|Author||Raymond M. Smullyan|
London Melbourne Sydney Auckland Johannesburg
Hutchinson & Co. (Publishers) Ltd
An imprint of the Hutchinson Publishing Group
3 Fitzroy Square, London W1P 6JD
Hutchinson Group (Australia) Pty Ltd
30-32 Cremorne Street, Richmond South, Victoria 3121
PO Box 151, Broadway, New South Wales 2007
Hutchinson Group (NZ) Ltd
32-34 View Road, PO Box 40—086, Glenfield, Auckland 10
Hutchinson Group (SA) (Pty) Ltd
PO Box 337, Bergvlei 2012, South Africa
First published 1980
© Raymond Smullyan 1980
The paperback edition of this book is sold
subject to the condition that it shall not, by
way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold,
hired out, or otherwise circulated in any form
of binding or cover other than that in which
it is published and without a similar condition
including this condition being imposed on the
Printed in Great Britain by The Anchor Press Ltd
and bound by Wm Brendon & Son Ltd
both of Tiptree, Essex
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
Smullyan, Raymond Merrill
The chess mysteries of Sherlock Holmes.
1. Chess problems
0 09 140531 9 (paper)
To My Wife BLANCHE
and to the Memory
of My Brother EMILE
and of My Dear Friend
A Note for the Chess Detective xi
Part I: SHERLOCK HOLMES at the CHESSBOARD
A MATTER OF DIRECTION
A DELIGHTFUL VARIATION
A LITTLE EXERCISE
A QUESTION OF SURVIVAL
MYSTERY OF THE MISSING PIECE
YOU REALLY CAN' T, YOU KNOW!
SIR REGINALD'S JEST
A RETURN VISIT
MYCROFT' S PROBLEM
A LITTLE QUESTION OF LOCATION
"TO KNOW THE PAST " 68
A STUDY IN IMAGINARY CHECKS
AN UNSOLVED PROBLEM
Part II: MARSTON'S ISLAND 81
THE MYSTERY OF THE INDIAN CHESS SET
ANOTHER QUESTION OF LOCATION
HOLMES SETTLES A DISPUTE
THE CASE OF THE DROPPED PAWN
THOUGHTS OF A LOGICIAN
A QUESTION OF PROMOTION
SHADES OF THE PAST
SOME CHILLING REMINISCENCES
A DISPLACED BISHOP
A REMARKABLE MONOCHROMATIC
LADY ASHLEY'S PROBLEM
A LITTLE MYSTIFICATION
ON MARSTON' S ISLAND
HOLMES EXPLAINS IT
Appendix I: MORIARTY'S PROBLEMS
Appendix II: SOLUTIONS
Appendix III: SOLUTIONS TO MORIARTY'S PROBLEMS 163
First, I wish to thank a graduate student of my Princeton
days, who went through earlier versions of several of these
puzzles, and provided a host of helpful suggestions. For
years I have tried to recall his name but have unfortunately
failed. I hope he will see this and get in touch with me, so I
can thank him by name in my next book of chess puzzles.
It is a pleasure to express my gratitude to all those at
Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., who were so generously helpful in the
preparation of this book. I am especially grateful to my editor, Ann Close, for her remarkably clever and conscientious
work on the manuscript. I cannot imagine an editorial task
consummated with greater care and artistry.
A NOTE FOR
THE CHESS DETECTIVE
Suppose I told you that in the following position no pawn
has ever reached the eighth square. Would you believe me?
If you did, you shouldn't have, because what I have told
you is logically impossible! Here is the reason why.
To begin with, in all the problems in this book, squares
will be designated by letter and number. For example, in the
above position, the White king is on f2, the Black king is on
e8, a White bishop is on g3, the Black queen is on c6, and
White pawns are on b2 and d2.
Now, how did the White bishop ever get to g3 from its
home square of c1, since the pawns on b2 and d2 have never
moved to let it out? The only possibility is that the bishop
originally on c1 was captured on its home square without
A NOTE FOR THE CHESS DETECTIVE
having moved, and that the bishop on g3 is really a promoted bishop. (After all, a pawn doesn't have to promote to
a queen; it can also promote to a rook, a bishop, or a
knight). Therefore, the statement that no pawn has ever
reached the eighth square simply doesn't hold water!
The above problem, like the one on the jacket cover, is a
very simple example of the type considered by Sherlock
Holmes in this remarkable manuscript. Such problems belong to the field known as retrograde analysis. Unlike the
more conventional type of chess problem (which is concerned with the number of moves in which White can win),
these problems are concerned only with the past history of a
game. The variety of questions that these puzzles can pose is
quite fascinating. For example, you might exhibit a position
in which one of the pieces is dropped (or represented by a
coin lying on the square), and the problem is to figure out
what the piece is. Then again, positions are given from
which you can deduce that one of the pieces on the board is
a promoted piece, but it is impossible to tell which piece it
is. (Indeed, a position is given in which you cannot even determine whether the promoted piece is White or Black!)
It is even possible, as we shall see, to prove that White
has a mate in two moves from a certain position, while at
the same time it is impossible to show the mate! Unbelievable as this may sound, it is true.
These problems are intriguing studies in pure deductive
reasoning. They might be said to lie on the borderline between logic and chess (in fact, they have sometimes been referred to as problems in chess-logic). They very much have
the psychological flavor of detective stories, and naturally
had an enormous appeal for Holmes—indeed, this is the
only type of chess problem in which he took any interest.
We are most fortunate in that Holmes's brilliant exposition
of this whole subject in Part I is so lucid that any reader who
merely knows how the pieces move will easily be able to follow his explanations step by step. He will have become
pretty much of an expert in this type of reasoning by the
A NOTE FOR THE CHESS DETECTIVE
time he reaches Part II, and will be adequately prepared to
help Holmes locate Captain Marston's buried treasure by
means of retrograde analysis and, at the same time, solve a
curious double-murder mystery.
It is our great good luck that Holmes was so adept at this
type of chess problem. If he hadn't been able to solve one of
them in particular (you will find out which one), this manuscript would never have taken shape, for he would have
fallen prey to a diabolical scheme of Moriarty's and lost his
life before he ever even met Dr. Watson.
RAYMOND M. SMULLYAN
Elka Park, New York
What about a stroll to the chess club?" Holmes remarked
one early afternoon.
"Why, Holmes!" I cried in amazement. "I did not know
you were a chess enthusiast!"
"Not of the conventional sort," laughed Holmes. "I do
not have too much interest in chess as a game—indeed, I do
not have much inclination for games in general."
"But what is chess, if not a game?" I asked in
Holmes's face grew serious. "There are occasional chess
situations, Watson, which challenge the analytic mind as
fully as any which arise in real life. Moreover, I have found
them as valuable as any exercises I know in developing those
powers of pure deduction so essential to dealing with reallife situations."
"Tell me more," I replied with interest.
"What I have in mind, Watson, is this: In an actual
game, both players have their eyes fixed entirely on the future. Each player tries to control the future in a way favorable to his own position. Also, in most chess problems of the
usual sort—White to play and mate in so many moves—the
entire emphasis is on doing something to control the future.
Now, although I have the deepest respect for the better
problems of this sort—many of them are really ingenious
works of art!—the type of strategies involved, clever as they
are, is hardly of any use to me in my own work."
"I am afraid I am still in the dark," I responded.
"There are certain chessboard situations," explained
A MAT T E R OF DIRE CTION
Holmes, "which are of no interest to the player of chess as a
game—of no interest with regard to future outcomes—but
are of vital interest in providing clues as to what must have
happened in the past."
"Can you give me an example, Holmes?" I asked with
"Another time," said Holmes, rising. "Right now I really
do feel like taking a jaunt to the chess club. Why don't you
come with me, Watson? Who knows—we might encounter
an actual situation to illustrate my point."
I thought this a good idea and got my hat, and together
we sauntered over to the club. It was empty except for two
occupants: Colonel Marston, whom we knew fairly well,
and a distinguished, intelligent-looking gentleman with a
very pleasant and humorous manner.
"Why, Holmes," said Marston, rising from his place at
the chessboard, "let me introduce you and Dr. Watson to a
very dear friend of mine, Sir Reginald Owen. We have just
finished a most delightfully bizarre and eccentric game. The
playing was utterly wild on both sides, though perfectly
legal, of course."
"So I see," remarked Holmes, looking at the board. The
position was this:
Author Raymond M. Smullyan Isbn 9780091405311 File size 14MB Year 1980 Pages 171 Language English File format PDF Category Games Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare Join Holmes and Watson as they examine interrupted games to deduce prior moves. A series of increasingly complex chess mysteries culminates in a double murder perpetrated by Professor Moriarty. The master sleuth instructs his companion (and us) in the intricacies of retrograde analysis; readers need only a knowledge of how the pieces move. Download (14MB) Transpo Tricks in Chess: Finesse Your Chess Move and Win Logical Chess: Move by Move English 1 P-QB4 by John L. Watson Teach Yourself Chess Concise Chess: The Compact Guide for Beginners Load more posts