The Future Of Complexity: Conceiving A Better Way To Understand Order And Chaos by Peter Baofu


0156bc9dd655b95.jpg Author Peter Baofu
Isbn 9789812708984
File size 3 MB
Year 2007
Pages 300
Language English
File format PDF
Category mathematics



 

THE FUTURE OF COMPLEXITY Conceiving a Better Way to Understand Order and Chaos This page intentionally left blank THE FUTURE OF COMPLEXITY Conceiving a Better Way to Understand Order and Chaos Peter Baofu World Scientific NEW JERSEY • LONDON • SINGAPORE • BEIJING • SHANGHAI • HONG KONG • TA I P E I • CHENNAI Published by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. 5 Toh Tuck Link, Singapore 596224 USA office: 27 Warren Street, Suite 401-402, Hackensack, NJ 07601 UK office: 57 Shelton Street, Covent Garden, London WC2H 9HE British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. THE FUTURE OF COMPLEXITY Conceiving a Better Way to Understand Order and Chaos Copyright © 2007 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval system now known or to be invented, without written permission from the Publisher. For photocopying of material in this volume, please pay a copying fee through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA. In this case permission to photocopy is not required from the publisher. ISBN-13 ISBN-10 ISBN-13 ISBN-10 978-981-270-898-4 981-270-898-7 978-981-270-899-1 (pbk) 981-270-899-5 (pbk) Printed in Singapore. SeokHui - The Future of Complexity.pmd 1 5/15/2007, 6:40 PM To the Future World Beyond Complexity Theory This page intentionally left blank _____________________________________________ Books also by Peter Baofu ● Beyond the World of Titans, and the Remaking of World Order (2007) ● ● Beyond Nature and Nurture (2006) ● ● Beyond Civilization to Post-Civilization (2006) ● ● The Future of Post-Human Space-Time (2006) ● ● Beyond Capitalism to Post-Capitalism (2005) ● ● Volume 1: Beyond Democracy to Post-Democracy (2004) ● ● Volume 2: Beyond Democracy to Post-Democracy (2004) ● ● The Future of Post-Human Consciousness (2004) ● ● The Future of Capitalism and Democracy (2002) ● ● Volume 1: The Future of Human Civilization (2000) ● ● Volume 2: The Future of Human Civilization (2000) ● This page intentionally left blank Contents List of Tables.......................................................................................... xiii Preface (Stephen Barker) ..................................................................... xvii Foreword (Sylvan von Berg)................................................................. xxi Acknowledgments................................................................................ xxiii List of Abbreviations ............................................................................ xxv Part One: Introduction Chapter One. Introduction—The Challenge of Complexity....................... 3 1.1. The Enticing Fad about Complexity ................................................ 3 1.2. Intractability in Computational Complexity Theory....................... 6 1.3. The Theoretical Debate................................................................... 7 1.4. The Dialectic Theory of Complexity................................................ 8 1.5. Theory and Meta-Theory ................................................................ 9 1.6. The Ontology of Existential Dialectics ......................................... 10 1.7. Sophisticated Methodological Holism ...........................................21 1.8. Chapter Outline ............................................................................ 23 1.9. Five Clarifications......................................................................... 24 x •T H E F U TU R E O F C OM P LE XI T Y • Part Two: Nature Chapter Two. Natural Complexity......................................................... 107 2.1. The Awe of Nature ...................................................................... 107 2.2. Complexity and Chemistry .......................................................... 111 2.3. Complexity and Micro-Physics.................................................... 115 2.4. Complexity and Macro-Physics (Cosmology).............................. 121 2.5. The Perplexity of Natural Complexity ........................................ 128 Part Three: The Mind Chapter Three. Mental Complexity ........................................................137 3.1. The Wonder of the Mind..............................................................137 3.2. Complexity and Biology.............................................................. 138 3.3. Complextiy and Psychology.........................................................147 3.4. The Enigma of Mental Complexity..............................................157 Part Four: Society Chapter Four. Societal Complexity ....................................................... 163 4.1. The Impact of Societal Complexity ............................................. 163 4.2. Complexity and Social Organizations......................................... 164 4.3. Complexity and Social Institutions ............................................ 169 4.4. Complexity and Social Structure .................................................173 4.5. Complexity and Social Systems ...................................................176 4.6. The Uncertainty of Societal Complexity ..................................... 190 •C ON T E N T S • xi Part Five: Culture Chapter Five. Cultural Complexity........................................................ 199 5.1. The Appeal of Cultural Complexity............................................. 199 5.2. Complexity and Religion ............................................................200 5.3. Complexity and Morality ............................................................ 207 5.4. Complexity and Epistemology.....................................................215 5.5. Complexity and Aesthetics ......................................................... 223 5.6. The Myth of Cultural Complexity ............................................... 230 Part Six: Conclusion Chapter Six. Conclusion—The Future of Complexity ............................ 235 6.1. The Future of a Fad..................................................................... 235 6.2. 1st Thesis—The Partiality-Totality Principle ............................ 236 6.3. 2nd Thesis—The Order-Chaos Principle .................................... 239 6.4. 3rd Thesis—The Regression-Progression Principle ................... 241 6.5. 4th Thesis—The Predictability-Unpredictability Principle ........ 243 6.6. 5th Thesis—The Post-Human Response .................................... 244 6.7. An Epilogue ................................................................................ 245 Bibliography ......................................................................................... 265 Index ..................................................................................................... 275 This page intentionally left blank Tables Table 1.1. The Theoretical Debate on Complexity................................. 27 Table 1.2. No Freedom Without Unfreedom ........................................ 29 Table 1.3. No Equality Without Inequality ........................................... 32 Table 1.4. The Theory of Post-Democracy I: The Priority of Freedom over Equality ................................ 34 Table 1.5. The Theory of Post-Democracy II: The Priority of Equality over Freedom ................................ 36 Table 1.6. The Theory of Post-Democracy III: The Transcendence of Freedom and Equality ..................... 37 Table 1.7. Democracy, Non-Democracy, and Post-Democracy............. 39 Table 1.8. Multiple Causes of the Emergence of Post-Democracy................................................................... 42 Table 1.9. Some Clarifications about Post-Capitalism and Post-Democracy................................................................... 44 Table 1.10. The Theory of Post-Capitalism I.1: By Group— Ex: Spiritual/Communal in the Trans-Feminine Calling.................................................................................. 47 Table 1.11. The Theory of Post-Capitalism I.2: By Nation-State— Ex: Spiritual/Communal in the Trans-Sinitic Calling ................................................................................. 48 Table 1.12. The Theory of Post-Capitalism I.3: By Region— Ex: Spiritual/Communal in the Trans-Islamic Calling................................................................................... 49 xiv •T H E F U TU R E O F C OM P LE XI T Y • Table 1.13. The Theory of Post-Capitalism I.4: By Universe— Ex: Spiritual/Communal in the Trans-Outerspace Calling ..................................................................................51 Table 1.14. The Theory of Post-Capitalism II: Spiritual/ Individualistic in the Post-Human Elitist Calling ............... 53 Table 1.15. Pre-Capitalist Value Ideals ................................................... 55 Table 1.16. Capitalist Value Ideals ........................................................ 57 Table 1.17. Different Versions of Capitalist Value Ideals ........................ 59 Table 1.18. Contemporary Alternatives to Capitalist Value Ideals ......................................................................... 62 Table 1.19. Capitalism, Non-Capitalism, and Post-Capitalism .............. 64 Table 1.20. Multiple Causes of the Emergence of Post-Capitalism.................................................................... 68 Table 1.21. The Theory of Floating Consciousness ................................. 70 Table 1.22. Physical Challenges to Hyper-Spatial Consciousness .......... 72 Table 1.23. Theoretical Speculations of Multiverses .............................. 73 Table 1.24. The Trinity of Pre-Modernity............................................... 74 Table 1.25. The Trinity of Modernity...................................................... 75 Table 1.26. The Trinity of Postmodernity............................................... 77 Table 1.27. The Trinity of After-Postmodernity ..................................... 79 Table 1.28. The Civilizational Project from Pre-Modernity to After-Postmodernity ...........................................................80 Table 1.29. The Duality of Oppression in Existential Dialectics: Oppression and Self-Oppression....................... 82 Table 1.30. The Structure of Existential Dialectics I: The Freedom/Unfreedom and Equality/Inequality Dialectics.............................................................................. 84 Table 1.31. The Structure of Existential Dialectics II: The Wealth/Poverty Dialectics ............................................ 85 Table 1.32. The Structure of Existential Dialectics III: The Civilization/Barbarity Dialectics................................... 86 Table 1.33. Barbarity, Civilization, and Post-Civilization ....................... 87 Table 1.34. Five Theses on Post-Civilization .......................................... 88 •T AB LE S • xv Table 1.35. No Freedom Without Unfreedom in the Civilizing Processes.............................................................................. 89 Table 1.36. No Equality Without Inequality in the Civilizing Processes.............................................................................. 91 Table 1.37. The Theoretical Debate on Space-Time ............................... 93 Table 1.38. Types of Super Civilization in the Cosmos . ......................... 95 Table 1.39. Main Reasons for Altering Space-Time ............................... 97 Table 1.40. Civilizational Holism ............................................................ 98 Table 1.41. Theories on Civilizational Holism . ......................................101 Table 2.1. Main Criteria for Complex Events ...................................... 129 Table 2.2. Natural Complexity .............................................................133 Table 3.1. Mental Complexity . ............................................................ 158 Table 3.2. Two Fundamental Constraints on Computation .................159 Table 4.1. Societal Complexity . ........................................................... 191 Table 4.2. The Theoretical Debate on the Foundations of Mathematics . ................................................................. 192 Table 4.3. Four Fundamental Models of Computation … ................... 194 Table 4.4. Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer Simulation …........................................................................195 Table 5.1. Cultural Complexity .............................................................231 Table 5.2. The Logics in the Epistemogony of Scientific Realism....... 232 Table 6.1. The Dialectic Theory of Complexity. ................................... 247 Table 6.2. The Partiality-Totality Principle on Reductionism and Reverse-Reductionism................................................. 252 Table 6.3. Sophisticated Methodological Holism. ............................... 254 Table 6.4. The Conception of Existential Dialectics. ........................... 257 Table 6.5. The Syntax of Existential Dialectics.................................... 259 Table 6.6. The Pragmatics of Existential Dialectics............................. 262 This page intentionally left blank Preface Complexity, and its kindred notion, simplicity, are such abstract ideas that if we try to discuss them in a completely general way we are not likely to find anything worthwhile to say. These notions can be of value to us, but only after we have specified an interpretation as to what sort of item it is, the complexity and simplicity of which are to be considered, and how varying degrees of complexity and simplicity are to be estimated. Many different interpretations can be spelled out, relevant to different issues in diverse fields of study, such as metaphysics, aesthetics, logic, mathematics, and the sciences. In the history of philosophy these abstract notions have been of considerable importance to metaphysicians. Plato suggests that the Demiurge, in creating the cosmos, intended to harmonize complexity with simplicity. Leibniz, committed to viewing ours as the best of all possible worlds, adds that, in order to be so, it must exhibit the maximum overall combination of complexity with simplicity. This will amount to great simplicity in its universal laws, together with great variety in its particular details. Kant extended this outlook into philosophical aesthetics by claiming that to experience an object as beautiful is to be aware of it as having an inexhaustible complexity of detail, combined with the greatest compatible simplicity in its formal structure. Philosophers of science also have invoked the notions of complexity and simplicity, especially in connection with their accounts of scientific reasoning. To be sure, some of them had clung to Francis Bacon's principle of induction by simple xviii •T H E F U T U R E O F C O M P L E X I T Y • enumeration, imagining that this could be the logical basis of all scientific method. Others, however, recognized that Bacon's principle fails to account for many important scientific inferences, such as those involved in curve-fitting. Kepler sought to find the orbit of a planet by fitting a curve to a series of particular observed points along its route. Innumerable, very different curves are mathematically consistent with the observations, however, and the principle of enumerative induction offers no adequate basis for choosing among them. Kepler unhesitatingly chose as the likeliest solution the simplest curve compatible with the observations. What justification is there for proceeding thus? C. S. Peirce in writing of this matter takes the view that of course Kepler was thinking in the scientifically correct manner, but that in order to make sense of such thinking we must presuppose that there is a supernatural power who designed the universe and who preferred simplicity to complexity in its laws. A good many other philosophers have said the same. Yet, on the other hand, those wishing to evade theological assumptions may prefer to say merely that it is a basic feature of correct empirical reasoning that simpler hypotheses, if they are consistent with observations, are likelier to be true than are more complex hypotheses. In any case, complexity and simplicity need to figure prominently in our account of how science reaches its explanations. We must grant, of course, that the notions of complexity and simplicity, as they relate to scientific method, are not susceptible to strict formal definition; but neither are many other important notions that we understand and use, and we should be willing to accept some vagueness in our notions, despite the intense yearning for exact definitions that animates much traditional philosophy. Dr. Peter Baofu has now taken up the notion of complexity, and will trace it through many of its modern variations. He will give it his own distinctive interpretation, and in his own way will seek to spell out the implications of this elusive yet essential notion. •P R E F A C E • xix Dr. Baofu is an unusual scholar. He has worked in many fields, lived in many countries, and written many books. In his extensive writings he has ranged over the natural sciences, the human sciences, politics and modern life, and prospects for the future. We must welcome this, his latest intellectual exploration, in which he confronts complexity. Stephen F. Barker Department of Philosophy The Johns Hopkins University

Author Peter Baofu Isbn 9789812708984 File size 3 MB Year 2007 Pages 300 Language English File format PDF Category Mathematics Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare Contrary to the conventional wisdom held by many contemporaries in our time, the popularity of studying complexity is fast becoming a new fad in the intellectual scene. However, can the study of complex phenomena truly reveal recognizable patterns (with predictable outcomes) to enhance our understanding of reality, especially when it is embedded within the messy web of complexity? If so, what then are the limits? This book strives to demolish some of the myths surrounding the nature of complexity and, in the process, to provide an original theory to understand it in this world and beyond. It introduces the author’s dialectic theory of complexity, together with the theoretical debate in the literature. It expounds on the concept of complexity from various perspectives, including chemistry, micro- and macro-physics, biology and psychology. It also examines the nature of complexity from societal and cultural perspectives. This book presents a broad view on the nature of complexity, adequately introducing the reader to this emerging field.     Download (3 MB) Stochastic Geometry and Its Applications Convergence of One-Parameter Operator Semigroups A Short Course on Banach Space Theory Stability Of Infinite Dimensional Stochastic Differential Equations With Applications Models And Applications Of Chaos Theory In Modern Sciences Load more posts

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