The Complete Artist’s Manual: The Definitive Guide To Painting And Drawing by Simon Jennings

07563361f793eac.jpg Author Simon Jennings
Isbn 978-1452127163
File size 363.1 MB
Year 2014
Pages 400
Language English
File format PDF
Category drawing


THE COMPLETE ARTIST’S MANUAL THE COMPLETE ARTIST’S MANUAL The definitive guide to painting and drawing First published in the United States in 2014 by Chronicle Books LLC Text and compilation copyright © 2005, 2013 by HarperCollinsPublishers. Photographs and illustrations copyright © 1995, 1999, 2005 by Inklink. All artworks and paintings copyright © 1995, 1999, 2005 by the individual artists. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in a ny form without written permission from the publisher. ISBN 978-1-4521-3722-3 (epub, mobi) The Library of Congress has previously cataloged this title under ISBN: 978-1-4521-2716-3 (pb) Page 10 constitutes a continuation of the copyright page. Chronicle Books LLC 680 Second Street San Francisco, CA 94107 Using your medium All kinds of techniques can be applied to drawing or painting any subject, but it is often helpful to let your medium suggest an approach. Using a pencil may lead you naturally to smallscale drawings that depend on a precise outline of the figure and sensitive detailing of smaller shapes (left). CONTENTS Introduction 8 Acknowledgements 10 1/ SUPPORTS 12 2/ DRAWING MEDIA 36 3/ PAINTING MEDIA 62 4/ WHERE SHALL I START? 122 5/ DRAWING & SKETCHING 136 6/ PAINTING TECHNIQUES 160 7/ COLOR & COMPOSITION 210 8/ WHAT SHALL I PAINT? 234 9/ THE STUDIO 342 10/ GALLERY OF ART 356 Reference 384 Index 395 INTRODUCTION Renoir once observed that “painting isn’t just daydreaming, it is primarily a manual skill, and one has to be a good workman.” Too often it is forgotten that painting is a craft as well as an art – and a difficult craft to master, at that. At first sight, dipping a brush into paint and applying it to a surface seems easy enough. But there are traps for the unskilled: an inadequately prepared support may warp or buckle; the wrong support can adversely affect the way the paint handles; illchosen colors turn muddy when mixed together; poor-quality or fugitive colors will fade in time. By understanding the materials and techniques at his or her disposal, the artist can avoid such pitfalls and increase the pleasures of making art. In recent decades, art schools have tended to dismiss basic skills and techniques as “irrelevant,” and they have been neglected in favor of “freedom of expression.” In so doing, tutors have thrown the baby out with the bathwater, for without a thorough technical grasp of materials and methods, students of art have no real freedom to express their ideas – it is like asking someone with no knowledge or concept of grammar or syntax to write a novel. This is not to imply that a good craftsperson is necessarily a good artist. Manual dexterity and technical know-how are meaningless if an artist’s work is deficient in thought and feeling. Along with a learning hand, one must develop a seeing eye – and for many people, this is the most difficult part. In the desire to produce a “finished” picture, the impatient student often overlooks the two things that are fundamental to all art: drawing and observation. It is vital to train your eyes by really looking at the world around you, and to keep sketching and drawing all the time. When you draw what you see, you develop your powers of observation and analysis. Your mind absorbs many details – for instance, the way light and shadow create form, how tone and color alter with distance – enabling you to draw a surprising amount from memory and from imagination. The purpose of this manual, then, is twofold. First, by providing an in-depth examination of the skills and techniques involved, not only in painting and drawing but also in preparing a support and in choosing and mixing colors, it endeavors to encourage a pride in the craftsmanship needed to produce a work of art. Second, by using a wide range of work by respected professional artists as a source of inspiration, it aims to help you develop your personal vision of the world and to find your own voice in interpreting that vision. 10 / ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Editorial Consultants Dr Sally Bulgin Editor and owner of The Artist and Leisure Painter magazines. Author of several art instruction books Angie Gair Author of several art instruction books This book is the work of many hands, and is the result of several years’ planning and preparation. The designers, editors and producers are indebted to all who have contributed and have given freely of their time and expertise. Our thanks go to the following: Art and Technical Consultants Trevor Chamberlain, ROI, RSMA Carolynn Cooke David Curtis, ROI, RSMA John Denahy, NEAC John Lloyd John Martin Terry McKivragan Ian Rowlands Brian Yale With special thanks to: Ken Howard, RA, ROI, RWS, NEAC Daler-Rowney Ltd Emma Pearce Winsor & Newton Demo Artists Artists Alastair Adams Ray Balkwill David Day Jennie Dunn Timothy Easton David Griffin Robin Harris Nick Hyams David Jackson Ella Jennings Simon Jennings Ken Howard John Lidzey Debra Manifold Alan Marshall Kay Ohsten Ken Paine Peter Partington Jackie Simmonds Shirley Trevena Valerie Wiffen Colin Willey Laurence Wood John Yardley Grateful thanks also go to the following artists, who generously loaned samples of materials, artworks and transparencies, and who provided much time, advice and assistance: Alastair Adams Victor Ambrus Nick Andrew Penny Anstice Paul Apps Barry Atherton Gigol Atler Ray Balkwill Valerie Batchelor Joan Elliott Bates Richard Bell John Blockley Jane Camp Sarah Cawkwell Trevor Chamberlain Terence Clarke Tom Coates Jill Confavreux Grenville Cottingham Edwin Cripps James Crittenden Fred Cuming David Curtis David Day John Denahy Sarah Donaldson Jennie Dunn Timothy Easton Sharon Finmark Roy Freer N.A.Manual - 036-061.OK 16/2/05 10:48 Page 54 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS / 11 TITLE:WC1234-NEW ARTISTS MANUAL Kay Gallwey Annabel Gault Geraldine Girvan Peter Graham David Griffin Gordon Hales Roy Hammond Robin Harris Desmond Haughton Andrew Hemingway Ken Howard Michael Hyam Nick Hyams Alan Hydes David Jackson Pauline Jackson Ella Jennings Simon Jennings Ronald Jesty Carole Katchen Sally Keir Sophie Knight Tory Lawrence John Lidzey Anna Macmiadhachain Pádraig Macmiadhachain Debra Manifold John Martin Judy Martin Simie Maryles Donald McIntyre Alex McKibbin Terry McKivragan John Monks Alison Musker Patricia Mynott Keith New Kay Ohsten Ken Paine Peter Partington Elsie Dinsmore Popkin Penny Quested John Raynes Jacqueline Rizvi Keith Roberts Dennis Mathew Rooney Leonard Rosoman George Rowlett Naomi Russell Hans Schwarz Hil Scott Barclay Sheaks Jackie Simmonds Richard Smith Michael Stiff Sally Strand David Suff Robert Tilling Shirley Trevena Jacquie Turner Sue Wales Valerie Wiffen Colin Willey Anna Wood Leslie Worth Brian Yale John Yardley Rosemary Young Galleries Art Space Gallery, London Chris Beetles Gallery, London Browse and Darby, London The Fine Art Society, London Fischer Fine Art, London Kentmere House Gallery, York Lizardi / Harp Gallery, Pasadena, California Llewellyn Alexander Gallery, London Montpelier Studio, London Museum of Modern Art, New York National Gallery, London New Academy Gallery, London New Grafton Gallery, London On Line Gallery, Southampton Piccadilly Gallery, London Redfern Gallery, London Brian Sinfield Gallery, Burford Tate Gallery, London Westcott Gallery, Dorking Companies Acco-Rexel Arnesby Arts The Artist magazine Berol Bird & Davis Ken Bromley’s Perfect Paper Stretcher R. K. Burt & Co. Canson ChromaColor ColArt L. Cornelisson & Son Daler-Rowney Ltd Falkiner Fine Papers Frisk Products Inscribe Intertrade International Jakar International Khadi Koh-i-Noor Letraset UK A. Levermore & Co. Liquitex UK David Lloyd Picture Framers Martin/F. Weber Co. Osborne & Butler Pentel Philip & Tracey Pro Arte Project Art Raphael & Berge C. Robertson & Co. Rotring UK Royal Sovereign St Cuthbert’s Paper Mills Tate Gallery Publications Tollit & Harvey Unison Winsor & Newton Photographers and picture sources Studio photography by Paul Chave and Ben Jennings Other photography by: Acco-Rexel Ltd; John Couzins; Daler-Rowney Ltd; Ikea Ltd; Simon Jennings; Raphael & Berge SA; and Shona Wood Chapter 1 SUPPORTS Before starting a painting or drawing, it is worth spending some time choosing and preparing the surface, or support, as this will have a great bearing on which medium you use, and the effects that you are able to achieve with it. Although the range of canvases, panels and papers may seem somewhat bewildering at first glance, finding the right support for your purpose is not very difficult when you understand the properties of each one. A properly prepared support will greatly increase the longevity of a work and, in addition, you can derive a lot of pleasure and satisfaction from this aspect of the artist’s work. CANVAS 14 / SUPPORTS In painting, canvas is still the most widely used of all supports. Stretched-andprimed canvas is taut but flexible, and has a unique receptiveness to the stroke of the brush. The two most common fibers for making canvas are linen and cotton, although burlap and synthetic fibers are also used. Each of these fibers differs in terms of durability, evenness of grain, ease of stretching and cost. Linen is considered the best canvas because it has a fine, even grain that is free of knots and is a pleasure to paint on. Although expensive, it is very durable and, once stretched on a frame, retains its tautness. Goodquality linen has a tight weave of even threads which will persist through several layers of primer and paint; avoid cheap linen, which is loosely woven. Canvas weights The weight of canvas is measured in grams per square metre (gsm) or ounces per square yard (oz). The higher the number, the greater density of threads. Better-grade cotton canvas, known as cotton duck, comes in 410gsm (12oz) and 510gsm (15oz) grades. Lighterweight canvases of between 268gsm (8oz) and 410gsm (12oz) are recommended for practice only. Wet the stretched linen canvas and allow it to dry. Preparing linen canvas The weaving process makes raw linen canvas prone to shrinking and warping when it is stretched, and it has a tendency to resist the application of size. However, both these problems can be solved by temporarily stretching the canvas, wetting it and allowing it to dry. Then remove the canvas from the stretcher bars and re-stretch it; this second stretching creates a more even tension across the cloth. Cotton canvas A good-quality 410–510gsm (12–15oz) cotton duck is the best alternative to linen, and is much cheaper. Cotton weaves of below 410gsm (12oz) are fine for experimenting with, but they stretch much more than linen and, once stretched, they are susceptible to fluctuations in tension in either humid or dry conditions. The weave of cheap cotton quickly becomes obscured by layers of primer and paint, leaving the surface rather flat and characterless. Popular artist’s canvases 1 Ready-primed cotton-rayon mix 2 Ready-primed cotton duck 3 Ready-primed artist’s linen 4 Superfine artist’s linen 5 Cotton duck 6 Flax canvas 7 Cotton and jute twill 1 2 31 Ready-prepared supports You can buy ready-primed and stretched supports which consist of a piece of canvas mounted on a stretcher. These supports are convenient, but are expensive when compared to the cost of stretching, sizing and priming your own canvas. 4 5 6 7 SUPPORTS / 15 Burlap Burlap is inexpensive, but has a very coarse weave and requires a lot of priming. It is liable to become brittle and lifeless in time. Synthetic fibers Synthetic fabrics, such as rayon and polyester, are now used in the manufacture of artists’ canvas. These canvases come ready-prepared with acrylic primer and are worth trying out, as they are exceptionally strong and durable, flexible but stable, and resistant to chemical reaction. Canvas textures If you use bold, heavy brushstrokes, canvas with a coarsely woven texture is the most suitable. A smooth, finely woven texture is more suited to fine, detailed brushwork. Another consideration is the scale of your painting. A fine-grained canvas is best for small works, as the texture of coarse-grained canvas may be too insistent and detract from the painting. Ready-primed canvas Ready-primed canvas comes prepared with either an oil- or an acrylic-based primer. It is better to use an oil-primed canvas for oil painting and leave acrylicprimed ones for acrylic paintings, but you can use an acrylic-primed canvas for oils if you paint thinly and on a small scale. Canvas may be single- or doubleprimed. The latter is more expensive; it has a denser surface, but it is less flexible than single-primed canvas. Buying economically Before buying lengths of canvas, work out how you will divide up the fabric to make as many pictures as possible with the minimum of wastage (canvas rolls come in several widths). When doing your calculations, don’t forget to allow a 50mm (2in) overlap all round each picture for attaching the canvas to the stretcher. Acrylic and oil don’t mix Most of the ready-prepared canvases and boards available in art shops are primed for use with oil or acrylic paint. If you paint in acrylics, take care not to buy supports which are prepared specifically for oils. The linseed oil in the primer repels acrylics, and the paint eventually comes away from the support. Overlap Remember to add a minimum of 50mm (2in) of canvas all round, for when you attach it to the stretcher. SEE ALSO Canvas texture The formal elegance of this abstract painting is enhanced by the subtle texture of the linen canvas, which appears through the thin layers of oil paint. Pádraig Macmiadhachain Blue Morning Oil on canvas 25 x 30cm (10 x 12in) S TRETCHING CANVAS 16 SIZING FOR OILS 22 PRIMING 24 OIL PAINTS 64 ACRYLIC PAINTS 110 STRETCHING CANVAS 16 / SUPPORTS Stretching your own canvas not only offers a saving in cost, but also means that you can prepare a canvas to your own specifications. Stretcher bars Wooden stretcher bars are sold in most art-supply stores and come in different lengths. They have premitered corners with slot-and-tenon joints. The face side of each stretcher bar is bevelled to prevent the inner edge of the stretcher creating “ridge” lines on the canvas. Stretcher bars come in varying widths and thicknesses, depending on the size of support you wish to make. For a work under 60 × 60cm (24 × 24in), use 45 × 16mm (1¾ × 5⁄8in) stretcher bars. For larger works, use 57 × 18mm (2¼ × ¾in) bars. Wedges Large canvases A support that is larger than 80 x 100cm (32 x 40in) will require an extra crossbar between the two longest sides, to support them when the canvas contracts during preparation, exerting a great deal of force. Cutting the canvas Use pinking shears to cut canvas; they avoid the need to fold the edges over at the back of the frame to prevent the canvas fraying. Tacks Using a hammer and non-rusting can tacks to fix the canvas to the frame is more economical than stapling, but means more work. You will also need eight wedges or “keys” for each stretcher. These fit into slots on the inside of each corner of the assembled stretcher; if the canvas sags at a later date, the wedges can be driven in further with a hammer to expand the corners and make the canvas taut again. Canvas-straining pliers Canvas-straining pliers are especially useful for stretching ready-primed canvases. They grip the fabric firmly without any risk of tearing, and the lower jaw is bevelled to give good leverage when pulling fabric over a stretcher bar; the correct tension is achieved by lowering the wrist as the canvas passes over the back of the frame. Other equipment Use a heavy-duty staple gun and non-rusting staples with a depth of at least 10mm (3⁄8in) to fix the canvas to the frame. You will also need a rule or tape, a pencil and a pair of scissors to measure and cut out the canvas; a wooden mallet to tap the stretcher bars together; and a T-square to check that the frame is square (or you can use a length of string to ensure that the diagonal measurements between the corners are the same). SEE ALSO CANVAS 14 SIZING FOR OILS 22 Pliers Canvas-straining pliers stretch ready-primed canvases firmly and without tearing. Assembling the stretcher frame Slot the stretcher bars together, checking that all the bevelled edges are at the front. Tap the corners gently with a wooden mallet or a piece of wood for a close fit. Checking for square Use a T-square to check that all the corners of the assembled frame make right angles. Double-check by measuring the diagonals with an expanding tape measure or a length of string; they should be of equal length. If the frame is out of true, correct it by gently tapping the corners with the mallet. SUPPORTS / 17 Stretching the canvas Working on a large table or the floor, lay the frame bevel-side down on a piece of canvas. Cut the canvas to fit the frame, allowing a margin of about 5Omm (2in) all round for stapling (1). Ensure that the warp and weft threads of the canvas run parallel with the sides of the frame. Fold the canvas round to the back, and secure with a staple at the center of one long stretcher bar (2). (1) Cutting out the canvas (2) Securing with the first staple Reverse the frame, pull the canvas firmly and evenly, and secure a staple opposite the first one so that consistent straining is obtained. You can use canvasstraining pliers, if necessary, to grip the cloth and pull it taut over the frame (3). If glue size is to be applied, the canvas should be taut, but not as tight as a drum, to allow for possible shrinkage. Repeat the process on the two short sides, so that one staple holds the canvas to the center of each stretcher bar (4). Check the parallel alignment of the canvas weave. (3) Tensioning the canvas (4) Continuing to staple Securing the canvas Now add two more staples to each of the four stretcher bars – one on either side of the center staples – following the sequence shown in the diagram (5). The staples should be evenly spaced at 50mm (2in) intervals. Continue adding pairs of staples to each side, gradually working towards the corners. Insert the final staples about 50mm (2in) from each corner. Note that working systematically out to the corners keeps each side in step with the others. Fastening the canvas completely on one side before doing the next stretches the canvas unevenly. Finishing off The corners should always be finished off neatly; if they are too bulky you will have difficulty in framing the picture. Pull the canvas tightly across one corner of the stretcher, and fix with a staple (6). Then tuck in the flaps on either side smoothly and neatly (7) and fix with staples. Take care not to staple across the miter join, as this will make it impossible to tighten the canvas later on. Then fix the diagonally opposite corner, followed by the remaining two. If necessary, hammer the folds flat to produce a neat corner (8). Finally, insert two wedges in the slots provided in each of the inner corners of the frame; for correct fit, the longest side of each wedge should lie alongside the frame (9). Tap the wedges home very lightly. The canvas is now ready for sizing and priming. (5) Stretching and stapling (6) Fixing the first corner staple (7) Folding the flaps (8) The finished corner (9) Inserting the wedges BOARDS AND PANELS 18 / SUPPORTS Man-made boards are cheaper to buy and prepare than stretched canvas; they are also easier to store and transport, and they will provide a more durable support than canvas. Wood panels Wood, for centuries the traditional support for oil and tempera painting, can no longer be relied upon to be well seasoned, so it tends to split and warp. It is also heavy to transport, and is now largely superseded by economical composition boards. Hardboard (Masonite) Hardboard is inexpensive, strong and lightweight. It is available in two forms: tempered and untempered. The tempered variety is suitable for oil paints and primers, and it does not require sizing. For acrylic painting, however, use untempered board, which has no greasy residue. Sundeala board, grade “A,” is particularly recommended, as it is lightweight and its surface is slightly more porous than standard hardboard, giving a good key for size and primer. Hardboard has one smooth and one rough side; the smooth side is the one most often used. The rough side has a texture which resembles coarse canvas, but it is only suitable for heavy impasto work, as the texture is very mechanical and over-regular. Hardboard is prone to warping, particularly in humid climates, but this risk is reduced by priming the front, back and edges of the board. Paintings larger than 45cm (18in) square should additionally be braced with a framework of wood battening across the back (see right). Keying hardboard Before painting on the smooth side of hardboard, lightly sand the surface to provide a key for the application of primer. Preparing a panel To save time, an artist will periodically prepare a batch of panels at once, all cut from one sheet of board. For example, from a sheet of hardboard measuring 120 x 240cm (4 x 8ft) you can cut thirty-two 30.5 x 30.5cm (12 x 12in) panels, or thirty-eight 25.5 x 30.5cm (10 x 12in) panels. Most lumber yards cut board for a small fee, or you can cut it yourself. Cutting panels Mark out the sheet with a rule and pencil, making sure all the corners are square, and saw along these lines. Now “dress” the edges of each panel with a sanding block to remove any burrs from the saw cuts. To provide a key for the size or priming coat, lightly sand the surface of each panel. Always use a light touch; too much downward pressure may create depressions in the board. Plywood Plywood comes in various thicknesses and has smooth surfaces. It does not crack, but it can warp. To keep the sheet stable, size and prime it on the front, back and edges. Large sheets should be battened or “cradled” by gluing wooden battens to the back of the board (see right). Chipboard Chipboard is made from wood particles compressed into a rigid panel with resin glue. Thick panels of chipboard are a sound support as they do not crack or warp and don’t require cradling, but they are heavy to transport. Another disadvantage is that the corners and edges may crumble, and, being absorbent, they need to be well primed. Medium-density fiberboard (MDF) MDF is made from pressed wood fiber and is available in a wide range of thicknesses and in standard board sizes. It is a dense, heavy, but very stable material and has fine, smooth surfaces. MDF is easily cut by hand or with machine tools. Large, thin panels may need to be cradled to help keep them flat (see right). Cradling boards Cut two battens 50mm (2in) shorter than the width of the board. Chamfer the ends and then secure the battens to the back of the board, using wood glue for man-made boards, or woodscrews for solid wood or thicker boards. SUPPORTS / 19 Cardboard Degas and Toulouse-Lautrec painted on unprimed cardboard on occasions; they used its warm brown color as a middle tone, and produced a matt, pastellike effect on the absorbent surface. However, a finished painting must be framed under glass if it is to last. Cardboard must be sized on both sides and on the edges to prevent warping and to stop impurities in the cardboard from leaching into the paint. Mount board Heavy mount board, or pasteboard, is available in a range of colors and has a smooth surface suitable for painting in acrylics and gouache, particularly when thin washes and glazes are applied. It is also used for pen-and-ink drawing. Henri de ToulouseLautrec (1864–1901) Woman in Profile (detail) Oil on cardboard Always choose conservation board for work that is intended to last, as this is guaranteed acid-free. Watercolor board Watercolor board consists of a solid core faced with good-quality watercolor paper. The board provides extra strength and stability, and dispenses with the need for stretching paper prior to painting. Check that the core of the board, as well as the paper, is acid-free. Watercolor boards also perform well with pastel and charcoal. Pastel board Pastel paper mounted on board is available in a range of sizes, colors and finishes, from soft velour to a hightooth, abrasive surface. Gesso panels Gesso panels are the traditional support for egg-tempera painting. They can also be used for oil, acrylic and watercolor painting, but are quite difficult and time-consuming to prepare. Ready-prepared gesso panels can be bought from specialist art stores, though they are expensive. Gesso panels have an exceptionally smooth, brilliant white finish which particularly enhances the translucence of tempera colors. Tom Coates Alfred Daniels Painting Oil on panel 25 x 20cm (10 x 8in) Cardboard and hardboard Cardboard’s warm color brings a mellow harmony to Toulouse-Lautrec’s oil sketch (above left). Note how the brush drags on the absorbent surface. For his bravura painting (above right), Tom Coates used the reverse side of some unprimed hardboard. There is a lively interplay between thick impastos and thin, drybrushed marks, with the paint catching on the tooth of the board.

Author Simon Jennings Isbn 978-1452127163 File size 363.1 MB Year 2014 Pages 400 Language English File format PDF Category Drawing Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare The practical, accessible painting and drawing guidance that made The Artist’s Manual and The New Artist’s Manual beloved classics now returns in a refreshed design and compact new package. With the same breadth of content as the originals, this updated version is packed with easy to follow instructions, including comprehensive information about all varieties of materials and tools, along with hundreds of critical techniques for mastering composition, color, line, tone, and more. Copiously illustrated in 1,300 color photos and examples from working artists, this new edition is the definitive guide for artists of every skill level looking to begin, develop, and perfect their skills. The Complete Artist’s Manual is today’s essential studio companion.     Download (363.1 MB) Manga: The Ultimate Guide to Mastering Digital Painting Techniques No Excuses Watercolor: Painting Techniques For Sketching And Journaling An Introduction to Oil Painting Paint Lab: 52 Exercises inspired by Artists, Materials, Time, Place, and Method The Realism Challenge: Drawing And Painting Secrets From A Modern Master Of Hyperrealism Load more posts

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