The Arts of Man by Eric Newton

42583ab3d81a5ea-261x361.jpg Author Eric Newton
Isbn 978-8212110489
File size 46MB
Year 1960
Pages 448
Language English
File format PDF
Category art


THE ARTS OF MAN THE ARTS OF MAN An Anthology and Interpretation of Great Works of Art .NHS THE OF Eric Published by ARTS MAN Newton NEW YORK GRAPHIC SOCIETY Greenwich, Connecticut RITTER LIBRARY New York Published in I960 by Graphic Society Planned and produced by CHANTICLEER PRESS, NEW YORK Acknowledgment My thanks grateful Schweppe for are due advice, assistance of research: to Miss Elizabeth refusal to reach my raising a my my own allow to publishers pair choices of seemed : and shocked to Miss Sylvia to and a great deal Brown for her gentle careless proofreading to Milton Rugoff for eyebrows whenever him unpardonably wild. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 60-8920 All rights reserved. Except for brief quotation in reviews, no part of this book may be reproduced without permission Text and plates printed by Amilcare pubhshers. Designed by ANDOR BRAUN in writing Pizzi, from the Milano, Italy. i:i- 3 -^s- ^-^O-V^, Contents Plate No. 1. Page Essay Picture Introduction 11 The 24 Earliest Historical Records Cave Painting Crouchinc Bison Altamira at Egypt and State Religion 28 31 2. Mycerinus and Queen Egyptian IVth Dynasty 31 3. Seated Figure Egyptian XVIIIth Dynasty 33 Greece. The Gods 4. Black-figure 5. Amphora Red-figure Kylix in Mans Image 34 ) Greek Amphora and Kylix 35 The Parthenon Pediment The Ludovisi Throne 37 Coins from Syracuse and Acanthe 40 ) 6. Diana and Aphrodite 7. Flute Player 8. Coin from Syracuse ) 9. Coin from Acanthe ) The Mediaeval World 11. Abraham and Angels The Good Shepherd 12. The Empress Theodora 10. 39 43 Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome Mausoleum Placidia, of Galla 43 Ravenna 45 San Vitale, Ravenna 48 13. Raising of Lazarus Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna 14. Illuminated The Book of Kells Whalebone Carving 50 52 54 15. Initial Adoration of the Magi 16. Christ Pantocrator Cathedral of Cefalii 55 17. Isaiah Abbey of 57 18. Chasse of 19. Youth in St. Souillac Valerie the Fiery Furnace Limoges Enamel 59 . Plate No. Picture Essay The 20. Detail from. 21 The 22. Baptism of Christ 23. The The Page Creation Mosaics from Creation St. Mark's 61 Pala d'Oro St. Last Supper Chartres Cathedral 67 Palace of Doges, Venice 69 26. Drunkenness of Noah Madonna and Child Ivory Crozier 71 27. The Syon Cope English Embroidery 72 28. Angers Apocalypse French Tapestry 74 29. Wild Men Swiss Tapestry 75 24. 25. Mark's, Venice 65 The Reawakening of Hiimanism 30. The Betrayal Adam 31. Creation of 33. The Nativity The Annunciation 34. Temptation of 32. 35. Flight into 36. St. Giotto 78 Jacopo della Querela 81 Russian Ikons : Novgorod School Duccio Anthony 82 84 86 89 Sassetta Egypt Murder of Thomas 37. Chess 77 Era Angelico a Beckett Illuminations from Game Death Rides Abroad 39. The Haymakers 40. Mother and Child Book of Hours 89 38. 41. The Merode Altarpiece j From the Tres Riches Heures Masaccio Campin 93 95 ( ?) Van Eyck 97 42: Marriage of Arnolfini Jan 43. Vision of Pisanello 100 Domenico Veneziano 101 St. Eustace 45. John David 46. The Youthful David 44. St. in the Desert 47. Rout of San Romano 48. Musician Angels 49. Legend of the True Cross 9'9 Donatello 104 Andrea 106 107 del Castagno Uccello Agostino di Duccio Piero della Francesca 109 110 50. Pieta School of Avignon 111 51. Schifanoia Palace Fresco Cossa 115 Mantegna 115 52. Agony in the Garden Plate No. Picture Essay 53. Allegory of Spring 54. Tobias and the Angel 55. Two 56. Return of Ulysses 57. St. Venetian Jerome 58. Winemaking 59. Man in the La Dame a L' Homme 60. 61. Women Page Botticelli 117 Pollaiuolo 120 Carpaccio 121 Pintoricchio 124 Giovanni Bellini 123 \ Toils of Luxury Licorne la Tapestries from Flanders and > France 129 ) Tapestry by Jean Lurgat Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse Diirer 63. Portrait of His Mother Diirer 62. 64. The Crucifixion and Child 65. Virgin 66. Le Jardin des Delices 67. Darius 135 Griinewald 136 Veit Stoss Bosch 139 140 Drawings by Leonardo 142 \ Bethlehem 68. Star of 69. 131 133 The Deluge ( ) 70. Parnassus 71. Drawing 73. II Mass of Bolsena Sun and Moon for the 72. Creation of Raphael and Michelangelo -146 Giorno and Ariadne George 74. Bacchus Titian 131 75. St. Altdorfer 153 76. 77. Judgment of Paris Portrait of Georg Gisze 78. Netherlandish Proverbs 79. 80. 81. The Three Graces Male Figure \ Male Figure > 82. Archer \ 84. Venetian Goblet \ The Baroque and Agony Hans Holbein 133 the Younger 136 Pieter Brueghel 139 Tintoretto 161 Drawings by Tintoretto 164 Goblets from Milan and Venice 166 ) 83. Milanese Goblet 85. Cranach in the Garden the Worldly El Greco 167 168 Plate No. 86. Essay Picture St. Matthew and Angel Young Man 87. Portrait of a 88. the 112 Hilliard Georges de La Madeleine 170 Caravaggio la Tour 175 Rubens 175 Bernini 177 Mariana of Austria 92. Naughty Boy \ Velasquez 179 93. Sleeping Girl Rembrandt's Drawings 181 89. Judgment of Paris 90. Vision of St.- "Theresa 91. 94. Seated 95. Family Man \ ) Group 96. Artist in His Studio 97. Gold Luster Dish 98. Charles ii Oak Tree in 99. Fetes Venitiennes 100. Martyrdom of St. John 101. Career! Rembrandt Vermeer Hispano-Mauresque Pottery Dish by Thomas Toft Watteau 184 187 189 190 191 Tiepolo 194 Etching by Piranesi 197 102. Limewood Angel Austrian Rococo Sculpture 198 103. Campo San Zanipolo Guardi 199 201 104. Illustration for British Birds Academy The Ancient of Days The Kiss Woodcut by Bewick 105. Soiree at the Royal Rowlandson 106. Blake 107. Arab Rider 109. La Baigneuse Fuseli Delacroix 108. Ingres The Nineteenth Century 110. Saturn 111. The Rigi at Sunset 211 Goya 211 Turner 213 213 Ornans 113. La Classe de Danse 114. Crouching Woman 115. The Embrace Courbet 116. Bar at the Folies-Bergere Manet 112. Funeral at 117. The Umbrellas 202 203 205 206 209 Degas Rodin Rodin Renoir 219 220 221 222 225 Plate No. 118. The Ravine ) 119. Sailing Boats 120. La \t Montagne Sainte-Victoire 122. Fatata te Mite 124. 125. 126. 127. The Century 130. Nude Nude 13.1. Cezanne 228 Seurat 231 Gauguin 232 234 236 238 239 241 Beardsley Henri Rousseau Bakst We Live In \ 243 Boccioni and Duchamp-Villon 244 Bonnard 246 246 \ against Light Modigliani 132. Self -Portrait 133. Les 226 v, °^ Munch 128. Continuity in Space The Horse r Monet Rouen Cathedral The Cry The Black Cape The Dream Nijinski as Faun 129. ^" \ 121. La Poudreuse 123. Page Essay Picture Amoureux Kokoschka 249 Chagall 251 134. Chartres Cathedral Soutine 252 Yellow Birds 136. Still Life with a Mandolin 137. The Purple Robe 138. Jupiter and Semele Klee 254 256 258 260 261 135. Landscape with 139. Stained-glass Window 140. Holy Mountain 141. Weeping Woman 142. Bullfight Ceramic Still Matisse Picasso John Piper Horace Pippin Picasso \ ) 143. Cherubs and Children 144. Braque Life (Winter Landscape) Ben Shahn Ben Nicholson Graham Sutherland Henry Moore Thorn Heads 146. Family Group 147. Horseman 145. 148. Composition — Don 149. Composition, 1958 Marino Marini Quixote Abraham Rattner Pierre Soulages 263 264 267 268 269 271 272 274 276 277 Plate No. Picture An 150. Essay and Magic Head of 279 Christ (from Perpignan) Mask (from Guro) Mask (from Guro) Mask (from Benin) 151. Antelope 152. 153. Page The Human Head 280 East of Suez 285 154. Ceramic Dish Dancing Dervishes 156. Hunting Party 157. Nayika 155. Persian Ceramic 286 Persian Illuminations 287 Laksmana Temple, India 290 Indian Paintings 292 \ ) Radha Asleep 159. Krishna and Radha with Cows 160. Lady Waiting for Lover 161. Lady with Hawk 162. Horse's Head 158. Krishna Finds \ > ) 296 Chinese Jade Sung Copy of T'ang 163. Ladies Preparing Silk Bough Kuan Yin Scroll of the Nine Dragons Bamboo Scroll 164. Bird on Chinese Silk Painting 165. Chinese Gilded 166. 167. Mountain Landscape 169. Burning of the Sanjo Palace 170. Girl with Maple Branch 168. 171. Girl Playing Samisen 173. Journey to Wood Ch'en Jung Hsia Ch'ang Wang Shih-Ch'ang 298 300 300 302 304 305 Japanese Scroll 306 Katsukawa Shunsho 309 Prints by Hokusai and Hiroshige 311 Kuniyoshi 315 \ Amida [ Tokaido ) 172. Waterfall at Scroll 174. Nichiren Stilling a Storm Photographic Credits 316 Index 317 to Artists Introduction -In s tr f \- g t h the human being is no match for the tiger, in speed he can be outstripped by the gazelle; as a swimmer his performance is childish compared with that of a dolphin; his sense of smell is far less acute than that of the dog; his eyes, in the daytime, are less serviceable than the hawk's, one major respect he outstrips them That is not merely a short way of saying that he has invented cooking and weaving, the telephone and the plough, the automobile and the hydrogen bomb. Civilization involves more than the power to make and use tools, to understand and master the and all at night, —he than those of a capable of what is Yet cat. is in known as civilization. forces of nature. One of the basic differences between man and the animals is his power stand outside himself. Doubtless the tiger and the eagle are capable of love, hate, hunger, lust. But they do not the major forms of experience to — at it as something precious or beautiful Therefore they have no will to communicate their experience. the building of a nest, the For- them emotion is a mere spur to action defeat of an enemy or the search for food or a mate. Man, like the animals, builds his nest, destroys his enemy and seeks his mate, but unlike them, he contemplate their experience, marvel in own its right. — takes surprising and infinite pains to express his experience and record his emotions To that is — his relationship to his gods, his fellows note that man equivalent to experience involves is saying that more than making and considerable begin. a recorder of his For experience is a man is will to own an and his environment. experience To artist. record. It is important, for create involves a record of skill in the long before the act of creation can inaudible. It cannot be shared until its deliberation invisible, equivalent has been found in a sensuous symbol. Joy when the spring returns, loneliness when love dies, elation -when difficulties are overcome cannot be communicated until they have been translated into the movement of the dance, the melody and rhythm of a song, or the form and color of a work of visual art. And at the precise moment when man undertakes this task of 11 — the urge for harmonious organization is beset by a new urge which aestheticians call form or design and which the average man calls beauty. Beauty has never been satisfactorily defined despite the labors of generations of aestheticians. Yet we recognize it when we see it or hear it, and the more we see and hear, the more sensitive we become to its appeal, whether we meet it in a saucepan or in the Sistine Chapel, in doggerel rhyme or Dante's D/v/iia Commedia. Its preciousness for us in extreme cases cannot be measured, yet we acknowledge that preciousness when we remember that not all the wealth of the nations of the world could purchase the contents of the Louvre, the Prado, the Uffizi and the National Galleries of London and translation he Washington. This book is concerned with a fraction of a fraction of the records man has left behind him and in which human experience has been communicated in terms of beauty. It is an anthology, frankly personal, and therefore incomplete woefully restricted, considering the mass of accumulated records that man, for the past 20,000 years and throughout the inhabited earth, has produced. And even though, in reproduction, these records must be divorced from their environment, and for the most part inevitably reduced in size, and, in the case of three-dimensional works, seen from one only out of a hundred possible points of view and in one only of a hundred possible effects of light, yet what is essential remains. It is true that the stained-glass window no longer shines like an illuminated jewel in a comparatively dark : interior; the surface of the statue cannot be stroked; the tesserae of the mosaic can hardly be sensed; some at least of the delicacy of the illuminated manuscript is lost and much of the monumental scale and solemnity of the Romanesque tympanum; yet our eyes are at the service of our imaginations, and it is not difficult for us to reconstruct, ance and quality of the original work. as we turn each page, the appear- What I have had in mind in making my final choice (out of how many thousands of strong claimants the reader can easily guess) is the multiplicity no longer suffer from the illusion that of means at the artist's disposal. art, in its profounder levels, must always involve the use of pigment. Or that it was only with the invention of oil paint at the close of the 15 th Century We that man became fully able express to his deeper emotions. In mediaeval and among what we glibly call primitive peoples, "easel painting" has been unknown. Yet the windows of Chartres, the mosaics of San Vitale in Ravenna, the ritual masks of Africa can leave as deep an impression on the memory as a mythology by Titian or a portrait by Rembrandt. As records they can be equally authentic; as formal inventions Europe, throughout all of Asia, they can be equally satisfying. This book, then, is an prejudice or preference for one 12 included, after a long process anthology of works medium over another. of art What chosen without has finally been of selection and rejection, has had to pass three tests —the test of sincerity in what was to be expressed; the of test and the test of aesthetic or formal harmony. Once these tests have been passed, a Limoges enamel or an ivory crozier head has as strong a claim to inclusion as Raphael's Sistine Madonna. So much for the principles of choice. But principles are less important than preferences. The reader will doubtless note that this book does contain an ivory crozier head but not the Sistine Madonna. And having begun to search in vain for old favorites among the world's masterpieces and having discovered, in their place, minor and less familiar works, the names of whose authors are not even known, he may find himself wondering on what capricious and seemingly irresponsible system these works have been chosen. That is a question that every anthologist must be prepared to answer. Asked by what right he has included an anonymous 6th-Century mosaic from Ravenna and rejected Paolo Veronese, the anthologist's answer is not simply that both are perhaps equally worthy but that the former had a special personal appeal which he is prepared to justify in his explanatory text. But an even more valid answer is that the anonymous mosaicist achieved something utterly beyond Veronese's power, and that to omit him would be to omit the expression of an emotional mood that no other century but the 6th, and no other medium but mosaic, has been able to achieve. To stand in the sanctuary of the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna is an experience none skill in the expression; of the world's art Nor museums can supply. quality to be taken into account. The Chapel and the cumulative power of Tintoretto's tragic narrative in the Venetian Scuola di San Rocco make demands on the spectator which he is certainly prepared to meet at certain moments of unusual awareness, but by no means all the time. This book would have failed in its purpose if it had excluded the playful, the exquisite, the decorative, even the merely skillful. For there is a strange minor satisfaction in contemplating those examples of extreme mastery of a difficult medium that one finds all over the civilized world miracles of patient control in a Flemish 16thcentury boxwood carving no larger than a billiard ball, or a page in the Book of Kells, or certain Chinese jades. As for what is addressed purely to is profundity the only ceiling of the Sistine — the delight of the eye Western counterpart — • the rich patterning of a Persian illumination or its — by Matisse or to the sense of gaiety to which delight is closely related, or to our appetite for fantasy these are aspects of human experience which cannot be ignored in a book whose purpose is not to gather together the great masterpieces of the world but to show how man has recorded the whole variety of his moods as a civilized being, from the making of a child's toy or the setting of a jewel to the creating of memorable symbols of the deity. Offenbach must take his place beside Wagner, Edward Lear beside Shakespeare, Rock 'n Roll beside the Sarabande if the complexity of human moods is to be understood. in the color orchestration of a painting — 13 : If such an anthology as this history of the world's greatest regarded merely as yet another potted is art, must be regarded it as a failure. The reader must not expect anything so ambitious and at the same time so futile. What Malraux has "museum without the called curiosity about the past or the distant, walls," which modern and modern means of reproduction have made available, should not be a museum that contains nothing but the skimmed cream. Such a museum would, in the end, become nauseating. It might impress and overwhelm but it would soon cease to surprise and delight. Also it would be a "safety first" museum, containing only what the connoisseurs of the I have world have all agreed to making my in tried, agreements. Even though no sensitive profound, that Rubens is call works of genius. choices, to forget these easy man and universal could deny that Michelangelo is exuberant, Watteau nostalgic, Picasso passionate, it unjaded eye, to be capable of delight whether confronted by the unfamiliar and the unexpected or by the universstill is necessary cultivate to the acknowledged masterpiece. I have no means of guessing how many of these plates will seem unfamiliar to my readers. But at least their inevitable divorce from their context has one advantage. It makes them self-reliant. The Syon Cope is no longer a vestment designed to be an integral part of a Catholic ritual it becomes a specimen of Opus Anglicanum the high watermark of mediaeval embroidery. A slipware dish by Thomas Toft or a red-figure kylix from Athens cease to be objects of use. They are removed from the life of action to take their place as objects to be contemplated in the same way that ally — a modern easel painting asks for nothing but contemplation. By this means it acquires a slightly different significance. Our its usefulness or its purpose is minimized. If, work of in that process, it sense ofloses its Emptied of wine, and displayed in a case or between the covers of a book, the amphora ceases to be a vessel and becomes polychrome sculpture, and as such it can be compared with the works of other sculptors in polychrome, simpler in form, less hold over the eye, it has failed as a art. ambitious in content, but still asking us to judge it by the potter's sensitivity shape and the painter's handling of line. Isolated on the page we begin to see it with new eyes. My own attempt has been to use new eyes before isolating it. Another pair of eyes would have isolated a different object. Some of my choices may seem perhaps to capricious, but the reader will find in written justification of what, me 14 most. among my notes on the individual plates my a million strong candidates, has pleased The Medimn and The is invisible, inner Its Effect on the Work of Art world of experience, the artist's secret possession, limited only by his capacity for experience. But once the artist crosses the between emotion and creation, choice is forced upon him. The main For him the '"what?" of his is" no l(?nger the end but the means. creative imagination is gradually invaded by the "how?" of his creative hand. Briefly, he has to choose a medium (usually it is chosen for him by the requirements of his patron or the nature of the task imposed on him) and once he has done so the age-old struggle between opportunity and limitation frdntier problem begins. Out of that struggle the work of art is born. Stubbornly the medium imposes its will on the artist while he, like a skillful jujitsu wrestler, turns its stubbornness to account, making each medium work for him to produce effects unattainable by any other means, even while it is working against him by refusing to behave as his creative imagination would perhaps have liked. Media vary considerably flexible of all is in their that of oil paint, degrees of whose stubbornness. The most capacity to obey the artist's will Van Eyck and the furious rhythms of a Van Gogh. Powdered pigment, whether mixed with oil (oil paint) or with water (water color) or egg (tempera) or wet plaster (fresco) has always tempted the artist for this reason. Being obedient has produced styles as different as the meticulous smoothness of a to his will, its range of stylistic expressiveness is almost limitless; the Tachistes and the action painters of today are still discovering possibilities in it that were unsuspected even half a century ago. No wonder, then, that about 60 per cent of the color plates in this anthology consist of reproductions of paintings or details from paintings. The preponderance was inevitable. It has always been in the medium of painting that the struggle between the will of the artist and the opposing will of his medium is least dogged and least apparent, and the range of different temperaments and personalities widest. Yet a glance through these pages will reveal at once how many startling possibilities are denied to the painter. To take an obvious example, the most brilliant of colorists in pigment a Carpaccio or a Matisse powerless is to compete with the intensity of color so readily available to the artist who works in stained glass. Transmitted light and reflected light are as diflferent in kind as song and speech, though inevitably in the reflected light of a color — — reproduction less representing a 13th-Century Gothic window the difference is striking. Each medium imposes its will on the artist, thereby limiting his range; and each medium, by way of compensation, enables him to explore possibilities (and therefore establish a mood) peculiar to itself. The brilliance of a 1^ — Limoges enamel casket, with its juxtaposition of blues and greens against the golden sheen of molded metal, never fails to produce in me a special thrill. The Chinese artist who carves a figure in translucent rock crystal cannot, unless he is completely insensitive, carve an identical figure in opaque stone. The etcher whose needle glides easily across the metal surface of his plate conveys a different message from the engraver whose burin acts as though it were a miniature plough. Every artist knows from experience, but few laymen ever realize, the constant interplay between mind and hand as a work of art progresses. The layman might suppose that all the artist has to do is to call up in imagination an image, as complete as he can make it, of the work he intends to produce, and then to translate it into his chosen or prescribed .medium. But that is by no means an accurate account of the creative process. The original, imagined image is actually far from complete, and as soon as the artist sets to work, his medium begins both to modify and to clarify it; and unless he is a bad artist, he will accept It unlikely, is saw in his But as for example, and take advantage of those modifications. that the mediaeval artist in stained glass mind's eye the network of lead lines that cut across his design. soon as those lead lines begin, as they eventually must, to appear in work, his whole conception of the saint or the Madonna he is portraying begins to depend on the magic of that black network that divides color from his color. He glow of seizes every opportunity for using his blues. in order to He will even allow keep the pattern them them to intensify the mysterious to cut across a face or The etcher, finding how easily his needle can convey tremulous hints and with what reluctance it makes harsh or forcible statements, begins to rely on hints and to repress his desire for statements. Had he chosen to make an engraving the opposite would have happened. Some of the most significant leaps made by the artist's imaginative mind have been the direct result of a purely technical discovery in the use of media. It is certainly true to say that the change-over from a love of line to a love of surface that occurred in Venetian painting at the end of the 15th Century was due to the introduction of oil paint which, by its physical consistency, was incapable of a finely articulated Botticellian line, but could easily achieve the most breath-taking modulations of surface. What we are accustomed to call the Venetian feeling for the shimmer and dapple of light on surfaces the very essence of the Venetian attitude to the physical world may, it is true, be an expression of inherent Venetian sensuousness, but it is the direct result of a simple innovation in the use of the painter's medium. It follows, therefore, that every artist is both the master and the slave of the material he uses. His inspiration is the direct result of its limitations. He ignores them at his peril and any attempt on his part to evade or bypass — 16 an arm consistent. the imposed on him discipline designer who is bound to detract from his power. The attempts to evolve the shape of a glass goblet by drawing with on paper, instead of trusting to molten glass and a blowpipe, is denying himself the nourishment on which his creative vitality depends. Such short cuts are always weakening and sometimes fatal. To model in clay and then copy the modeled forms in marble is to think in one language and speak in another. Yet this betrayal of the medium is frequently practiced by artists today who are unwilling to acknowledge the meaning of the word craftsmanship, or who even regard the drudgery of craftsmanship as something to be avoided. his pencil It is not entirely a disease of today if it involves tiresome technical When Leonardo drew a comparison between the painter and the sculptor and argued that painting was a higher form of art because it involved the artist in a less messy struggle with his medium, he was making one of procedures. the earliest protests against the old tradition that the artist is primarily a workman. Leonardo was one of the first of the self-consciously romantic theorists. For him inspiration was entirely a product of the mind, and the best medium was the one that most readily obeyed the mind's commands. It is hardly surprising to find him a miraculous and indefatigable draftsman, an impatient painter, and a reluctant sculptor. His mind easily conceived images of solid objects which his hand was unwilling to make. Ingenious as is his famous flying machine, he would very quickly have modified it had he been craftsman enough to work in wood and metal rather than with pen and paper. artist and medium is, of course, a and art philosophers have misused it by drawing the wrong conclusion from it. It is true that the artist must never ignore the nature of his medium. But it is certainly not true to say, as some extremists have said, that the artist must never impose his will on it. If all that were required of a block of wood or a piece of jade was that This plea for close contact between familiar one, but certain each should express, modern with artists maximum the of clarity, its own nature — the comparative softness and the sinuous grain of the former, the hard translucency of the latter — tree or a jade pebble. it would be enough But that is to polish a sawn-off section of a not enough. Such procedures are the exact reverse of the designing of a glass goblet on paper; they would produce nothing but a formless lump of glass that had never been worked on by the blowpipe. Both extremes avoid the struggle between mind, hand and matter that lies of a Bernini hair, behind who all good art. It might be thought that the virtuosity can turn his block of marble into the semblance of metal and even a cumulus cloud was skill flesh, misplaced. Perhaps Bernini went too far in the direction of trompe I'ceil. Perhaps he moves us too little by his sincerity and astonishes us too much by his skill. But the other extreme is equally suspect. 1 J In choosing most of my examples I have searched for the middle way between arrogant mastery of a medium and abject obedience to it, especially in the case of the more stubborn of the media. The Limoges enameler must retain in his mind the image of a saint while doing justice to the shine of polished metal and the pattern of colored patches of inlay. The reader may notice that even though the work of thousands of centuries had to be compressed into less than two hundred illustrations, certain artists appear more than once. That is not due to an unreasonable enthusiasm on my part but to the fact that these artists have been willing to experiment with more than one medium, and that in each case they have achieved an extraordinary understanding of the possibilities of various media. Picasso, for example, has not been given too much but too little space. His sculptures in bronze, his etchings, his aquatints and lithographs, his ceramics as well as his paintings and drawings all point a moral. It is the central moral of this book, that the artist who is master of his ends must also be the servant of his means. The Temperamental and Behind the medium the Racial Factor man who it. Skill in the manino more than a servant of his intentions; the speed of an automobile depends on the efficiency of its engine but its destination, once it is on the move, can only be decided by the man pulation at the is, is the of course, essential, but skill manipulates is wheel. Every work of art reproduced in this book is, therefore, both an and the expression of an intention. And that intention, despite the limitations imposed on the artist by his patron or by the particular demands of the task undertaken, is ultimately decided by the artist's personality. The stained-glass window must admit light into an interior, it must be intelligible as narrative and harmonious as decoration, yet the difference between two stained-glass windows by different artists, both of which deal equally effectively with light, with subject matter and with the problem of pure decoration, is the difference between two human beings their person- example of skill — alities, their sense of values, their decisions about clarity or mystery, their choice between the strange and the ideal, or between the imagined and the real, their solutions of the habits: problem of visual harmony, even the purely physical "handwriting" that betrays an which is, in fact, another manifestation of his personality. Sooner or later the word "style" was bound to appear It is the key to the situation. Yet it is not a word to use ingredients are infinitely complex. their artist's in muscular style and these pages. lightly, for its

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