognition Volume 1 Models and methods, orthography, and phonology Edited by James S. Adelman First edition published 2012 27 Church Road, Hove, East Sussex, BN3 2FA Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Psychology Press 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017 Psychology Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 2012 Psychology Press The right of the editor to be identified as the author of the editorial material, and of the authors for their individual chapters, has been asserted in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Visual word recognition: Models and methods, orthography and phonology / Edited by James S. Adelman, University of Warwick. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-84872-058-9 (hb) 1. Word recognition. I. Adelman, James S. LB1050.44.V57 2012 372.46'2—dc23 2012000617 ISBN13: 978-1-84872-058-9 (hbk) ISBN13: 978-0-20310-701-0 (ebk) Typeset in Times New Roman by Cenveo Publisher Services Contents List of Figures List of Tables List of Contributors Acknowledgments Introduction vii xi xii xiv 1 J A M E S S . A D E L MAN 1 Dual-route theories of reading aloud 3 M A X C O L T H E ART 2 Learned orthographic representations facilitates large-scale modeling of word recognition 28 D A R A G H E . S I BL E Y AND CHRI S T OP HE R T . KE L LO 3 A parallel activation model with a sequential twist 52 K E N N E T H I . F ORS T E R 4 Mathematical models of the lexical decision task 70 PABLO GOMEZ 5 Megastudies: What do millions (or so) of trials tell us about lexical processing? 90 D A V I D A . B A L O T A, ME L VI N J. YAP , KE I T H A. H U TC H ISO N , A N D M I C H A E L J. CORT E S E 6 Methodological issues with words J A M E S S . A D E L MAN 116 vi Contents 7 Brain asymmetry and visual word recognition: Do we have a split fovea? 139 M A R C B R Y SBAE RT , QI NG CAI , AND L I S E VAN D ER H A EG EN 8 The front end of visual word recognition 159 J O N A T H A N G RAI NGE R AND S T É P HANE DUF AU 9 The orthographic similarity of printed words 185 C O L I N J . D A VI S 10 Phonology: An early and integral role in identifying words 207 L A U R A K . HAL DE RMAN, JANE AS HBY, AND CH A R LES A . PERFETTI Author Index Subject Index 229 232 List of Figures 1.1 The dual-route model of reading proposed by Marshall and Newcombe (1973). With kind permission from Springer Science+Business Media: Figure 1 of Marshall, J.C., & Newcombe, F. (1973). Patterns of paralexia: A psycholinguistic approach. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 2, 175–99. 2.1 General sequence encoder architecture. The letters of a word are presented sequentially to the Encoding SRN (simple recurrent network), where they are integrated into a learned orthographic representation. This representation is then copied to the Decoding SRN and used to regenerate the original sequence of letters. 2.2 Orthographic sequence encoder performance, by length. A word was decoded correctly if every letter, or end-of-wordform output unit was activated in the correct sequence. 2.3 Word and nonword distributions. Distributions of 28,032 words and 27,881 nonwords are shown along a continuum of familiarity defined by Equation 2.3. 6.1 Neighbourhoods of SOAP. 7.1 Correlation between handedness (measured from extreme right [score 10] to extreme left [score 50]) and activation laterality in the inferior frontal gyrus. The authors defined laterality scores larger than +25 as evidence for left hemisphere dominance, scores lower than −25 as evidence for right hemisphere dominance, and scores in-between as evidence for bilateral speech control. Source: Pujol et al., 1999. 7.2 Figure of the left hemisphere showing the frontal areas active in word generation and the visual word form area, as postulated by Cohen and colleagues. Posterior to the visual word form area is a part of the occipital cortex, the middle occipital gyrus, that is also particularly active in written word recognition. It is left lateralised in typical healthy participants as well (Gold & Rastle, 2007), but was not correlated with the activity in the frontal language areas in Cai et al. (2010). 4 33 37 39 118 140 142 viii List of Figures 7.3 Organisation of the visual system. Because the optic fibres coming from the nasal halves of the retina cross to the other hemisphere, all stimuli presented to the left of the fixation location are initially sent to the right cerebral hemisphere and all stimuli presented to the right of the fixation location are initially sent to the left cerebral hemisphere. LGN = Lateral Geniculate Nucleus. 7.4 Left panel: Illustration of the Optimal Viewing Position paradigm with fourletter words. A trial starts with the appearance of two vertical lines slightly above and below the centre of the computer screen. Participants are asked to fixate between the two lines. After a brief interval a four-letter word is presented between the lines. Participants have to name the word as fast as possible. On different trials, the word is presented in such a way that participants look on the first, the second, the third, or the last letter. Right panel: Word naming times of four-letter words (relative to the group average) for left dominant and right-dominant participants as a function of the fixation position within the word. Participants with left speech dominance named foveally presented four-letter words faster when they were presented in such a way that the participants were fixating on the second letter, whereas participants with right speech dominance had an advantage for words presented in such a way that participants were fixating on the last letter. Notice that the effect is gradual, not only present for fixations on the extreme letter positions but also for fixations on the inner letters. Reproduced with permission from MIT Press from Hunter, Z. R., Brysbaert, M., and Knecht, S. (2007). Foveal word reading requires interhemispheric communication. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, 1373–1387. ©MIT Press. 8.1 Solving shape invariance for letters and words. A solution based on wholeword representations would involve associating the different formats of a given word to an abstract representation of that word for each of the words in the vocabulary. Much more economical, a solution involving letter-based word recognition would only require shape-invariant representations for the 26 letters of the alphabet. 8.2 A picture of an animal (top) and a printed word (bottom) after filtering out the high spatial frequencies. Can you identify them? 8.3 Adaptation of Riesenhuber and Poggio’s (1999) model of object identification to the case of letter perception (Grainger et al., 2008). Information about simple visual features (lines of different orientation at precise locations in the visual field) extracted from the visual stimulus is progressively pooled across different locations (complex cells) and feature combinations (composite 143 149 160 161 List of Figures 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 10.1 cells) as one moves up the processing hierarchy. Reprinted from Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 12, Jonathan Grainger, Arnaud Rey and Stéphane Dufau, ‘Letter perception: from pixels to pandemonium,’ pp. 381–387, © 2008, with permission from Elsevier. Grainger and van Heuven’s model of orthographic processing. Location-specific letter detectors (alphabetic array) send information on to a sublexical, word-centered, orthographic code (relative position map), which in turn activates whole-word orthographic representations (O-words). The word-centered sublexical orthographic code is formed of location-invariant ordered combinations of contiguous and non-contiguous letters. Serial positions functions from Tydgat and Grainger (2009, Experiment 5). Percent correct post-cued identification at the different positions in five-character arrays of random consonants, symbols, or digits. Participants were shown briefly presented strings of five characters followed by a pattern mask, and were asked to identify the character that was present in the string at a postcued location. Tydgat, I. and Grainger, J. (2009). Serial position effects in the identification of letters, digits and symbols. Reprinted with permission from Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35, 480–498, published by American Psychological Association. Variation in visual acuity along the horizontal meridian (from Figure 2.3 of Just, Marcel Adam; Carpenter, Patricia, Psychology of Reading and Language Comprehension, 1st Edition, © 1987. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.). A dual-route approach to orthographic processing (Grainger & Ziegler, 2011). Starting from location-specific letter detectors, two fundamentally different types of location-invariant sublexical orthographic code are computed. A coarse-grained code optimizes the mapping of orthography to semantics by selecting letter combinations that are the most informative with respect to word identity, irrespective of letter contiguity. A fine-grained code optimizes processing via the chunking of frequently co-occurring contiguous letters. The left side shows an example of a backward masking trial using a phonologically similar nonword mask. A trial begins with a forward pattern mask (e.g., XXXX) that is followed by the target (e.g., crew). A nonword mask immediately follows the target and can be related to the target phonologically (e.g., KROO), orthographically (e.g., CRAE), both (e.g., CRUE) or unrelated baseline condition (e.g., GILF). A trial ends with another pattern mask. The right shows an example of a masked ix 164 166 168 169 174 x List of Figures priming trial using an orthographic control nonword mask. In both cases, the targets and nonword masks or primes are presented very briefly (i.e., 14–66 ms each). 10.2 The left hemisphere reading network with approximate time estimates of activation onset, summarized from the time-frequency MEG analyses. 10.3 The multiple layers of phonological information (e.g., Clements & Keyser, 1983) that skilled readers typically activate en route to word recognition, based on evidence from behavioral, eye-movement, and neurophysiological experiments that tap automatic phonological processes. 212 219 220 List of Tables 1.1 1.2 2.1 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 10.1 Six variants of the triangle model of reading aloud. O = orthography, P = Phonology, S = Semantics Some readings of nonwords by the CDP+ model which seem unlikely ever to be produced by any human skilled reader R2 (%) from lexical variables predicting ELP or simulated latencies. All of the relationships were statistically significant (p < 0.05) and in the same direction in ELP and simulation A set of data that might occur under the null hypothesis for Case 1 A set of data that might occur under the alternative hypothesis for Case 1; in fact the same data as Table 6.1 Fit to the data from Tables 6.1 and 6.2 for the null hypothesis for Case 1 Fit to the data from Tables 6.1 and 6.2 for the alternative hypothesis for Case 1 Fit to the data for the alternative hypothesis for Case 2 Fit to further data for the alternative hypothesis for Case 2 Fit to further data for the null hypothesis for Case 2 Words differing in some property C, and listwise matched on frequency and regularity (but not the interaction). Even if C has no effect, the expected RTs [E(RT)] differ on average. Regularity is dummy-coded (0 = exception; 1 = regular) Average phonological facilitation beyond orthographic facilitation and average effect sizes reported in Rastle and Brysbaert’s (2006) meta-analysis 16 22 41 123 124 124 124 126 127 127 134 213 List of Contributors James S. Adelman, Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK Jane Ashby, Psychology Department, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859, USA David A. Balota, Department of Psychology, Washington University in St. Louis, Campus Box 1125, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA Marc Brysbaert, Department of Experimental Psychology, Ghent University, Henri Dunantlaan 2, 9000 Gent, Belgium Qing Cai, Department of Experimental Psychology, Ghent University, Henri Dunantlaan 2, 9000 Gent, Belgium Max Coltheart, Centre for Cognition and its Disorders and Macquarie Centre for Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia Michael J. Cortese, Psychology Department, University of Nebraska-Omaha, Omaha, NE 68182, USA Colin J. Davis, Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, TW20 0EX, UK Stéphane Dufau, Université d’Aix-Marseille, Pôle 3 C, LPC/CNRS/UMR 6146, 3, place Victor Hugo, Bat. 9, Case D, 13331 Marseille Cedex 1, France Kenneth I. Forster, Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA List of Contributors xiii Pablo Gomez, DePaul University, Department of Psychology, 2219 North Kenmore Avenue, Chicago, IL 60614, USA Jonathan Grainger, Université d'Aix-Marseille, Pôle 3 C, LPC/CNRS/UMR 6146, 3, place Victor Hugo, Bat. 9, Case D, 13331 Marseille Cedex 1, France Laura K. Halderman, Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh, 3939 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA Keith A. Hutchison, Department of Psychology, Montana State University, P.O. Box 173440 Bozeman, MT 59717, USA Christopher T. Kello, School of Social Sciences, Humanities and Arts, University of California, Merced, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, CA 95343, USA Charles A. Perfetti, Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh, 3939 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA Daragh E. Sibley, Haskins Laboratories, 300 George Street, New Haven, CT 06511, USA Lise Van der Haegen, Department of Experimental Psychology, Ghent University, Henri Dunantlaan 2, 9000 Gent, Belgium Melvin J. Yap, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, National University of Singapore, 9 Arts Link, Singapore 117570, Singapore Acknowledgments I thank the contributors for their efforts and Suzanne Marquis for her aid in reminding contributors of their promises. Preparation of this book was supported in part by Economic and Social Research Council (UK) grant RES-062-23-0545. Figure 1.1 is reproduced with kind permission from Springer Science+Business Media from Figure 1 of Marshall, J.C. and Newcombe, F. (1973). Patterns of paralexia: A psycholinguistic approach. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 2, 175–199. Psychology Press have detailed of Figure 7.1 Figure 7.4 is reproduced with permission from MIT Press from Hunter, Z.R., Brysbaert, M., and Knecht, S. (2007). Foveal word reading requires interhemispheric communication. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, 1373–1387. © MIT Press. Figure 8.3 is reproduced from Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 12, Jonathan Grainger, Arnaud Rey, and Stéphane Dufau, “Letter perception: from pixels to pandemonium,” pp. 381–387, © 2008, with permission from Elsevier. Figure 8.5 is from Tydgat, I. and Grainger, J. (2009). Serial position effects in the identification of letters, digits and symbols. Reprinted with permission from Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35, 480–498, published by American Psychological Association. Figure 8.6 is from Figure 2.3 of Just, Marcel Adam; Carpenter, Patricia, Psychology of Reading and Language Comprehension, 1st Edition, © 1987. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. Introduction James S. Adelman Words are the building blocks of language, and are the interface between written and spoken language. Recognition of the printed word is both essential to the important skill of reading and among the easiest routes for the experimenter to access higher cognition. In this light, it is little surprise that the identification and pronunciation of written (or more often, printed) words are among the earliest studied (Cattell, 1886) and most studied aspects of cognition. Visual word recognition is studied both in its own right, in terms of the processes of recognizing a word and the performance of word-based tasks, but also more broadly in context as a link to semantics and concepts, cognitive individual differences, reading prose and learning to read. This volume concentrates on the former, narrower, form of study of visual word recognition, whilst its companion concentrates on the latter, broader form of study. Chapters 1 through 4 consider the theoretical underpinnings of the study of visual word recognition. In Chapter 1, Coltheart argues that current models of reading aloud all posit two routes, and considers the evidence concerning the nature of these routes. In Chapter 2, Sibley and Kello describe a connectionist recurrent network model of the learning of orthographic representations, and argue that the manner of learning accounts for key properties of behaviour in lexical decision. In Chapter 3, Forster presents a model that incorporates properties of both serial search and network models, arguing that this approach has key advantages in understanding how multiple words can be active in the reading system. In Chapter 4, Gomez surveys the vast array of models of the lexical decision, which, he shows, vary in their emphasis on the lexical and the decision components of the process. Chapters 5 and 6 are more methodologically focussed. First, Balota and colleagues survey ‘mega-studies’: large studies involving many words and participants whose data are made available for analysis by the research community, and they consider how these studies have given rise to contributions that complement those from more traditionally sized studies. Then I consider the item selection and statistical analysis issues involved in working with characteristics of words as theoretically important predictors, considering how to control by design known factors affecting visual word recognition, and how to control by statistics unknown factors affecting visual word recognition. 2 James S. Adelman The remaining chapters consider the inputs to the visual word recognition system at various levels. In Chapter 7, Brysbaert and colleagues argue that even in central vision, the left and right halves of an eye’s view are initially processed separately, being sent to different halves of the brain, and then must be integrated for effective reading to begin. In Chapter 8, Grainger and Dufau consider the mechanisms of processing letters through into words, arguing that there is specialized processing for letters and that two systems map letters onto words, the systems differing in how they deal with positional information. In Chapter 9, Davis considers this matching process for mapping letters onto words and considers the different forms of stimulus that may be considered ‘similar’ to a word insofar as it affects processing of that word. Finally, Halderman and colleagues argue that the phonological representation of a word is not merely an outcome of the attempt to visually identify that word, but plays a key role in its identification from a very early stage. In sum, these chapters cover the key issues involved in understanding the processing of the written word in terms of its written and spoken forms. Visual word recognition is a constituent process of reading. References Cattell, J. M. (1886). The time taken up by cerebral operations. Mind, 11, 377–92. Retrieved from http://psychclassics.yorku.ca 1 Dual-route theories of reading aloud Max Coltheart At the 1971 meeting of the International Neuropsychology Symposium in Engelberg, Switzerland, John Marshall and Freda Newcombe described six people who had suffered brain damage that had affected their ability to read – six case of acquired dyslexia. These six people fell into three different categories, since the pattern of reading symptoms they showed differed qualitatively as a function of which category they were assigned to. The three categories of acquired dyslexia were named ‘deep dyslexia’, ‘surface dyslexia’ and ‘visual dyslexia’. The publication of this work two years later (Marshall & Newcombe, 1973) initiated a major research field – the cognitive neuropsychology of reading. It did this not so much because it emphasized that there are different subtypes of acquired dyslexia – though this was a very important thing to demonstrate – but because the authors offered an explicit information-processing model of reading aloud and suggested how each of the three forms of acquired dyslexia could be understood as generated by three different patterns of impairment of that model. Their model is shown in Figure 1.1. It is a dual-route model of reading aloud (though Marshall and Newcombe did not use the term ‘dual route’) because there are two processing routes from print (the stimulus) to speech (the response). One route is via Visual Addresses through Semantic Addresses to articulation. This route can only be used with those letter strings that possess semantic addresses – that is, only with words. The route cannot produce reading-aloud responses for nonwords. How Marshall and Newcombe conceived of the second route for reading aloud (the A→B→D→T→F route) is not entirely clear from the Figure 1.1 diagram; but it is perfectly clear from their paper: ‘If . . . as a consequence of brain damage, the functional pathway bc (Fig. 1) is usually unavailable, the subject will have no option other than attempting to read via putative grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules (pathway bd)’ (Marshall & Newcombe, 1973, p. 191). A processing route that translates print to speech by application of graphemephoneme correspondence rules will be able to read letter strings that are not words. However, by definition it will fail for letter strings whose pronunciations differs from the pronunciations generated by the grapheme-phoneme correspondence 4 Max Coltheart THE WORD-STORE STIMULUS A Visual Registration bd A FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS D Phonological Addresses dt ab B Visual Addresses dc T Threshold E Articulatory Addresses te cd ct bc C Semantic Addresses RESPONSE Figure 1.1 The dual-route model of reading proposed by Marshall and Newcombe (1973). With kind permission from Springer Science+Business Media: Figure 1 of Marshall, J.C., & Newcombe, F. (1973). Patterns of paralexia: A psycholinguistic approach. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 2, 175–199. rules of the language: the so-called irregular or exception words1 of the language. Marshall and Newcombe did not quite make this point about irregular words and the second reading route, but they clearly had it in mind: ‘a recent formalism . . . proposes 166 correspondence rules in an analysis of children’s reading books. These rules only account for 90% of the data, leaving 10% of quite common words provided with an incorrect pronunciation’ (Marshall & Newcombe, 1973, p. 191). The dual-route model of reading aloud was proposed independently in the same year by Forster and Chambers (1973). The pronunciation of a visually-presented word involves assigning to a sequence of letters some kind of acoustic or articulatory coding. There are presumably two alternative ways in which this coding can be assigned. First, the pronunciation could be computed by application of a set of graphemephoneme or letter-sound correspondence rules. This coding can be carried out independently of any consideration of the meaning or familiarity of the letter sequence, as in the pronunciation of previously unencountered sequences, such as flitch, mantiness, and streep. Alternatively, the pronunciation may be determined by searching long-term memory for stored information about how to pronounce familiar letter sequences, obtaining the necessary information Dual-route theories of reading aloud 5 by a direct dictionary look-up, instead of rule-application. Obviously this procedure would only work for familiar words. (Forster & Chambers, 1973, p. 627) These authors did not raise the issue of irregular words (words whose pronunciations disobey grapheme-phoneme rules and so could not be correctly read aloud using the grapheme-phoneme rule route). After this dual introduction of the dual-route model of reading aloud, the idea spread rapidly, for example: We can . . . distinguish between an orthographic mechanism, which makes use of such general and productive relationships between letter patterns and sounds as exist, and a lexical mechanism, which relies instead upon specific knowledge of pronunciations of particular words or morphemes, that is, a lexicon of pronunciations (if not meanings as well) . . . It seems that both of the mechanisms we have suggested, the orthographic and lexical mechanisms, are used for pronouncing printed words. (Baron & Strawson, 1976, pp. 386, 391) Naming can be accomplished either by orthographic-phonemic translation, or by reference to the internal lexicon. (Frederiksen & Kroll, 1976, p. 378) Given the central role played by the concept of irregularity of graphemephoneme correspondence in the dual-route approach, what was clearly needed next was empirical investigation of the influence of such irregularity on the reading aloud of words. If regular words (those which obey the correspondence rules) can be read aloud correctly via the rule route and also by the dictionary lookup route, while irregular words can only be read aloud correctly by the dictionary lookup route, one might expect this to result in reading-aloud latencies being shorter for regular words than for irregular words. This was first investigated by Baron and Strawson (1976), who did indeed find that reading aloud was slower for irregular words than for regular words. At this point, it is necessary to say something more, by way of definition, about the concept of regularity and also about another concept, consistency, which also became important in reading research from the late 1970s onwards. The concepts of regularity and consistency To produce perfectly clear terminology here, we need some definitions. To define the irregular/regular distinction, we first need to define the term grapheme. Relationships between spellings and pronunciations are often referred to as being governed by letter–sound rules, but that’s incorrect. The word THIGH has five letters. So if it were literally letters that were being translated to sounds (phonemes), this word would have five phonemes; but it doesn’t, it has only two.

Author James S. Adelman Isbn 9781848720589 File size 3.3 MB Year 2012 Pages 248 Language English File format PDF Category Psychology Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare Word recognition is the component of reading which involves the identification of individual words. Together the two volumes of Visual Word Recognition offer a state-of-the-art overview of contemporary research from leading figures in the field.   This first volume outlines established theory, new models and key experimental evidence used to investigate visual word recognition: lexical decision and word naming. It also considers methodological concerns: new developments in large databases, and how these have been applied to theoretical questions; and control considerations when dealing with words as stimuli. Finally, the book considers the visual-orthographic input to the word recognition system: from the left and right-hand sides of vision, through the processing of letters and their proximity, to the similarity and confusability of words, and the contribution of the spoken-phonological form of the word.   The two volumes serve as a state-of-the-art, comprehensive overview of the field. They are essential reading for researchers of visual word recognition, as well as undergraduate and postgraduate students of cognition and cognitive psychology, specifically the psychology of language and reading. They will also be of use to those working in education and speech-language therapy.       Download (3.3 MB) Visual Word Recognition Volume 2: Meaning and Context, Individuals and Development Dimensions of Movement: From features to remnants The New Psychology of Language Cognitive Illusions: Intriguing Phenomena in Judgement, Thinking and Memory, 2nd Edition Desire, Self, Mind, and the Psychotherapies: Unifying Psychological Science and Psychoanalysis Load more posts

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