Treatment and Management of Bladder Cancer by Cora N Sternberg, Mark P Schoenberg, and Seth P. Lerner

0559dab54378cb2-261x361.jpg Author Cora N Sternberg, Mark P Schoenberg, and Seth P. Lerner
Isbn 9780415462174
File size 8.34MB
Year 2008
Pages 256
Language English
File format PDF
Category medicine


Lerner_Prelims.qxp 4/24/2008 3:03 PM Page i Treatment and Management of Bladder Cancer Lerner_Prelims.qxp 4/24/2008 3:03 PM Page ii Dedication With deep sorrow and a sense of tremendous loss to our community, the editors dedicate Treatment and Management of Bladder Cancer to the memory of Dr. John Stein, Chairman of Urology, The University of Southern California. John was an outstanding surgeon and scholar; throughout his professional life, he dedicated himself to the advancement of our collective understanding of bladder cancer. John made many seminal contributions to our scientific knowledge of this disease. We mourn the loss of a genuine talent and a true friend taken away from us in an untimely and tragic fashion. The work reflected in this text should serve as a testimony to our affection for John and our commitment to a cause to which he had devoted himself. Lerner_Prelims.qxp 4/29/2008 5:10 PM Page iii Treatment and Management of Bladder Cancer Edited by Seth P Lerner MD FACS Professor, Beth and Dave Swalm Chair of Urologic Oncology Scott Department of Urology Baylor College of Medicine Houston, TX USA Mark P Schoenberg MD Professor of Urology and Oncology Director of Urologic Oncology James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions Baltimore, MD USA Cora N Sternberg MD FACP Chief, Department of Medical Oncology San Camillo Forlanini Hospital Rome Italy Lerner_Prelims.qxp 4/24/2008 3:03 PM Page iv © 2008 Informa UK Ltd First published in the United Kingdom in 2008 by Informa Healthcare, Telephone House, 69-77 Paul Street, London EC2A 4LQ. Informa Healthcare is a trading division of Informa UK Ltd. Registered Office: 37/41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH. Registered in England and Wales number 1072954. Tel: +44 (0)20 7017 5000 Fax: +44 (0)20 7017 6699 Website: All rights reserved. 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Neither the publishers nor the authors can be held responsible for errors or for any consequences arising from the use of information contained herein. For detailed prescribing information or instructions on the use of any product or procedure discussed herein, please consult the prescribing information or instructional material issued by the manufacturer. A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Data available on application ISBN-10: 0 415 46217 7 ISBN-13: 978 0 415 46217 4 Distributed in North and South America by Taylor & Francis 6000 Broken Sound Parkway, NW, (Suite 300) Boca Raton, FL 33487, USA Within Continental USA Tel: 1 (800) 272 7737; Fax: 1 (800) 374 3401 Outside Continental USA Tel: (561) 994 0555; Fax: (561) 361 6018 Email: [email protected] Book orders in the rest of the world Paul Abrahams Tel: +44(0)20 7017 4036 Email: [email protected] Composition by Exeter Premedia Services Private Ltd., Chennai, India Printed and bound in India by Replika Press Pvt Ltd Lerner_Prelims.qxp 4/24/2008 3:03 PM Page v Contents List of contributors Section 1 Treatment 1. Transurethral resection of bladder tumors Harry W Herr vii 1 3 2. Perioperative instillation of chemotherapeutic drugs Willem Oosterlinck, Richard Sylvester 13 3. The role of intravesical chemotherapy in the treatment of bladder cancer S Bruce Malcowicz 17 4. Intravesical chemotherapy of superficial bladder cancer: optimization and novel agents Jessie L-S Au, M Guillaume Wientjes 23 5. Intravesical immunotherapy: BCG Lori A Pinke, Donald L Lamm 35 6. G3T1 bladder carcinoma Vito Pansadoro, Paolo Emiliozzi 41 7. What to do when BCG fails Guido Dalbagni 51 Section 2 T2-4 8. Selection and peri-operative management of patients undergoing radical cystectomy and urinary reconstruction Melissa R Kaufman, Joseph A Smith 9. Radical cystectomy - technique and outcomes John P Stein, Donald G Skinner 57 59 69 10. Cystectomy in the female Aristotelis G Anastasiadis, Susan Feyerabend, Markus A Kuczyk, Arnulf Stenzl 91 11. Nerve sparing: radical cystectomy Marc S Chuang, Gary D Steinberg, Mark Schoenberg 97 12. Laparoscopic radical cystectomy and urinary diversion Inderbir S Gill, Ingolf Tuerk 103 Lerner_Prelims.qxp vi 4/24/2008 3:03 PM Page vi Contents 13. Role of extended lymphadenectomy Seth P Lerner, Bernie Bochner 113 14. Management of the urethra in the cystectomy patient Hein Van Poppel 121 15. Role of radical cystectomy in patients with unresectable and/or loco-regionally metastatic bladder cancer S Machele Donat 129 Section 3 Primary bladder sparing therapy 137 16. Radical TURBT Eduardo Solsona 139 17 Partial cystectomy Yair Lotan, David A Swanson, Arthur I Sagalowsky 145 18 Optimal radiotherapy for bladder cancer Michael F Milosevic, Robert Bristow, Mary K Gospodarowicz 151 19. Trimodality therapy in the management of muscle invasive bladder cancer: A Selective Organ-preserving Approach John J Coen, Anthony L Zietman, Donald S Kaufman, Niall M Heney, Alex F Althausen, William U Shipley 167 Section 4 Urinary tract reconstruction 175 20 177 Orthotopic neobladder Richard E Hautmann 21. Continent cutaneous diversion Christoph Wiesner, Randall G Rowland, Joachim W Thuroff 189 22. Noncontinent urinary diversion Wiking Mansson, Frederik Liedberg, Roland Dahlem, Margit Fisch 201 Section 5 Treatment of regionally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer 209 23. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer Cora N Sternberg 211 24. Adjuvant chemotherapy for invasive bladder cancer James O Jin, Michelle Boyar, Daniel P Petrylak, Walter M Stadler 219 25. Treatment of metastatic cancer Avishay Sella, Joaquim Bellmunt 225 Index 235 Lerner_Prelims.qxp 4/24/2008 3:03 PM Page vii Contributors Alex F Althausen MD Clinical Professor of Urology Harvard Medical School, Department of Urology Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA USA Aristotelis G Anastasiadis MD Assistant Professor and Chairman Department of Urology Krankenhaus Großburgwedel der Region Hannover Burgwedel Germany Jessie L-S Au PharmD PhD Distinguished University Professor College of Pharmacy The Ohio State University Columbus, OH USA Joaquim Bellmunt MD PhD Section Chief, Solid Tumor Oncology (GU & GI) Medical Oncology Service Hospital del Mar Barcelona Spain Bernard H Bochner MD FACS Associate Attending Physician Department of Urology Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center New York, NY USA Michelle Boyar MD Clinical Fellow in Medical Oncology and Hematology Columbia University Medical Center New York, NY USA Robert Bristow MD PhD FRCP(C) Associate Professor Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics University of Toronto; Clinician-Scientist Radiation Oncology and Applied Molecular Oncology Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network Toronto, ON Canada Marc S Chuang MD Chief Resident in Urology The University of Chicago Chicago, IL USA John J Coen MD Assistant Professor of Radiation Oncology Harvard Medical School; Genitourinary Oncology Unit Department of Radiation Oncology Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA USA Roland Dahlem MD Asklepios Clinic Harburg Hamburg Germany Guido Dalbagni MD FACS Associate Attending Surgeon Department of Urology Memoral Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center New York, NY USA S Machele Donat MD FACS Associate Attending Urology Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Cornell-Weill Medical College New York, NY USA Paolo Emiliozzi San Giovanni Hospital Rome Italy Susan Feyerabend MD Department of Urology University Hospital University of Tuebingen Tuebingen Germany Margit Fisch MD Professor of Urology Director of the Center of Urology and Pediatric Urology Asklepios Clinic Harburg Hamburg Germany Lerner_Prelims.qxp viii 4/24/2008 3:03 PM Page viii List of contributors Inderbir S Gill MD MCh Professor of Surgery Head Section of Laparoscopic and Robotic Urology Glickman Urological Institute Cleveland, OH USA Mary K Gospodarowicz MD FRCPC FRCR(Hon) Professor and Chair Deparment of Radiation Oncology University of Toronto Medical Director Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network Cancer Program Toronto, ON Canada Richard E Hautmann MD MDHon Professor of Urology Chairman Department of Urology University of Ulm, Ulm Germany Niall M Heney MD Clinical Professor of Urology Harvard Medical School Departmentof Urology Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA USA Harry W Herr MD Attending Surgeon Department of Urology Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Professor of Urology Cornell University of Medical College New York, NY USA James O Jin MD PhD Elkhart Clinic Elkhart, IN USA Markus A Kuczyk MD Professor and Chairman Medizinische Hochschule Hannover Urologie Hannover Germany Donald L Lamm MD FACS Clinical Professor University of Arizona Directory, BCG Oncology Phoenix, AZ USA Seth P Lerner MD FACS Associate Professor of Urology Beth and Dave Swalm Chair in Urologic Oncology Scott Department of Urology Baylor College of Medicine Houston, TX USA Frederik Liedberg MD Senior Registrar Department of Urology University Hospital Lund Sweden Yair Lotan MD Assistant Professor of Urology Department of Urology University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas, TX USA S Bruce Malkowicz MD Professor of Urology University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine Philadelphia, PA USA Åsa Månsson RN PhD Senior Lecturer Department of Health Sciences Medical Faculty Lund University Sweden Donald S Kaufman MD Clinical Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School Director, The Claire and John Bertucci Center for Genitourinary Cancers Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA USA Michael F Milosevic MD FRCP(C) Associate Professor Department of Radiation Oncology University of Toronto; Clinician-Scientist Radiation Medicine Program Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network Toronto, ON Canada Melissa R Kaufman MD Instructor Department of Urologic Surgery Vanderbilt University Medical Center Nashville, TN USA Willem Oosterlinck PhD MD Professor of Urology Head of the Department of Urology Ghent University Hospital Ghent Belgium Lerner_Prelims.qxp 4/24/2008 3:03 PM Page ix List of contributors Vito Pansadoro MD President Vincenzo Pansadoro Foundation Rome Italy Daniel P Petrylak MD Associate Professor of Medicine Director Genitourinary Oncology Program College of Physicians and Surgeons Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center New York, NY USA Lori A Pinke MD Urologist Urology Associates Ltd. Phoenix, AZ USA Donald G Skinner MD Professor and Chairman of Urology Department of Urology University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center Los Angeles, CA USA Joseph A Smith Jr MD Professor and Chairman Department of Urologic Surgery Vanderbilt University Medical Center Nashville, TN USA Eduardo Solsona MD Chief of Urology Valencia Oncology Institute Valencia Spain Randall G Rowland MD PhD Professor and James F Glenn Chair of Urology Division of Urology University of Kentucky Lexington, KY USA Walter M Stadler MD FACP Fred C Buffett Professor Associate Dean of Clinical Research Departments of Medicine and Surgery Sections of Hematology-Oncology and Urology University of Chicago Chicago, IL USA Arthur I Sagalowsky MD Professor and Chief of Urologic Oncology Dr. Paul Peters Chair in Urology in Memory of Rumsey and Louis Strickland Department of Urology University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas, TX USA John P Stein MD FACS Associate Professor of Urology Department of Urology University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center Los Angeles, CA USA Mark P Schoenberg MD Professor of Urology and Oncology Director of Urologic Oncology James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions Baltimore, MD USA Avishay Sella MD Professor Head Department of Oncology Asaf Harofeh Medical Center Zerifin Tel-Aviv University Israel William U Shipley MD Andres Soriano Professor of Radiation Oncology Harvard Medical School Head Genitourinary Oncology Unit Department of Radiation Oncology Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA USA Gary D Steinberg MD FACS Professor and Vice Chairman of Urology Director of Urologic Oncology University of Chicago Section of Urology Chicago, IL USA Arnulf Stenzl MD Professor and Chairman Department of Urology University Hospital University of Tuebingen Tuebingen Germany Cora N Sternberg MD FACP Chairman Department of Medical Oncology San Camillo and Forlanini Hospitals Rome Italy David A Swanson MD Clinical Professor of Urology The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Houston, TX USA ix Lerner_Prelims.qxp x 4/24/2008 3:03 PM Page x List of contributors Richard J Sylvester ScD Assistant Director Head of Biostatistics European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brussels Belgium Joachim W Thüroff MD Professor and Chairman Department of Urology and Paediatric Urology Johannes Gutenberg-University Medical School Mainz Germany Ingolf Tuerk MD PhD Professor of Urology Tufts University, School of Medicine Vice Chair Director for Minimal Invasive Laparoscopic Urology Institute of Urology Lahey Clinic Medical Center Burlington, MA USA Hendrik van Poppel MD PhD FEBU Professor and Chairman of Urology Department of Urology University Hospital of the Catholic University of Leuven Leuven Belgium M Guillaume Wientjes PhD Professor College of Pharmacy James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute The Ohio State University Columbus, OH USA Christoph Wiesner MD Department of Urology and Pediatric Urology Johannes Gutenberg-University Medical School Mainz Germany Anthony L Zietman MD Jenot and William Shipley Professor of Radiation Oncology Harvard Medical School Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA USA Lerner_Ch01.qxp 4/24/2008 12:05 PM Page 1 Section 1 Treatment Lerner_Ch01.qxp 4/24/2008 12:05 PM Page 2 Lerner_Ch01.qxp 4/24/2008 12:05 PM Page 3 1 Transurethral resection of bladder tumors Harry W Herr Introduction More than 60,000 new cases of bladder cancer are diagnosed each year in the United States.1 Another 600,000 men and women are under surveillance for recurrent bladder tumors.2 About 70% of bladder tumors are superficial, i.e. nonmuscle invasive (stage Ta, Tis, T1), and 30% invade the bladder muscle (stage T2) or perivesical fat (stage T3). Transurethral resection (TUR) is the essential surgical procedure used to diagnose, stage, and treat the majority of primary and recurrent bladder tumors. TUR of bladder tumors is both a diagnostic and a therapeutic procedure. The initial TUR of a bladder tumor has three main goals: 1. to provide pathologic material to determine the histologic type and grade of bladder tumor 2. to determine the presence, depth, and type of tumor invasion (broad front or tentacular); such information is critical because tumor stage, grade, extent, and pattern of tumor growth direct additional therapy, determine the frequency of follow-up examinations and influence prognosis 3. to remove all visible and microscopic superficial and invasive tumor(s). This chapter discusses the surgical technique, staging accuracy, and therapeutic efficacy of transurethral resection of bladder tumors. Surgical technique A TUR coupled with bimanual examination is best performed under general anesthesia. Anesthesia is induced with propathol (sedative) and fentanyl (narcotic) and maintained during the procedure using inhalational sevofluorane delivered through a laryngeal mask airway (LMA). The LMA is used for both spontaneous and controlled ventilation, and avoids the trauma and discomfort of endotracheal intubation. Such anesthesia is rapid, provides excellent general relaxation for procedures lasting up to an hour, and permits full recovery within 30 minutes. When fully relaxed, the patient is placed in a low lithotomy position using adjustable stirrups. A bimanual examination is performed both before and after resection. A 24 Fr. resectoscope sheath is introduced into the bladder using the visual obturator, facilitated by a video camera. Urine is collected for cytology. An Iglesias resectoscope is inserted with the video camera attached to a 30° lens. All regions of the bladder are easily visualized using this one lens. Changing the angle of the scope and position of the table facilitates resection. Glycine 1.5% (3000 cc bag) serves as irrigation. A pure monopolar point electrocautery current is used. The cutting current is set at 120 watts and the coagulation current at 60 watts. An Ellik evacuator filled with sterile water retrieves bladder and tumor specimens. The entire procedure is visually performed on a magnified screen using the video camera. Resection of tumors is best performed with the bladder half full. Box 1.1 illustrates the information desired from a TUR of bladder tumor. Tumors involving the bladder, bladder neck, urethra and prostate should be noted as to their individual characteristics. All visible tumors are systematically resected and submitted separately for histology. It is helpful to record the type, size and location of each tumor on a bladder map, including areas of carcinoma in situ (CIS). At the end of the procedure, the urologist should state whether the TUR is complete or incomplete. The urologist (not the pathologist) is responsible for assigning a primary tumor stage based on assessment of the tumor during cystoscopy and resection coupled with the pathologic findings. At the initial evaluation, a complete resection of all gross and suspected tumor(s) is attempted, including all areas involved with CIS. This may take more than one procedure, but with due diligence and patience, it is rare that a bladder cannot be cleared of all visible tumors. The bladder neck and prostate are biopsied to detect tumor spread within the bladder neck musculature, prostatic urethra, ducts, and stroma. Biopsies at 4- and 8-o’clock are obtained, extending from the bladder neck to the verumontanum. Selected site loop or cold-cup biopsies of suspicious mucosal lesions are performed,3 but random biopsies of normal-appearing mucosa rarely show tumor, and urine cytology is more accurate in detecting diffuse mucosal abnormalities. A variety of resectoscope loops are available, but finer diameter loops project a more concentrated current and cut more easily. Figure 1.1 illustrates the loop preferred by the author. The attached ‘runner’ projecting in front of the right-angled loop allows resection of tumors on a flat surface, even in concave regions of the bladder, reduces cautery artifact, and helps to control a uniform and safe depth of resection.4 The loop has a cross-width of 8 mm, permitting most tumors 1.0–1.5 cm in size to be resected completely as one specimen (Figure 1.2). Others have also developed innovative methods for en bloc removal of bladder tumors using flat loop, knife, or needle electrodes.5–7 Each tumor should be resected completely, if possible, and delivered to pathology as one contiguous specimen oriented so that a longitudinal histologic section through the tumor shows intact overlying and surrounding mucosa, and underlying lamina propria and deep muscle. Figure 1.2 shows the position of the loop prepared to resect a 1.5 cm papillary tumor toward the operator, removing the tumor as one specimen with a single broad sweep of the loop. Larger tumors are resected in multiple pieces, progressing Lerner_Ch01.qxp 4 4/24/2008 12:05 PM Page 4 Treatment and Management of Bladder Cancer Box 1.1 Transurethral resection of bladder tumor 1. Clinical data ● Evaluation under anesthesia a. Mass versus no mass b. Mobile versus nonmobile ● Tumor a. Configuration (papillary versus solid) b. Location in bladder c. Number of tumors d. Size of tumor(s) e. Carcinoma in situ (focal versus diffuse) f. Bladder neck/urethra ● Resection a. Complete versus incomplete 2. Pathological data ● Tumor grade (low versus high) ● Invasion a. Depth b. Muscle in specimen c. Type (broad front versus tentacular) d. Carcinoma in situ (focal versus diffuse) ● Resection of bladder neck/prostate a. Urethra/ducts b. Stroma 3. Clinical (T) stage in an orderly fashion from one side of the tumor to the other, until the entire base is reached and excised. The muscle fibers of the detrusor should be readily distinguished from the granular appearance of tumor. Figures 1.3 and 1.4, respectively, show complete resections of solid and papillary tumors. In each case, muscle deep to the tumor bed appears normal, indicating a complete visible resection. In cases of multiple, low-grade papillary tumors, it is not necessary to obtain muscle in each individual specimen if Figure 1.1 Resectoscope loop. Figure 1.2 Figure 1.3 Transurethral resection of a papillary tumor. Complete transurethral resection of a solid bladder tumor. Lerner_Ch01.qxp 4/24/2008 12:05 PM Page 5 Treatment Figure 1.4 Complete transurethral resection of a papillonodular bladder tumor. 5 contiguous normal-appearing lamina propria beneath the tumor is provided. For bulky, invasive tumors likely to require cystectomy, biopsies of the margin of the lesion containing muscle suffice. Biopsy of the central portion of such tumors may reveal only necrotic tissue and risks unnecessary bleeding that may prove difficult to control. Tumors located in the dome or anterior wall can be difficult to reach and resect, especially if the prostate is enlarged. Placing the patient in Trendelenburg position, avoiding overdistension of the bladder, and applying gentle suprapubic pressure brings upper regions of the bladder into sharp focus and permits resection of anterior tumors on a flat surface. An extra long resectoscope sheath can also be used to resect difficult-to-reach tumors. An inferior lateral wall tumor can be difficult to resect because of the stimulated ‘obturator nerve reflex’ and the risk of bladder wall perforation. Reducing the cutting current and repeatedly tapping the cut peddle during resection of tumors from the lateral walls of the bladder greatly facilitates a controlled and complete resection of even deeply invasive tumors. Moving the entire sheath during resection (in a fashion similar to scooping ice cream with a spoon), rather than using the Iglesias working element, permits a more controlled, smoother, and better resection. Tumor and bladder wall specimens should be at least 1–2 cm in length or longer. Retrograde resection is usually avoided because it may cause a perforation, but this method may be preferred to separate a papillary tumor from the mucosa if a narrow stalk is clearly visible rather than extending the loop behind a bulky tumor and resecting blindly in the usual manner with the spring-loaded working element. The ureteral orifice can be resected, if necessary, to completely remove a tumor overlying this structure. In cases of multiple papillary tumors, the larger tumors are resected completely for histology, but smaller tumors (≤5 mm) and adjacent mucosa that may harbor CIS can be fulgurated using a roller ball electrode. An experienced urologist can usually distinguish low-grade papillary tumors from high-grade invasive tumors to permit fulguration of multiple, especially recurrent, tumors.8 To ensure adequate visibility, bleeding is controlled at each resection site before moving on to another lesion. After all tumors have been resected, the margins and base of each tumor site are fulgurated using a roller ball electrode (see Figure 1.4). Bladder tumors arising within a bladder diverticulum pose a unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The paucity of muscle in a diverticulum renders TUR of diverticular tumors difficult, entailing an increased risk of incomplete resection and bladder perforation. Cystoscopic access and complete visualization of the entire diverticular mucosa is necessary to resect tumors safely and completely within a diverticulum. A narrow-mouthed ostium may be resected to gain access to a capacious diverticulum. A careful TUR of tumors confined to a diverticulum in 39 patients controlled 83% of non-invasive (Ta, Tis) or minimally invasive (T1) diverticular tumors. Our data support a conservative approach for superficial tumors confined to a bladder diverticulum, provided a complete transurethral resection is feasible.9 Sessile, nodular, and papillonodular tumors are more likely than papillary tumors to be high grade and invasive. In order to remove and accurately stage such tumors, they must be resected wide and deep. How wide and how deep has practical implications for tumor staging and treatment, and requires considerable judgment, experience, and skill. For example, Figure 1.5 shows a sessile tumor resected at its peripheral margin A. The resection is then extended laterally into normal mucosa for 2 cm to margin B, to ensure complete wide excision of the lesion and to detect adjacent CIS. Figure 1.6 shows how different patterns of invasion of T1 tumors Lerner_Ch01.qxp 6 4/24/2008 12:05 PM Page 6 Treatment and Management of Bladder Cancer Figure 1.5 Transurethral resection of bladder tumor: margins of resection. Figure 1.6 Transurethral resection of T1 bladder tumors. affect margins of resection. Tumor A has broad-front invasion and tumor B displays tentacular invasion. Resection of tumor A around its A margins results in complete resection of all exophytic and invasive components of the tumor. Resecting out to margin B verifies complete resection and may detect adjacent CIS. For tumor B, resection from margin A to A or margin B leaves tumor behind because of finger-like submucosal invasion extending laterally beyond the visible limits of the tumor. Complete resection of tumor B requires extending the resection another 1 or 2 cm out to margin C. Figure 1.7 shows a sagittal view of a tumor invading the deep lamina propria. The tumor is resected at margin A, to include much or all of the lamina propria with the tumor. Lateral resection out to margin B includes an ample portion of bladder muscle (that may not be included in the resection margins A to A) to verify complete tumor resection. Transurethral resection performed in this manner is more likely to remove the tumor completely and provides sufficient material to pathology to determine depth of invasion and centripetal extension of bladder tumor. Proof of this concept is illustrated by a study in which 35% of 462 TURs had residual tumor on extended deep resection of the tumor base and at least 2 cm lateral to visible tumor.10 The extended TUR found incomplete initial resections of 13% of Ta, 36% of T1, 56% of T2, and 83% of T3 tumors. Figure 1.7 Transurethral resection of invasive bladder tumor. (LP, lamina propria.) In cases of muscle-invasive tumors considered for bladdersparing, a maximum, aggressive transurethral resection is required and is an integral component of multimodality therapy of locally advanced tumors. Deep resection of the detrusor is Lerner_Ch01.qxp 4/24/2008 12:05 PM Page 7 Treatment 7 The second most serious complication, occurring in 1% of cases of TUR of bladder tumors, is bladder perforation. The majority (80%) are extraperitoneal perforations (managed with catheter drainage); in 20% of cases they are intraperitoneal (requiring open surgical repair if gaping and associated with significant extravasation of fluid and urine despite bladder drainage). Although tumor seeding is of concern when the bladder is perforated, documented cases of extravesical pelvic disease after resection of invasive tumors have not been reported. TUR of invasive tumors does not appear to disseminate urothelial cells in the peripheral circulation.12 Clinically silent extravasation probably occurs during many procedures. Ureteral obstruction owing to resection of a ureteral orifice may occur, but it is unlikely if only the cutting current is used across the orifice. Cautery is used sparingly around the orifices. Obstruction usually is caused by temporary edema and will resolve without stenting. On occasion, a scarred ureteral orifice requires operative intervention to relieve hydronephrosis. commenced only after all exophytic tumor has been removed. Tumor deep in the bladder wall is resected one layer at a time, avoiding deep excavation in one place, to maintain a clear view of the whole resection area. Deep resection is considered complete when normal glistening yellow fat is seen between the deep muscle bundles or perivesical tissues. Invasive tumor is usually firm and easy to resect whereas uninvolved ‘normal’ fat is difficult to cut or cauterize with the resectoscope. This is a useful finding indicating a complete tumor resection when corroborated by negative histologic examination of separate deep muscle specimens. At the end of the procedure, a belladonna and opium (B&O) rectal suppository is inserted (may be repeated in 4–6 hours as needed) to reduce bladder spasms. Intravenous diazepam (2.5 mg) also relaxes the bladder and helps to stem bleeding caused by bladder spasms. Intravenous fentanyl (25 mcg) effectively controls postoperative discomfort. Rarely, continuous bladder irrigation through a three-way catheter is necessary to control postoperative hemorrhage. The patient may be safely discharged with or without a Foley catheter (depending on the extent of resection) an hour or two after the operation. In cases of an enlarged prostate, or after vigorous resection of tumor, especially around the bladder neck or prostatic urethra, it is best to leave a catheter overnight to prevent delayed acute urinary retention owing to edema or blood clots. Staging accuracy and restaging TUR Incomplete resection and understaging of bladder tumors is well known owing to the stochastic nature of transurethral resection. Tumors recur at the same site of resection in 20% to 40% of cases and they may progress to invade the muscle layers of the bladder.13,14 Among patients undergoing cystectomy for nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer, 25% to 40% are upstaged to muscle invasion,15 and about half of muscle-invasive tumors are found to have tumor spread outside the bladder or positive pelvic lymph nodes.16 Accuracy in determining pathologic stage is largely related to the completeness of TUR. Although most urologists agree that ideally initial TUR of bladder tumors should be thorough and complete, many factors confound the adequacy of resection, including multiplicity and extent of disease, capability and perseverance of the resectionist, quality of specimens provided, and pathologic analysis. The fact that local tumor control and accurate tumor staging depend on a complete TUR suggests that a second, restaging TUR may be of value in evaluating patients with bladder tumors. Another TUR reduces the uncertainty of depth of tumor invasion, better controls the primary tumor, and provides additional pathologic information that may help select appropriate treatment.17 Table 1.1 shows results of a second TUR performed 2–6 weeks after an initial TUR in 150 consecutive patients evaluated with Complications of TUR of bladder tumors Transurethral resection of bladder tumors is associated with a low (5%) overall complication rate.11 The frequency of complications is higher with large (>5 cm) tumors, multiple tumors, and tumors located in the dome of the bladder. The most common complication, occurring in 1% to 3% of cases, is postresection bleeding, requiring return to the operating room to evacuate retained blood clots and fulgurate bleeders. On occasion, although the urine is crystal clear at the end of the procedure, bleeding may erupt in the recovery room if the patient coughs or suffers postanesthetic rigors. Vigilant nursing care to maintain a patent catheter (and a collapsed bladder) by gentle bladder irrigation may avert this problem. It is also not uncommon for patients to report passing blood clots and pieces of tissue 7–10 days after the procedure when necrotic tissue sloughs from resection sites. Such blood clots usually pass spontaneously and do not require intervention. Table 1.1 Comparison of bladder tumor stage after first and second transurethral resections No. stage at second TUR (%) Stage at first TUR Tis Ta T1 Muscle No muscle T2 Totals No. pts 20 18 58 35 23 54 150 T0 6 5 13 9 4 12 (30) (28) (22) (26) (17) (22) Ta/Tis 8 7 15 11 4 7 (40) (39) (26) (31) (17) (13) T1 4 5 14 10 4 3 114 (20) (28) (24) (29) (17) (6) (76) T2 2 1 16 5 11 30 (10) (5) (28) (14) (49) (55) T3–4 2 (4) Lerner_Ch01.qxp 8 4/24/2008 12:05 PM Page 8 Treatment and Management of Bladder Cancer Table 1.2 Bladder tumor stage after second transurethral resection of T1 tumors Stage at second TUR (%) Series 20 Klan et al Herr18 Schwaibold et al21 Brauers et al22 Ozen et al23 Schips et al24 Rigaud et al25 Grimm et al26 Year No. pts 1991 1999 2000 2001 2001 2002 2002 2003 46 58 60 42 28 76 52 19 T0 Ta/Tis T1 T2 15 26 17 17 18 11 16 37 26 24 24 24 53 15 17 43 2 28 5 24 29 8 4 19 22 35 67 Table 1.3 Recurrent bladder tumors after one versus two TURs and BCG therapy No. recurrent tumor present at TUR Initial TUR Repeat TUR No. cases 3 months 6 months 12 months Progression 96 154 57 (59%) 45 (29%) 58 (60%) 34 (22%) 57 (59%) 25 (16%) 31 (32%) 11 (7%) All differences are p = 0.000 by Pearson’s chi-square and Fisher’s exact test. localized bladder tumor.18 A significant proportion (76%) was found on a second TUR to have residual tumor. Of 96 patients with superficial (stage Ta, Tis, T1) tumors, only 25% had no tumor left; 31% had residual non-invasive tumor; 15% had persistent submucosal invasion; and 29% were upstaged to muscle invasion. An incomplete initial resection (and clinical understaging) was observed in 49% of stage T1 tumors with no muscle submitted in the first TUR specimen compared to 14% when muscle was identified. Of 54 patients with muscle-invasive tumors (confirmed by review of initial pathology), 22% had no residual tumor found on a restaging TUR, leading to changes in treatment. A recent pathology review found that muscularis propria was missing in up to 51% of TUR specimens submitted by urologists.19 Many of these were papillary low-grade tumors and the absence of muscle can be justified, but in 26% of invasive tumors, a muscle specimen was not submitted. Proper execution of TUR is critical for primary tumor staging and definitive treatment. The pathologist can only evaluate what the urologist submits! Table 1.218–26 shows recently reported series of repeat TUR of stage T1 bladder tumors. Residual invasive T1 tumor was present in 15% to 53% of cases, and another 4% to 29% were upstaged to muscle invasion. The collective data suggest that a restaging TUR improves staging, but can it improve local control of T1 bladder tumors? We addressed this question in a recent cohort of 71 patients with T1 bladder tumors that underwent immediate cystectomy after we performed two sequential resections (same surgeon for both TURs) inclusive of muscle in the specimen.27 Thirteen percent of the patients had muscleinvasive tumor in the cystectomy specimen, 24% had residual T1 tumor, and the others had either no or non-invasive tumors. All but two of these tumors were correctly identified and staged by the restaging TUR. We concluded from this small study that a restaging TUR of our own previously resected patients markedly improves both staging accuracy and local control of T1 bladder tumors. Can a second TUR improve the outcome of patients with superficial bladder cancer? A recent long-term observational study26 showed that among a cohort of 124 consecutive patients, a restaging TUR found residual tumor in 33% of cases, including 27% of those with Ta and 53% of those with T1 disease. Residual tumor was found at the original resection site in 81% of cases. After 5 years follow-up, 63% of the patients undergoing a second TUR had disease-free bladders compared to 40% after one TUR. Progression to muscle invasion was observed in only two (3%) patients undergoing a restaging TUR. A second therapeutic TUR also appears to improve the short-term response to bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) therapy.28 Of 250 consecutive cases of nonmuscle-invasive bladder tumors treated with BCG (with or without maintenance BCG), 96 had one initial TUR before BCG and 154 had two TURs 2–6 weeks apart before starting BCG therapy. Table 1.3 shows that response rates were better after two TURs, and responses improved over time. Further, tumor progression to muscle invasion was more common in patients having only one TUR before BCG therapy. A second TUR appears to provide better local control of superficial bladder tumors and, by reducing tumor volume, contributes to earlier and more complete responses to intravesical therapy against minimal residual disease. TUR of superficial bladder tumors Although a thorough TUR is capable of ablating all visible nonmuscle-invasive tumors, subsequent tumor recurrence is Lerner_Ch01.qxp 4/24/2008 12:05 PM Page 9 Treatment common. Many studies show that the presence of tumor within 3 or 6 months after initial TUR is a significant predictor of tumor recurrence and progression, suggesting that an inadequate first resection is partly to blame for the high recurrence rate.29,30 The 5- and 10-year recurrence rates after TUR exceed 70% and 85%, respectively. The 10-year survival rate after TUR for Ta tumors is 85% and is 70% for T1 tumors. These data argue persuasively for a restaging TUR, especially in high-risk tumors, for which TUR (with and without intravesical therapy) to preserve the bladder is the mainstay of treatment. A review of the literature reporting more than 600 cases of T1 bladder tumors treated only by TUR shows that 75% to 90% recurred during follow-up of 5–10 years. In a third of patients disease progressed to muscle invasion in 5 years, and in 39% to 53% it had progressed by 10 years.31 T1 tumors most likely to be cured by TUR are solitary low-grade papillary T1 tumors, superficially invading the lamina propria (stage T1a) and unassociated with diffuse CIS. Such tumors represent only 10% of all T1 bladder tumors. Tumor recurrence and increased risk of tumor progression are significantly associated with high-grade, multiple, solid T1 tumors displaying vascular invasion, surrounding CIS, and invading the deep portion of the lamina propria (T1b). Whether subdividing T1 tumors according to depth of invasion, above (T1a) or below (T1b), the muscularis mucosa truly distinguishes different outcomes of T1 tumors is problematic owing to a discontinuous muscularis mucosa layer within the bladder wall and the difficulty pathologists face in evaluating tumor invasion in multiple fragmented pieces of tissue.32 Most studies are based only on single TURs.33 Common problems in T1 staging evaluation include tangential sectioning, due to an inability to orient the specimens, crush and cautery artifacts, and a streaking inflammatory infiltrate. All of these inherent pathologic difficulties can be largely eliminated if the urologist resects and submits suspected T1 tumors in a single specimen containing contiguous deep muscle. In one study,34 substaging T1 tumors did not affect response to BCG therapy in regard to recurrence or progression, suggesting that completeness of the TUR was more important than distinguishing histologic subtypes of T1 tumor. Radical TUR of invasive bladder cancer A radical TUR may cure some muscle-invasive bladder cancers. Evidence for this is two-fold. From the early 1950s until 1977, before the widespread use of radical cystectomy, several series reported 5-year survival rates of 40% to 60% following TUR alone for stage T2 bladder tumors.35–38 About 10% to 15% of patients having cystectomy for stage T2 bladder tumors will have no tumor (P0) found within the cystectomy specimen, indicating that the initial ‘diagnostic’ TUR had completely removed the invasive cancer.29 Several recent prospective studies confirm these results. In the first study,39 of 432 evaluated patients with locally advanced bladder cancer, 99 (23%) were treated by definitive TUR if a restaging TUR of the primary tumor site showed no residual muscle invasion. The 10-year disease-specific survival was 76% (57% with bladder preserved). Of the 99 patients treated by TUR, 82% of 73 that had no tumor on restaging TUR survived, versus 57% of 26 that had residual T1 tumor on restaging TUR. Of the 34 patients (34%) that had recurrence in the bladder with a new invasive cancer, 18 (53%) were successfully treated by salvage cystectomy, and 16 patients (16%) 9 died of disease. In a second study,40 133 patients with invasive bladder cancer were treated by radical TUR if they had negative biopsies of the periphery and muscle layer of the tumor bed. At 5 and 10 years follow-up, the cause-specific survival rates were 80% and 75%, respectively. Both of these mature prospective studies justify radical TUR as a successful bladder-sparing therapeutic strategy in selected patients that have their primary muscle-invasive cancers completely and verifiably removed by negative re-resection biopsies of the primary tumor site. Muscle-invasive bladder neoplasms successfully treated by radical TUR are usually solitary papillary tumors, <5 cm in size, that invade only the superficial layer of muscularis propria (stage T2a). A TUR may be curative only if the margins and base of the tumor site show no residual disease. Radical TUR cures only 20% or fewer bladder tumors that invade the deep muscle (stage T2b) or perivesical fat (stage T3a). A radical TUR is also the essential first step in any combined modality strategy designed to spare the bladder.41–45 Debulking the primary tumor, and indeed a visibly complete TUR, is required to select patients with invasive cancers for bladder preservation. In all such cases, biopsies of the tumor base, periphery of the tumor, and adjacent mucosa should verify a microscopically complete (R0) resection. Complete TUR of invasive bladder cancer is the most significant predictor of local control and survival after combined modality therapy. Response to chemotherapy, radiation, bladder preservation, and survival is improved after a maximum TUR. In one study, patients that had a radical TUR (R0) before chemotherapy and radiation had a 69% survival rate at 10 years, with 85% preserving their bladders, compared with only a 40% survival rate with incomplete tumor resection.46 Cure and survival rates after conservative therapy decline substantially when the primary invasive tumor is incompletely resected. A TUR also determines the response to induction chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy induces significant responses of invasive bladder cancer. A recently published randomized study showed that compared to radical cystectomy alone, neoadjuvant chemotherapy increases the likelihood of eliminating residual cancer in the cystectomy specimen and improved survival among patients with locally advanced bladder cancer.47 Significantly more patients in the combination-therapy group had no residual disease (38%) than patients in the cystectomy group (15%). At 5 years, 85% of the patients with a pT0 surgical specimen were alive. This suggests that clinically ‘complete responders’ that have no tumor (P0) on a postchemotherapy TUR may be candidates for bladder preservation. Such approaches depend entirely on the accuracy of repeat TUR staging.48 After chemotherapy, the tumor site often shows only a scar. This scar must be re-resected wide and deep in a determined effort to detect residual tumor. Successful bladder preservation requires an initial, visibly complete TUR of invasive tumor, response to chemotherapy, and a skillful re-resection of the primary tumor site. We evaluated the 10-year outcome of patients with invasive (T2–3N0M0) bladder cancer that responded completely to neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by bladder-sparing surgery.49 All patients had residual muscle invasion on a restaging TUR. Of 111 surgical candidates, 60 (54%) achieved a complete clinical response (T0) on postchemotherapy TUR of the primary tumor site. Of 43 patients that elected treatment by chemotherapy plus TUR alone, 32 (74%) survived from 8 to 13 years, including 25 (58%) with an intact functioning bladder. Thirteen patients required salvage cystectomy. A similar study in 87 patients reported that 40 (51%) were T0 on TUR after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.50 Thirty patients (71%) that had chemotherapy and TUR alone were alive after

Author Cora N Sternberg, Mark P Schoenberg, and Seth P. Lerner Isbn 9780415462174 File size 8.34MB Year 2008 Pages 256 Language English File format PDF Category Medicine Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare Bladder cancer is an international public health problem affecting millions of people in both developed and underdeveloped nations. This major urologic malignancy was one of the first cancers to be linked to occupational and environmental exposure to carcinogens. Bladder cancer is the 5th most common cancer of American men and the 8th most common cancer of American women. Sixty thousand new cases of the disease are diagnosed each year in the US alone; disease prevalence is high in western nations due to the predominance of the chronic relapsing form of cancer that occurs in these countries (USA prevalence estimated to be 600,000; NCI-SEER database). This single fact makes bladder cancer one of the most expensive cancers to treat. Treatment and Management of Bladder Cancer, drawing on the expertise of an international community of experts in the field, provides the reader with all aspects of diagnosis and treatment pertaining to bladder cancer. As an additional feature, the book will include acd-rom containing the figures and legends from each chapter ina user-friendlyformat, in order to further aid the reader.     Download (8.34MB) Harrison’s Nephrology and Acid-Base Disorders (2nd edition) Fast Facts: Renal Disorders Clinical Pain Management Second Edition: Practice and Procedures Aging Men’s Health: A Case-based Approach Surviving Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Hope, Treatment, and Recovery Load more posts

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