The Art and Logic of Ramon Llull: A User’s Guide by Anthony Bonner


985a1f43f07bd74-261x361.jpg Author Anthony Bonner
Isbn 9789004163256
File size 3MB
Year 2007
Pages 333
Language English
File format PDF
Category history


 

The Art and Logic of Ramon Llull Studien und Texte zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters Begründet von Josef Koch Weitergeführt von Paul Wilpert, Albert Zimmermann und Jan A. Aertsen Herausgegeben von Andreas Speer In Zusammenarbeit mit Tzotcho Boiadjiev, Kent Emery, Jr. und Wouter Goris BAND XCV The Art and Logic of Ramon Llull A User’s Guide by Anthony Bonner LEIDEN • BOSTON 2007 This book is printed on acid-free paper. A C.I.P. record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISSN 0169–8028 ISBN 978 90 04 16325 6 © Copyright 2007 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands. Koninklijke Brill NV incorporates the imprints Brill, Hotei Publishing, IDC Publishers, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers and VSP. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Koninklijke Brill NV provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910, Danvers, MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change. printed in the netherlands To the memory of Robert Pring-Mill and David Rosenblatt CONTENTS Preface ......................................................................................... Acknowledgments ....................................................................... Abbreviations .............................................................................. List of Illustrations ...................................................................... ix xv xvii xix 1. Introduction ............................................................................ 2. The quaternary phase ............................................................ 3. Changes in the Art during the quaternary phase, and the transition to the ternary phase ........................................ 4. The ternary phase .................................................................. 5. The post-Art phase: logic ...................................................... 6. Overview ................................................................................ 1 26 93 121 188 256 Appendices .................................................................................. The Martin Gardner Problem ............................................... Chronological list of Llull’s works .......................................... 301 303 306 Bibliography ................................................................................ Index of Lullian works ............................................................... Index of names and subjects ...................................................... 311 321 325 PREFACE This is a book about method, not content; about the how, not the what. This does not mean that the one is independent of the other, that the form of Ramon Llull’s message did not deeply inuence its matter, or, more importantly, that the matter and, above all, its goals, were not primary in determining its form. We will, in fact, frequently touch on such subjects, but only as they come up in connection with the form. It is therefore a question of priorities; as Llull would have put it, the rst intention of this book is the method, and the second intention the content. Even though, in the course of developing his method, Llull made frequent and important programmatic statements presenting its foundations, these should not be confused with the method itself, any more than we should confuse the foundations of a building with the nished edice. In both cases they can only provide a beginning for a future exploration of the structure. Moreover, Llull was not a speculative theologian, philosopher, or logician. His study of these subjects is never an end in itself, but only the means to an end. For the purposes of this book, it means that his interest in logic—and this applies to the Art insofar as it constitutes a logical system—is not theoretical but practical. His is not a logica docens, speculativa, or theorica, but rather what the Middle Ages called logica utens, one to be judged by its usefulness. Since his logic was directed to producing what he called ‘necessary reasons’, it is these arguments to which we must turn our attention, to see what it was about them that he felt justied in considering ‘necessary’. This is particularly urgent because in the past a great deal of research has gone into these ‘necessary reasons’, but mostly from the perspective of what they imply concerning the question of faith vs. reason. Even more research has gone into the bases of the Art—the Dignities, the components of gures such as S and T, the Nine Subjects, etc. Singularly little effort, however, has gone into trying to bridge the gap between the theoretical foundations of Llull’s Art and logic, or between its bases and their nal expression in patterns of argument, and perhaps even less in the actual study of these patterns, which in fact constituted his ‘necessary reasons’, the backbone of his entire endeavor. x preface Since it seemed to me that the best—if not the only—way to study these argument patterns is to display them along with appropriate comments, I have structured this book as a kind of explication de textes, always quoting in full (and in translation) those Lullian textes on which my explications are based, instead of just referring the reader to the place where he might nd the originals. That way the reader can see for himself the tenor of Llull’s arguments, and judge more closely the correctness or error of my assessments. Perhaps the principal purpose in writing thus is to let Llull speak for himself, and to try to avoid explaining what I (or others) thought he might have meant instead of what he actually said. In the few places where I have offered nonLullian models, it has been for purely hermeneutic purposes, as an aid in trying to understand and explain what he is doing. Too often it has been assumed that when Llull used a particular word or discussed a particular philosophical or logical doctrine, it must be like that of contemporary usage, and if it wasn’t, that was because he hadn’t quite grasped what others meant. The latter option has, I think, now been discarded for a view of Llull as quite consciously setting up a system (or systems) alternate to that (or those) of his contemporaries. And because this alternate system of his was self-referential, it developed its own network of meanings and doctrinal interpretations. Llull seemed aware enough of this problem to offer many denitions and explanations of what he was doing, and if we can manage to listen carefully to his voice, we might better capture his intentions. Only when we nally see the structure as a whole can we begin to study its relation to outside structures. We must begin inside, and then, if we wish, begin to proceed outward. After a rst general chapter giving an outline of Llull’s life and a brief introduction to the Art, come four specialized chapters explaining the nuts and bolts of his system, or systems. Chapters 2 and 4 are more or less straightforward presentations of the two phases of the Art, the quaternary and the ternary. Chapter 3 presents the transition between the two, with its important cosmological and systematic changes (along with some methodological experiments). Chapter 5 presents Llull’s incursion into logic during the nal stage of his career. I have thought it necessary to venture into this domain because it starts as a natural prolongation of the Art, and because it represents Llull’s nal endeavor in providing ‘necessary reasons’. Chapter 6 is a conclusion, where I have tried to tie together some of the many threads woven throughout the book and arrive at some generalizations as to Llull’s methods. These preface xi chapters are to a certain extent independent of one another—in spite of many cross-references—and thus can, to the same extent, be read independently. For those more interested in the literary side of Llull, Chapter 2 deals with the period during which he produced his bestknown literary works. Chapter 4 deals with the version of the Art for which Llull was best known in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Chapter 5 might be for those interested in Llull’s reshaping of classical logic. For a nal overview there is Chapter 6. As to things omitted from the book, I must rst of all say that to try an explication de textes with a man who wrote 260 texts means that I have had to severely limit where I took my samples. I have, for instance, not discussed the immense Book of Contemplation, partly because it precedes the Art, and partly because its relation to the Art of the rst quaternary phase has been so admirably discussed by Josep Rubio. I have said little about the earlier major works of the ternary Art such as the Ars inventiva veritatis or the Art amativa. I have instead chosen to concentrate on the works of the Art which seemed to best sum up its two main stages: the Ars demonstrativa for the rst phase, and the Ars generalis ultima with its small satellite, the Ars brevis, for the second. Such choices were made on the basis of what seemed objectively most central to Llull’s different formulations of his system, and what texts might serve best to exemplify them. My other important omission has been to include almost nothing on the question of inuences, both of predecessors and contemporaries on Llull, and of Llull on succeeding generations of thinkers. This is an area made delicate by two factors. On the one hand Llull practically never cites his sources. In a world so essentially intertextual as that of medieval thought, Llull’s writings are unusual in lacking almost any references to other texts or to any outside justication. This originated as a tactical device, so as to remove interreligious dialogue from the no-win area of the interpretation of authorities, but soon it took on a life of its own. Even when he does write things that look like contemporary textbooks, on logic, theology, preaching, etc., Llull’s purpose, as I said before, is not speculative but practical, which vitiates the apparent similarity, and complicates enormously the task of comparison. On the other hand, Llull is indeed interested in contemporary methods and doctrines, not as justications, but as springboards to give his reader or listener the impression that he is starting on familiar ground, from which Llull begins a recycling process to lead them down his particular path. This involved not only the cosmology and elemental xii preface theory which all medievals inherited from Greek science, but also many of the techniques, vocabulary, and conceptual framework of Aristotle. Following recent innovative studies, we will show, on the one hand, how he tried to remodel the dialectical methods of the Topics so that they could produce scientic demonstrations of a sort comparable to the Posterior Analytics, ending up openly presenting an alternative to the latter, and, on the other hand, how his presentation of the Divine Dignities could be used to argue with Jews and Muslims, because their similarity to their serot and ˜aÓrÊs would allow him to start off on something that looked familiar. What is interesting about the differences in Llull’s reworking of all this material, is—I would say—the conscious use he makes of these very differences, and the resulting structures he moulds from them, as well as the resonances he hoped to establish. Llull is thus original, not only because of what he creates ab ovo—because I don’t think it can be denied that many aspects of his system have little in the way of predecessors—, but also because of the adaptive use he makes of contemporary material, with the resulting interplay between his original creation and this adaptation. Nor should one forget the purpose to which he subjects it: to persuade rather than to discuss, to convince rather than to speculate. He is not a schoolman, but a missionary, polemicist, and preacher, yet one who uses (and remodels) many of the weapons of the schoolmen. I have not gone into the inuence of Llull’s Art on posterity, in spite of the enormous importance of this subject. This is partly because we know so little about the followers who in the later Middle Ages copied (or had copied) the thousand or so manuscripts in which the Art was faithfully handed down, and partly because the Lullists who made the tradition so well-known in the Renaissance did so by adapting it to contemporary tastes, which meant watering it down to compete with the encyclopedic-rhetorical systems of Ramus and others. One need only look at the two pseudo-Lullian works, the Logica brevis and De audito cabbalistico, along with Lavinheta’s Explanatio compendiosaque applicatio Artis Raymundi Lulli and Agrippa von Nettesheim’s commentary on the Ars brevis, all works of enormous inuence throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, to see how many of the fundamental notions of Llull’s Art, such as the dynamic ontology—reected in his denitions and in the correlatives—, his intensional logic which dispenses with the classical square of opposition, his addition (to the traditional ve) of a sixth sense—that of communication—which he called affatus, have for the most part quite simply disappeared, in an attempt to ‘normalize’ preface xiii Llull by eliminating all the more ‘idiosyncratic’ elements. In the seventeenth century Llull was chiey read in the famous Zetzner anthology published in Strasbourg (1598, and reedited 1609, 1617, and 1651), in which genuine works such as the Ars generalis ultima and the Ars brevis were accompanied not only by three of the works just mentioned—the spurious Logica brevis and De audito, together with Agrippa’s commentary—, but also by the In rhetoricam isagogem, which for a time also passed as an authentic work, and in which an extreme of absurdity is reached. It is as if a stewpot full of bits and pieces of Llull’s works along with contemporary rhetorical formulations had exploded in the study of an author who then tried to catalogue the spatterings stuck to the walls, ceiling, and oor of his study. Since there is little doubt that it is this anthology in which Descartes read Llull, one can sympathize with his characterization of the Art as something that would allow one to speak on many subjects without knowing any of them. These remarks are not intended to deny the importance of the Lullist Renaissance tradition, on which I myself have spent a certain amount of scholarly energy. It was a phenomenon of considerable cultural and historical importance, and served to generate a counterproposition to the system of Petrus Ramus. It was, of course, based on Llull’s formulations, but what it omitted, added, or changed, as a result of differences in intent or goal, make it a separate eld of study from that of the Art itself. In modern times a different set of misapprehensions about the Art has been in circulation: that it functions essentially (the adverb is important) by a system of revolving combinatorial disks, that it presents the basic building blocks of human thought (like Leibniz’s Mathesis universalis), that it is a method for discovering all possible predicates to all possible subjects (equally like Leibniz’s Mathesis universalis), or that it is only capable of dealing with topics included in its own premises. Llull has also sometimes been seen as a simple soul quite out of his depth in philosophical or scientic discourse, and whose logic could not really be valid. The present book, in fact, started as an attempt to correct the many misapprehensions about Llull that have been in circulation for centuries now, an attempt which was nally abandoned for two reasons. The rst was that I found that some of the misapprehensions which needed correction were my own. If the reader thinks this is a piece of false modesty as a kind of captatio benevolentiae, he has only to compare the presentation of the beginning of the Ars brevis in Chapter 4 here with that in my two anthologies. The second was that, after the xiv preface rst three chapters, which more or less summarize material already proposed by others and by myself, I found myself venturing more and more into unexplored territory. Following the threads on which Llull actually articulated his arguments, coordinating this articulation with his own methodological presentations, and tracing the leads of his use of certain concepts (from the Ars demonstrativa on, his vocabulary becomes more and more consciously precise and consistent), has taken me down paths unforeseen when I began this book, to the point where I often had the feeling that the book was writing itself—or rather that Llull was writing it—and I was more in the position of a listener at a medieval lecture trying to give a reasoned reportatio. This process took me so far from my original notions about Llull’s Art, that when one of the people who read an earlier version of this book exclaimed, “This isn’t the Llull I know”, I could only answer that it wasn’t the Llull I knew either. My aim, moreover, has not been to defend Llull, but rather to remain neutral in the matter of possible judgments upon his Art and logic. In the past people have been too quick to criticize (or praise) Llull, without fully understanding why he was doing things the way he did. Here I have tried to supply that why. My one conviction is that he built a structure—or rather several structures—of extraordinary consistency and interest, and that it would be wrong to judge them until we fully understand how their parts t together and how his systems were meant to function. Until then, we will be like a person complaining that a piece of machinery or a computer program doesn’t work, when he hasn’t bothered to read the instruction manual. Instruction manuals do not necessarily make for easy, rapid reading, and especially if the machine or a computer program has many and important differences from any we know. In Llull’s case, the Art itself was a kind of user’s manual, telling us how to produce what he called ‘necessary reasons’. It is this manual and its resulting arguments we will try to explain in this book. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The rst person to read and comment on this book, while it was still in a very primitive and as yet disorganized form, was Charles Lohr, who, among other things, saved me from some important errors in my understanding of contemporary scholastic discourse. In an already much more nished form, both Lola Badia and Robert Hughes read it, making many important observations and suggestions, in addition to long lists of corrections of detail. The most extensive list of suggestions and corrections came from Josep Maria Ruiz Simon, who saved me not only from some serious errors, but also from many imprecisions of language, as well as from possible confusions as a result of inadequate explanations on my part. My wife, Eve, read the book in a rst draft, when she helped get it into a more nished, coherent form, and then a second time for the nal draft, to clear up errors of content, meaning, and presentation, as well as many errors of detail. To all my deepest thanks; this book might still have aws, but without them it would have had many more. As for people or institutions that let me use material, Yanis Dambergs kindly let me cite the translations from his website http://lullianarts. net/; if I have in some cases altered them (as I have occasionally altered my own previous translations), this in no way implies a criticism, but only a difference of setting and purpose in which they appear. The Badische Landesbibliothek in Karlsruhe kindly allowed me to reproduce the eleventh miniature from the well-known gem of their collection, the Breviculum of Thomas Le Myésier (St. Peter perg. 92). Finally there is my debt to the two people to whose memory this book is dedicated. Robert Pring-Mill, as one of the rst to write on the Art and to do so in a most articulate way, was chief among those whose writings started my interest in the subject. David Rosenblatt, as a mathematician convinced that Llull had not yet found his proper place in the history of logic, for many years acted as my guide on that side of the question. I am very sorry that, whatever their opinion might have been, neither of them lived to see this book in print. ABBREVIATIONS Works AA AB ACIV AD AGU AIPU AIV LFAD LN PropAD TG = = = = = = = = = = = Art amativa (Ars amativa boni) Ars brevis Ars compendiosa inveniendi veritatem Art demostrativa (Ars demonstrativa) Ars generalis ultima Ars inveniendi particularia in universalibus Ars inventiva veritatis Lectura super guras Artis demonstrativae Logica nova Liber propositionum secundum Artem demonstrativam compilatus Taula general (Tabula generalis) Manuscripts Breviculum = Karlsruhe, Badische Landesbibliothek, St. Peter perg. 92. Reproduced in its entirety (not only the miniatures) with a reconstruction of its missing parts in Le Myésier 1990, which on p. xxv has a bibliography of previous editions. For a reproduction of the miniatures along with translations of the speeches and explanations in several languages (including English), see http://lulle.free.fr/. Electorium = Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, lat. 15450. For a detailed description see Hillgarth 1971, 348ff., reproduced in Catalan translation at http://orbita.bib.ub.es/llull/docs/hillgarth.doc. These and almost all the other Lullian Latin manuscripts are consultable at http://freimore.uni-freiburg.de/lullus/index.html directly, or through the links on the Llull DB listed below. xviii abbreviations Publications ATCA DI = Arxiu de Textos Catalans Antics (Barcelona, 1982–). = Doctor Illuminatus. A Ramon Llull Reader, ed. Anthony Bonner and Eve Bonner (Princeton, 1993). EL = Estudios Lulianos (Palma, 1957–1990. See SL) Llull DB = The bibliographical database online at http://orbita.bib. ub.es/llull/. MOG = Beati Raymundi Lulli Opera, ed. Ivo Salzinger, 8 vols. (Mainz: Häffner, 1721–1742; reprint ed. F. Stegmüller, Frankfurt, 1965).1 NEORL = Nova Edició de les Obres de Ramon Llull (Palma: Patronat Ramon Llull, 1990–). OED = Oxford English Dictionary ORL = Obres de Ramon Llull, ed. Salvador Galmés et al., 21 vols. (Palma, 1906–1950). ROL = Raimundi Lulli Opera Latina, I–V (Palma, 1959–1967) and VI– (Turnholt, Belgium: Brepols, 1975–). SL = Studia Lulliana (Palma, 1991–. Continuation of EL) SW = Selected Works of Ramon Llull (1232–1316), ed. Anthony Bonner, 2 vols. (Princeton, 1985). 1 Citations will be given in the form “MOG I, vii, 44: 476”, with volume number, number of internal division, and page of this last, followed (after the colon) by the continuous pagination of the 1965 reprint. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Color illustrations (between pp. 92 and 93) Figure A Figure S Figure T Figure V Figure X Figures Y and Z Elemental Figure Concepts and Alphabet of the Ars demonstrativa (fold-out chart) Black and White Illustrations (in text) Miniature XI from the Breviculum ............................................... Figures 1a & 1b of graph theory ............................................... Figures 2a & 2b of graph theory ............................................... Figures 3 & 4 of graph theory ................................................... Figures 5a & 5b of graph theory ............................................... Second Figure of A .................................................................... Second Figure of V .................................................................... Second Figure of X .................................................................... Second Figure of T .................................................................... Figure S, an explanatory chart ................................................... Second Figure of S ..................................................................... Abbreviated Second Figure of S ................................................ Figure of Theology .................................................................... Second Elemental Figure ........................................................... Square of elements and their qualities ...................................... Demonstrative Figure ................................................................. Second Demonstrative Figure .................................................... Variants of Figure X .................................................................. Sample from the Ars notatoria ...................................................... Rotating Second Figure of A ..................................................... Correlative structure of the soul ................................................ Correlative structure of the elements ........................................ 20 27 28 29 30 34 37 40 43 44 47 48 55 57 59 61 62 98 100 104 113 114

Author Anthony Bonner Isbn 9789004163256 File size 3MB Year 2007 Pages 333 Language English File format PDF Category History Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare Ramon Llull (ca. 1232-1316), mystic, missionary, philosopher, lay theologian, and one of the founding fathers of Catalan literature, was chiefly known in his own time and in subsequent generations as the inventor of a combinatorial, semi-mechanical method of demonstration, which he called his ‘Art’ and which he had developed to free interreligious debate from its fruitless textual base. Most of the extensive modern literature has been dedicated to mapping the foundations of Llull’s system, with little attempt to see how he used and combined these foundations to produce actual demonstrations. This book, in a series of explications de textes, tries to explain what kind of demonstrative systems he developed during the two main stages of the ‘Art’, how they finally evolved into an adaptation of key aspects of medieval Aristotelian logic, and why the ‘Art’ was central to all Llull’s endeavors.     Download (3MB) Ekphrastic Medieval Visions The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 4, c.1024-c.1198, Part 1 The Mapmakers of New Zion : A Cartographic History of Mormonism The Idea Of The Castle In Medieval England Fictions Of Identity In Medieval France Load more posts

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