The Kish Cypher : The Story Of KLJN For Unconditional Security by Laszlo B Kish


295ade7a7d47d4b-261x361.jpg Author Laszlo B Kish
Isbn 9789814449458
File size 30MB
Year 2017
Pages 464
Language English
File format PDF
Category security



 

b2530   International Strategic Relations and China’s National Security: World at the Crossroads This page intentionally left blank b2530_FM.indd 6 01-Sep-16 11:03:06 AM Published by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. 5 Toh Tuck Link, Singapore 596224 USA office: 27 Warren Street, Suite 401-402, Hackensack, NJ 07601 UK office: 57 Shelton Street, Covent Garden, London WC2H 9HE Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Kish, Laszlo B., author. Title: The Kish cypher : the story of KLJN for unconditional security / Laszlo B. Kish (Texas A&M University, USA). Description: [Hackensack] New Jersey : World Scientific, [2016] | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2016019952 (print) | ISBN 9789814449458 (hardback : alk. paper) Subjects: LCSH: Computer security--Technological innovations. | Data encryption (Computer science) | Public key cryptography. | Thermodynamic cycles. | Electronic noise. | Kish, Laszlo B. Classification: LCC QA76.9.A25 .K546 2016 (print) | DDC 005.8--dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016019952 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Copyright © 2017 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval system now known or to be invented, without written permission from the publisher. For photocopying of material in this volume, please pay a copying fee through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA. In this case permission to photocopy is not required from the publisher. Desk Editor: Amanda Yun Typeset by Stallion Press Email: [email protected] Printed in Singapore Amanda - The Kish Cypher.indd 1 22-11-16 11:53:09 AM November 18, 2016 14:53 The Kish Cypher - 9in x 6in b2524-fm This book is dedication to the unbiased seekers of true knowledge; and my family, teachers and colleagues. v page v b2530   International Strategic Relations and China’s National Security: World at the Crossroads This page intentionally left blank b2530_FM.indd 6 01-Sep-16 11:03:06 AM November 18, 2016 14:53 The Kish Cypher - 9in x 6in b2524-fm Foreword by Peter V. E. McClintock Laszlo Kish’s book relates to one of the most important and pressing problems of our age — security of information. Since time immemorial humans have needed to communicate with each other in confidence, passing on or receiving secrets without them getting picked up by the wrong person. In an earlier era the two communicators, Bob and Alice, just had to ensure that they were together alone, out of earshot of the potential eavesdropper, Eve, in order to keep their conversation to themselves. These days, however, Bob and Alice are probably not in physical proximity and may be communicating via e.g. a telephonic, radio, or optical link, but they still want to preserve the confidentiality of their exchanges. Eve is nowhere to be seen but, to be on the safe side, it must be assumed that she may somehow be able to intercept the communication, whence the need for it to be encrypted. Of course, Bob and Alice need not be real people at all. In a closely similar way, communications related to log-on credentials, credit card usage, bank transfers, and so on, all need to be encrypted to prevent vii page vii November 18, 2016 14:53 The Kish Cypher - 9in x 6in b2524-fm viii The Kish Cypher confidential data being intercepted and used, for example, in frauds or for other criminal purposes. It turns out that the encryption and decryption processes themselves need not present too much difficulty, and there are some standard methods that provide very high security. They typically rely on a private key known only to Bob andAlice that is used both for encrypting and decrypting the message. Using a 256-bit key, for example, a message encrypted by the advanced encryption standard (AES) scheme would take billions of years to decode by brute force using state-of-the-art computing resources. The really difficult problem is how Bob can convey the private key to Alice (or vice versa) without it being intercepted. Apart from Bob writing the key on a piece of paper and personally handing it to Alice in a sealed envelope — which is seldom practicable – unconditionally safe key-exchange protocols, or ideas for such protocols, are few and far between. The most fashionable idea at the moment is based on quantum information processing. Although at least one leading expert has challenged its security claims, the general view seems to be that it is inherently safe, albeit difficult and expensive to implement. Several years ago, however, Laszlo Kish proposed a completely different kind of key-exchange scheme based on classical statistical physics. It too should be inherently safe, as far as anyone can ascertain, because it is based on the fundamental properties of electrical noise, a subject on which Kish is a world expert. The presence of an active eavesdropper on the line can be detected unequivocally and it seems, at first sight, that the scheme could be implemented and developed more easily and at lower cost than its quantum rival. This protocol, known by a variety of names such as “Kish cypher” or “Kish key distribution” scheme, forms the central topic of the book. But the book is much more than a dry scientific apologia for a keydistribution protocol that seems to have been inexplicably undervalued up to now. It has a strong autobiographical strand and is addressed, in part, to young scientists so that they will be able to appreciate what real science is really like, including the ideas, comradeship and (by implication) politics and petty jealousies that are part and parcel of all human enterprise. The current political backdrop, with a US Senate bill under consideration that would effectively prohibit unbreakable encryption, adds a topical twist to page viii November 18, 2016 14:53 The Kish Cypher - 9in x 6in b2524-fm Foreword by Peter V. E. McClintock page ix ix what is already a very interesting book. I commend it warmly to all its readers. Peter V E McClintock BSc, DPhil, DSc, CPhys, FInstP Emeritus Professor (Physics) Lancaster University, UK Lancaster, May 2016 b2530   International Strategic Relations and China’s National Security: World at the Crossroads This page intentionally left blank b2530_FM.indd 6 01-Sep-16 11:03:06 AM November 18, 2016 14:53 The Kish Cypher - 9in x 6in b2524-fm Preface With all those cyber attacks and compromised personal and corporate data around us, communication and computer security has been becoming an issue of importance. Perhaps, the scientifically most interesting and challenging issue of communication and data security is the distribution of the secure encryption key among the communicating parties. Until 2005, only quantum physics had offered unconditional security for the key distribution and commercial quantum communicator pairs utilizing this technique had very high price (around $100k). In 2005, a new invention1 of mine introduced an inexpensive competitor utilizing classical statistical physics. This scheme is the subject of this book. Kish cypher was the Wikipedia-name of the unconditionally secure Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN — my preferred version) secure key exchanger, which has been running with other names, in chronological order: Kish cipher; classical key exchange system based on amplified Johnson noise; Kish key distribution (KKD), etc. The intention to write this book about KLJN was originally triggered by the fights of Supporters and Deniers (Quantum-supporters) on the ‘Kish Cypher’ Wikipedia page. Almost everything was incorrect, including the word “cypher” in the name. Most importantly, the impact of the good-willed Supporters was not better 1Adrian Cho, “Simple noise may stymie spies without quantum weirdness”, Science 309 (2005, September 30), 2148. xi page xi November 18, 2016 14:53 The Kish Cypher - 9in x 6in b2524-fm xii The Kish Cypher than that of the enthusiastic Deniers. Three books with “Kish cypher” title and several other books with the same chapter title were published by simply printing out the Wikipedia text of the day and, of course, their text and quality varied according to the fights on Wikipedia. After unsuccessful personal efforts in 2012 to get the Kish cypher wiki page deleted, I decided to write down and publish the truth about the KLJN scheme and signed a contract with World Scientific. Right then, an exciting and intensive period of deeper understanding and fresh results began, which is not over yet. This is the reason why the book has been so much delayed. Even though the Wiki page has been deleted with my strong request/support in 2013, the mission to provide a more accurate account of the KLJN system persists even more because, year after year, fundamental mistakes have been published by professionals even in high-profile journals. The related debates and discussions are actually good because they indicate a lively field of research with many open questions. Hopefully, due to this book, more scientists and engineers will join these efforts. After several trials, I decided that it is the best to follow a chronological order based on published papers with added notes, corrections and history. Chapters 2–5 roughly go with such a scheme. The prehistory begins a few years prior to KLJN with showing the thermodynamical limits of Moore’s law. After the Moore’s law myth was nullified, as a natural continuation, the next step was proving that quantum computing is fundamentally less fashionable for general-purpose computing than classical binary computers. This was successfully done in 2004 and the dogma that quantum computers are superior to classical computers for general-purpose applications was eliminated. But there was yet another myth to address: the claim that only quantum encryption can be unconditionally secure. Various attempts in that direction finally resulted in the classical physical KLJN scheme, which killed that myth. Eventually, it has turned out that the KLJN system itself is potentially more important than the dogma it annihilated. This book also briefly shows another “fallout” of the KLJN concept — the new computing scheme, noise-based logic, that aims at dreams that quantum computers may never realize. page xii November 18, 2016 14:53 The Kish Cypher - 9in x 6in b2524-fm page xiii Preface xiii By 2015, KLJN has the most robust and general proof of unconditional security (Section 5.1) based on the continuity of functions in classical physical linear and stable non-linear systems. It should be noted that this foundation is more robust than the no-cloning theorem (which is the foundation of quantum security) because quantum measurement theory is a dynamically changing field and many surprises may come. For example, now we have weak quantum measurements and their yet-to-be-explored implications, too. On the contrary, the continuity of functions mentioned above has been with us since Newton; robust and unchanged. The annotations in this book have an important role in enriching the reader’s experience. They can carry information taken from popular science, hard science, history, my personal anecdotes, or other miscellaneous information sources. These are distinguished from the main body text by the frames used to identify them, and are embedded throughout the work. The scientific notes aim to help scientists, engineers and students to follow the published papers. Deep understanding of the papers has not been easy due to the strongly multidisciplinary nature of KLJN research, which includes statistical physics, circuit noise theory, stochastic signals, computer science, information theoretic security, etc. As a result, even professionals with narrow background or superficial understanding of some of these subjects can produce fatal mistakes. The notes of historical and/or personal nature help readers who are interested in knowing how ideas evolve to have a more complete picture of the short history of KLJN. We avoid page numbers for locating references within the book. Figures and tables within papers reproduced in this book are numbered within their section. Each paper also has its own References section. With the exception of Figs./Eqs./Notes/etc. within papers, the remaining in this book are numbered with their section number added at the front. For example, Eq. (1.1.2), Note 1.1.3 or Fig. 1.1.1 are found in Section 1.1. Whenever such citation is misunderstandable, we give more specific data. The running titles of sections help to quickly locate these sources without the need of using page numbers. Readers will also encounter references to ‘Alice’, ‘Bob’ and ‘Eve’ throughout this book. These are the commonly accepted forms of November 18, 2016 14:53 The Kish Cypher - 9in x 6in b2524-fm xiv The Kish Cypher representing person/computer/system ‘A’ and ‘B’ (the communicating parties at the ends of a communication channel) and the Eavesdropper. There are various ways to read this book. A few possibilities: • First of all, I strongly recommend for all readers to read Chapter 1, which is a brief introduction to noise and its beauty, and to the fundamentals of security. • The readers most deeply interested in this topic, with plenty of time, can read the whole book as it is. • Those short of time can start with the Table of Contents and the Subject Index and cherry pick from them. • For the few who are already familiar with the KLJN scheme and want to learn more about its history and additional aspects, I recommend to go through the notes embedded in the text first. • For those who not only know the KLJN principles but also want to build unconditionally secure key exchangers, the final chapters can be useful. Finally, an important disclaimer: The described experiences with foundations and organizations (NSF, Wikipedia, arXiv, etc.) are my personal experiences and their interpretations are my personal opinion, which do not represent the official opinion of Texas A&M University. My general observation and personal opinion are that foundations and organizations have people with generally good intentions but the rules and structure may produce situations and pressure where the correctness of the resulting actions are questionable. I wish you an enjoyable reading. Comments and constructive criticism are very welcome. Laszlo Kish [email protected] page xiv November 18, 2016 14:53 The Kish Cypher - 9in x 6in b2524-fm About the Author Laszlo B Kish is a physicist and professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Texas A&M University. His activities include a wide range of issues surrounding the physics and technical applications of stochastic fluctuations (noises) in physical, biological and technological systems, including nanotechnology. He is particularly interested in creating and exploring original “highrisk” ideas and to challenge celebrated scientific dogmas — pursuits that have triggered international discussions at various occasions, since 1986. His earlier long-term positions include the Department of Experimental Physics, University of Szeged, Hungary (JATE, 1982–1997), and Angstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden (1997–2001). During the same periods he had also conducted scientific research in short-term positions, such as at the Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands, 1986, 1997), University of Cologne (Germany, 1989, 1990), National Research Laboratory of Metrology (Japan, 1991), University of Birmingham (United Kingdom, 1993), and Uppsala University (1989, 1990, 1992–1995). Professor Kish received his MS in Physics from Attila József University (JATE), Hungary, 1980; and Doctoral degree in Solid State Physics, at JATE in 1984, while establishing noise research there. His mentors then, were Miklos Torok, Laszlo Vize and Imre Hevesi. He received a Docent degree xv page xv November 18, 2016 14:53 The Kish Cypher - 9in x 6in b2524-fm xvi The Kish Cypher (habilitation) in Solid State Physics from Uppsala University, Sweden in 1994, and a Doctor of Science (Physics) title, from the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in 2001. He received the Honorary Doctor (Honoris Causa) titles from Uppsala University (2011) and the University of Szeged (2012). He was the recipient of the Benzelius prize of the Royal Society of Science of Sweden (2001). He founded the journal Fluctuation and Noise Letters, and several conferences with a flavor to challenge established beliefs: Unsolved Problems of Noise (UPoN, 1996–); the Fluctuation and Noise Symposia (SPIE, 2003–2007) and Hot Topics in Physical Informatics (HoTPI, 2013). page xvi November 18, 2016 14:53 The Kish Cypher - 9in x 6in b2524-fm page xvii Contents Dedication v Foreword by Peter V. E. McClintock vii Preface xi About the Author xv 1. Preparations 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Noise in Physics: The Voice of Infinity . . . . . . 1.1.1 Additive, stationary noise . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2 Finite/infinite measurement information . . 1.1.2.1 Transients . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2.2 Periodic signal . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2.3 Arbitrary deterministic signal . . . 1.1.2.4 Pseudo-random number generation 1.1.2.5 Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noise Essentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gaussian Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermal Noise: The Universe is Talking about Itself . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noise Measurement at Its Best . . . . . . . . . . On Secure Communications and Key Exchange . xvii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 7 7 8 9 9 10 11 12 19 . . . . . . . . . 24 28 33 November 18, 2016 18:23 The Kish Cypher - 9in x 6in b2524-fm page xviii xviii The Kish Cypher 2. The Dawn (2002–2004) 2.1 2.2 2.3 The Thermal Noise Death of Moore’s Law of Computer-chip Miniaturization . . . . . . . . . . . . . Who Wins the General-purpose Computer Race, Classical or Quantum? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Kish–Sethuraman Cipher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. The Birth of KLJN (2005–2008) Birth Pains: Noise-free, Random Kirchhoff-loop (RKL) Cypher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Pre-KLJN: Zero-energy (Stealth) Communication . . . 3.3 Henry Taylor’s Notes about the Stealth Communicator 3.4 Enter the Dragon. The First KLJN Paper . . . . . . . . 3.5 Terminating the Man-in-the-middle and Other Hackers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 The (Bergou–) Scheuer–Yariv Attack and Its Correct Derivation by Kish–Scheuer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 The Hao Attack and the Response to It . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Telecloning and the First KLJN Network Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 The Szegedin Whisper Project: Experimental Verification of KLJN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.10 Securing Computers, Instruments, Games, etc. . . . . . 49 52 68 74 81 3.1 4. Developments and Fall-Out of KLJN (2009–2014) 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 To Beat the Quantum Computer Dreams. Noise based Logic and Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liu-attacks and Responses. Circulators and a Deeper Analysis of KLJN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Outstanding Fidelity of Alice and Bob and How to Make It Better . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In the Ring: Response to Charles Bennett and Jeff Riedel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In the Ring: Non-validity of the Landauer Principle, and Leo Szilard’s Mistake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 85 96 99 115 127 138 147 165 184 191 195 206 233 252 299 November 18, 2016 14:53 The Kish Cypher - 9in x 6in b2524-fm page xix Contents 4.6 The Analyses Triggered by the Gunn–Allison–Abbott Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.1 Waves or only handwaving? What does physics say? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.2 The correct analysis and the failure of the Gunn–Allison–Abbott attack . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.3 The experimental attenuator artifact in the Gunn–Allison–Abbott attack . . . . . . . . . . . 307 . 309 . 327 . 342 5. Cream on the Cake 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 xix General Security Proof of the KLJN Key Exchange . . Nullifying the (Bergou–) Scheuer–Yariv Attack and the Second-Law Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enhanced KLJN Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) Hardware Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unconditionally Secure Smart Grids . . . . . . . . . . Unconditionally Secure Vehicle Communication Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Rules-of-thumb for Security . . . . . . . . . . 5.7.1 General directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7.2 Random numbers and noises . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7.3 Privacy amplification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7.4 Enhanced usage of the shared key (new method) The Most Recent Developments . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.8.1 The cable capacitance attack . . . . . . . . . . . 5.8.2 The current injection attack . . . . . . . . . . . 5.8.3 Vadai–Mingesz–Gingl: perfect security at non-zero power flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.8.4 The Random-Resistor–Random-Temperature KLJN scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.8.5 More light on the flaws in the Gunn–Allison–Abbott (GAA) “directional coupler” attack . . . . . . . 5.8.6 A new, successful transient attack (Gunn–Allison–Abbott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 354 365 375 395 409 411 413 414 416 417 417 418 418 418 419 420 420 423

Author Laszlo B Kish Isbn 9789814449458 File size 30MB Year 2017 Pages 464 Language English File format PDF Category Security Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare Designed to offer a thorough account of the KLJN key exchange system (also known as the Kish Cypher, the Kish Key Distribution, etc.) and its unconditional security, this book explains the scheme’s foundation in classical statistical physics and its superiority to its quantum-based competitors for particular applications, from the perspective of Dr. Kish himself. This book clarifies the misinformation behind heated debates on the “Kish Cypher” (the popular but incorrect name for the Kirchhoff –Law –Johnson –Noise, KLJN, scheme), and debunks common misconceptions by using simple and clear-cut treatments to explain the protocol’s working principle — an understanding that has eluded (even) several experts of computer science, quantum security, and electrical engineering. The work also explains how the scheme can provide the same (or higher) level of security as quantum communicators at a thousandth of the cost. The contents of this text address both layman and expert levels of understanding. Readership: Scientists, engineers, members of the general public interested in how things work and all who are interested in today’s history of secure communication, science and technology.     Download (30MB) Security in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Computer Architecture and Security: Fundamentals of Designing Secure Computer Systems Hardware-based Computer Security A Multidisciplinary Introduction to Information Security Security and Quality of Service in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Load more posts

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