Tradition, Revolution, And Market Economy In A North Vietnamese Village, 1925-2006 by Hy V. Luong

2756e9426be8f8e.jpg Author Hy V. Luong
Isbn 9780824834234
File size 3.2 MB
Year 1925
Pages 312
Language English
File format PDF
Category history


Tradition, Revolution, and Market Economy in a North Vietnamese Village, 1925–2006 Tradition, Revolution, and Market Economy in a North Vietnamese Village, 1925–2006 Hy V. Luong University of Hawai‘i Press Honolulu © 2010 University of Hawai‘i Press Revised and expanded edition of Revolution in the Village: Tradition and Transformation in North Vietnam, 1925–1988 (1992) All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America 16╇ 15╇ 14╇ 13╇ 12╇ 11╇ 10â•… 6╇ 5╇ 4╇ 3╇ 2╇ 1 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Luong, Hy V. â•… Tradition, revolution, and market economy in a North Vietnamese village, 1925–2006. — Rev. and expanded ed. â•…â•… p.â•… cm. â•… Rev. and expanded ed. of: Revolution in the village: tradition and transformation in North Vietnam, 1925–1988. â•… Includes bibliographical references and index. â•… ISBN 978-0-8248-3370-1 (hardcover : alk. paper) — â•… ISBN 978-0-8248-3423-4 (pbk. : alk. paper) ╇ 1.╇ Son Duong (Vietnam)—History.â•… 2.╇ Vietnam—History—20th century. 3.╇ Vietnam—Economic conditions—20th century.â•… 4.╇ Vietnam—Social conditions—20th century.â•… I.╇ Luong, Hy V. Revolution in the village.â•… II.╇ Title. â•… DS559.93.S66L86 2010 â•… 959.7'1—dc22 2009038155 University of Hawai‘i Press books are printed on acid-free paper and meet the guidelines for permanence and durability of the Council on Library Resources. Designed by the University of Hawai‘i Press Production Staff Printed by Edwards Brothers, Inc. Contents Preface vii Acknowledgments ix Abbreviations and Units of Measure xiii Introduction 1 Part I.╇ Historical Events and Village Structure in Colonial Northern Vietnam 1. Vietnamese Anticolonialism, 1884–1930:╇ A Microscopic Perspective on Historical Events 25 2. Village Structure in Revolutionary Processes, 1925–1930 51 3. In the Name of “Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity” 97 Part II.╇ The Revolution in the Village 4. The Rise of Marxist Power 123 5. The Revolution in the Village, 1954–1988 157 Part III.╇ Market Economy and Local Dynamics 6. The Market Economy and Socioeconomic Differentiation 207 7. The Intensification of Social and Ritual Life 226 8. The Restructuring of Local Governance 246 9. Theoretical Reflections 261 v vi Contents Appendix 1:╇ Regulations on Cultured Life in Hamlet 5 of Sơn-Dương, 2003 279 Appendix 2:╇ Chronology 286 Appendix 3:  Significant People in Sơn-Dương Village and Anticolonial History 290 Notes 293 References 309 Index 321 Preface In 1992 I published Revolution in the Village: Tradition and Transformation in North Vietnam, 1925–1988. This book examines the political, economic, and sociocultural changes over six decades in the small village of Sơn-Dương in northern Vietnam, spanning the French colonial era, through the violent conflicts with French and American powers and the socialist construction, and the reforms within the command economy framework. When I revisited the village of Sơn-Dương in 1998, it was in the middle of local political turmoil during which the majority of villagers were refusing to pay irrigation and numerous other local fees. I was struck by the extent to which villagers’ relations with authorities were undergoing a profound transformation. Although the political turmoil in Sơn-Dương in 1998 made it impossible for me as a researcher from North America to conduct a full restudy of the village without the closest surveillance by Vietnamese security agents, I was intrigued by the transformation dynamics in Sơn-Dương and elsewhere in rural Vietnam in the context of Vietnam’s reintegration into the global economy. I also learned soon after my visit that the Vietnamese National Archives contained a number of files on Sơn-Dương from the French colonial era, archives that had not been available a decade earlier to scholars based outside Vietnam. Archival research in Hanoi in 2003 and field visits to Sơn-Dương in 2004 and 2006 provided me with data of great historical depth and with extensive contemporary materials on Sơn-Dương. This research lays the groundwork for the present book. The first five chapters covering the colonial period and the rise of Marxism have been revised from my original study with additional archival materials. Chapters 6, 7, and 8 are new and extend the study to 2006, thus showing the transformation from a command economy to a market vii viii Preface economy and the accompanying cultural, social, and political changes in the village. The book now takes readers through eight decades of major upheaval—anticolonial uprisings, wars, the rise and transformation of a Marxism-inspired revolution, and the re-emergence of a market economy tempered by socialist-revolutionary legacies. The book examines a microcosm of events and the restructuring of the political economy and the local sociocultural framework in Sơn-Dương in relation to the larger trends in the northern Vietnamese countryside and in other rural areas of Vietnam, as well as in relation to the theoretical literature on agrarian revolution. Acknowledgments I first learned of Sơn-Dương village in 1984, when my colleague Sidney Mintz introduced me to Nguyễn Đắc Bằng. Mr. Bằng, an octogenarian exile living in Toronto then, had received two death sentences from the French regime in Vietnam for having participated in an anticolonial uprising in 1930 organized by the Vietnamese Nationalist Party. Both sentences were commuted, and he was subsequently sent to French Guiana, together with other Vietnamese inmates, to open up the interior of this sparsely populated French colony in South America. Mr. Bằng eventually escaped to Georgetown, Guyana, where he became heavily involved in the mobilization of local support for Hồ Chí Minh’s government in the period from 1946 to 1975. His political activities in South America led to an official visit to Cuba in 1962. Sidney Mintz had met Bằng in 1966 at an academic conference in Georgetown, Guyana. In interviews in Toronto in 1985Â�–1986, Bằng discussed his life history with me in depth. Despite his advanced age, he was able to provide valuable information on the structure of his village before 1930 and on his prison experiences in Vietnam. Bằng also introduced me to his relatives in Vietnam to facilitate my field research in Sơn-Dương village in the summer of 1987. Although I conducted all of the research and analysis in this book myself, without Nguyễn Đắc Bằng, this book on the village of SơnDương would not have been written. Despite the relative depth of oral history and archival materials in Canada and France, this book was considerably enriched by my field and library research in Vietnam in the summers of 1987, 1988, 1998, 2003, 2004, and in December 2006. I am grateful to many individuals for assistance during those trips. Professor Ngô Vĩnh Long encouraged me to submit a research visa application to the Vietnamese government and actively ix x Acknowledgments supported my application. During my research in Vietnam in summer 1987, the late professor Phạm Huy Thông of the Social Science Committee of Vietnam asked Professor Lê văn Lan of the Institute of History and Mr. Nguyễn văn Kự of its Department of International Cooperation to assist me. Mr. Kự helped to untangle the bureaucratic red tape in Hanoi, and Professor Lê văn Lan coordinated my fieldwork in Sơn-Dương magnificently. Dr. Ngô Quang Nam, director of the Office of Cultural Services in the province of Vĩnh-Phú, and Mr. Nguyễn Đức Qũy, a Sơn-Dương native and a nephew of Nguyễn Đắc Bằng, introduced me to the village leadership and the rest of the village population. Professor Diệp Đình Hoa coordinated my revisits to Sơn-Dương in 1988 and 1991, and Mr. Lê Hướng took Photos 1–2 and 5–6 for this book in 1991. I revisited SơnDương under the sponsorship of the National University of Vietnam in Hanoi in 1998, of the Vietnam Institute of Ethnology in 2004, and of the Vietnam Institute of Culture and Information in 2006. Drs. Trần Hà and Đặng Thanh Phương and Mssr. Lê Minh Anh and Tạ Hữu Dực of the Vietnam Institute of Ethnology and Dr. Phan văn Dốp of the Southern Institute of Sustainable Development provided valuable assistance in the survey of 321 Sơn-Dương households in 2004. Professor Lương Hồng Quang accompanied me on my quick revisit to Sơn-Dương in December 2006. I would also like to thank Professor Phan Huy Lê of the National University of Vietnam-Hanoi, and Professor Nguyễn Văn Huy and Mr. Phạm Văn Dương of the Vietnam Museum of Ethnology for their support for my revisit to Sơn-Dương in 1998. Most importantly, had it not been for the tolerance of Sơn-Dương villagers and the village leadership for an anthropologist’s intrusion into their lives, this study could not have been completed. To all these individuals I am truly indebted. Sidney Mintz has been supportive of my project from its inception, and he offered valuable advice on the first draft of the manuscript. Professors Christine White, David Marr, David Hunt, Dr. Vũ Huy Phúc (Vietnam Institute of History), and three remaining anonymous readers for the University of Hawai‘i Press made many useful and detailed comments on the book. It was a challenge to respond adequately to the advice these scholars offered from different disciplinary and theoretical perspectives. Claudia Vicencio, Pamela Kelley, Susan Stone, and Margaret Black made useful editorial suggestions on different editions of this book. Mr. Huỳnh Ngọc Thu of the Department of Anthropology at the National University of Vietnam in Hồ Chí Minh City drew Maps 1–5 for this new edition of the book. Ms. Trần Thu Lan, a doctoral advisee of mine in Toronto, entered tax and demographic data from the French colonial period that I had collected in Acknowledgments xi the Vietnamese archives. I also benefited from the comments of several students in my course on Vietnam at Johns Hopkins University. I am solely responsible for any remaining errors. During my archival and library research in France and Vietnam, the staff at the Bibliothèque nationale (Paris), the Archives nationales, Section d’outre-mer (Aix-en-Provence), the Centre des études de l’Asie du sudest et du monde insulindien (Valbonne), the Vietnamese National Library (Hanoi), and the Vietnamese National Archives (Hanoi) kindly provided a large amount of material on short notice. I also benefited from Mr. Lê Vĩnh Phúc’s preliminary translation of Nguyễn Đắc Bằng’s Vietnamese-language account of the major political events in his life. My sisters Therèse Kim-Trang Luong and Isabelle Kim-Cúc Luong provided valuable assistance in transcribing the tapes of my interviews with Mr. Bằng. The discussion of Vietnamese kinship in this book is based on my previously published article “Vietnamese Kinship: Structural Principles and the Socialist Transformation in Northern Vietnam,” which appeared in the Journal of Asian Studies in 1989 (vol. 48, pp. 741–756). Parts of Chapters 8 and 9 are drawn from my chapter “The State, Local Associations, and Alternate Civilities in Rural Northern Vietnam” in the book Civil Society, Globalization, and Political Change in Asia, edited by Robert Weller and published by Routledge. The research on which this book is based was assisted by grants from the University of Toronto, as well as from the Joint Committee on Southeast Asia of the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council with funds provided by the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Ford Foundation. Finally, and most important of all, this book would not have been completed without the sacrifice by my family members. I greatly appreciate their understanding. Abbreviations and Units of Measure Abbreviations AOM-P-NF AOM-AP-I AOM-AP-RST DRV GGI-DAP ICP TTLTQG1-PT VND VNP Archives nationales, Section d’outre-mer, Paris, Indochine-Nouveaux fonds Archives nationales, Section d’outre-mer, Aix-enProvence, Indochine Archives nationales, Section d’outre-mer, Aix-enProvence, Résidence supérieure du Tonkin Democratic Republic of Vietnam Gouvernement général de l’Indochine, Direction des affaires politiques et de la Sûreté générale, Contribution à l’histoire des mouvements politiques de l’Indochine française Indochinese Communist Party Trung tâm lưu trữ Quốc gia 1 (National Archive Center 1 of Vietnam), Phú-Thọ Files Vietnamese currency (đồng) Vietnamese Nationalist Party Vietnamese Units of Measure đấu mẫu sào 1 liter, or 0.91 quart (dry) 3600 square meters, or 0.9 acre 360 square meters, or 0.09 acre xiii Introduction L ike virtually all other rural communities in the Red River delta of North Vietnam, the village of Sơn-Dương, lying behind a bamboo hedge, is well hidden from the paved provincial highway. In order to get to the village, one has to turn off the provincial highway onto a potholeridden dirt road. A one-mile ride along this road into the village leaves a vehicle completely covered either with dirt or red mud from the potholes, depending on whether the road has been baked in the hot sun or watered by a tropical summer downpour. The dirt road continues well beyond SơnDương, plowing through the rice fields of this small fertile plain and turning back toward Việt-Trì, the provincial capital of Vĩnh-Phú and one of the three major industrial centers of the north. Familiar eyes can recognize the village of Sơn-Dương from afar among other bamboo clusters dotting the rural landscape by tracing the road against a background of mountain peaks rising in the west on the other side of the Red River. Arriving in Sơn-Dương, one leaves behind the main delta of North Vietnam to enter the midland district of Lâm-Thao in the heartland of the first Vietnamese kingdom, the kingdom of the Hùng dynasty (which lasted up to the third century B.C.E.).1 In the courtyards of many houses in the village are huge haystacks for oxen and buffalo, the draft animals used in the rice paddies. Towering over the cultivators’ dwellings are the areca palm trees. These provide the highly valued nut, chewed with betel leaves in a longexiting practice that is widespread in the southeastern part of Asia. The physical landscape may seem at first glance to have been frozen since time immemorial. Such an impression is misleading. Events behind the bamboo hedge have been partly shaped by the Chinese and Western capitalist world systems in the course of their economic, political, and ideological expansion. 1 Map 1.╇ North Vietnam Introduction 3 Map 2.╇ Province of Vĩnh-Phú, 1987 Sơn-Dương has withstood repeated foreign ravages throughout the past century, first by the Chinese, then by the French, and finally by the Americans. At the same time it has undergone fundamental ecological, demographic, socioeconomic, and political changes in one the most important revolutions of our time. As early as June 1965, three months into the sustained U.S. air war against North Vietnam, many young Sơn-Dương villagers experienced for the first time the bitter taste of modern technological destruction: The sky was vividly blue above the village of Sơn-Dương, LâmThao district, in the afternoon of June 24, 1965. Members of the [agricultural] cooperative all prepared to leave for the field, when two American “pirate” planes zoomed into sight. Incomprehensibly, 4 Introduction Map 3.  Province of Phú-Thọ and Lâm-Thao district (French colonial period) bombs exploded in the village. Fires instantly erupted. Smoke billowed into the blue sky. The burning smell of bomb powder filled the air. The earth shook.â•›.â•›.â•›. [As soon as the bombing was over] the ground surrounding [the] bomb craters became the informal meeting place for almost 200 people denouncing [the] crime of [the] American “pirate.” The mourning cries of little Hồ’s father [over his bombing-victim son] and sister Ái’s five small children, now rendered motherlessâ•›.â•›.â•›.â•›registered deeply in the hearts and minds of every villager. (Phú-Thọ, July 9, 1965) Introduction 5 Map 4.  Sơn-Dương village, 1987 This article in the provincial Communist Party newspaper, PhúThọ, was a harbinger of tough days ahead for Sơn-Dương villagers, even though they had heard of the U.S. bombing along the North Vietnamese coast in the summer of 1964. On July 24, 1965, the intensified second Indochina War struck home to the people in Sơn-Dương personally (estimated 1965 population 2,700). Bombs heavily damaged the village’s

Author Hy V. Luong Isbn 9780824834234 File size 3.2 MB Year 1925 Pages 312 Language English File format PDF Category History Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare “Tradition, Revolution, and Market Economy in a North Vietnamese Village” examines both continuity and change over eight decades in a small rural village deep in the North Vietnamese countryside. Son Duong, a community near the Red River, experienced firsthand the ravages of French colonialism and the American war, as well as the socialist revolution and Vietnam’s recent reintegration into the global market economy. In this revised and expanded edition of his 1992 book, “Revolution in the Village”, Hy V. Luong draws on newly available archival documents in Hanoi, narratives by villagers, and three field seasons from the late 1980s to 2006. He situates his finely drawn village portrait within the historical framework of the Vietnamese revolution and the recent reforms in Vietnam. The richness of the oral testimony of surviving villagers enables the author to follow them throughout political and economic upheavals, compiling a wealth of original data as they actively restructure their daily lives. In his analysis of the implications of these data for theoretical models of agrarian transformation, Luong argues that local traditions have played a major role in shaping villagers’ responses to colonialism, socialist policies, and the global market economy. His work, spanning eight decades of sociocultural change, will interest students and scholars of the Vietnamese revolution, agrarian politics, peasant societies, French colonialism, and socialist transformation.     Download (3.2 MB) Vietnam At War: The History, 1946-1975 The Origins of Ancient Vietnam Khe Sanh 1967-1968: Marines Battle For Vietnam’s Vital Hilltop Base (osprey Campaign 150) Con Thien: The Hill of Angels Inside An Loc : The Battle to Save Saigon, April-May 1972 Load more posts

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