Swimming Merit Badge Series by Boy Scouts of America


08595da16cee1a6-261x361.jpg Author Boy Scouts of America
Isbn 9780839533528
File size 6.18MB
Year 2010
Pages 94
Language English
File format PDF
Category sport



 

How to Use This Pamphlet The secret to successfully earning a merit badge is for you to use both the pamphlet and the suggestions of your counselor. Your counselor can be as important to you as a coach is to an athlete. Use all of the resources your counselor can make available to you. This may be the best chance you will have to learn about this particular subject. Make it count. If you or your counselor feels that any information in this pamphlet is incorrect, please let us know. Please state your source of information. Merit badge pamphlets are reprinted annually and requirements updated regularly. Your suggestions for improvement are welcome. Send comments along with a brief statement about yourself to Youth Development, S209 • Boy Scouts of America • 1325 West Walnut Hill Lane • P.O. Box 152079 • Irving, TX 75015-2079. Who Pays for This Pamphlet? This merit badge pamphlet is one in a series of more than 100 covering all kinds of hobby and career subjects. It is made available for you to buy as a service of the national and local councils, Boy Scouts of America. The costs of the development, writing, and editing of the merit badge pamphlets are paid for by the Boy Scouts of America in order to bring you the best book at a reasonable price. BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA MERIT BADGE SERIES swimming Note to the Counselor Like other merit badges, the Swimming merit badge has been developed to teach and train youth in a manner consistent with the overall goals and values of the Boy Scouts of America. The merit badge counselor should be fair and consistent and should present and teach the skills as presented in this pamphlet. None of the requirements should be omitted, and nothing should be added to them. Candidates with an extensive swimming background may be able to meet all or most of the requirements with little or no formal instruction from the counselor. Most Scouts, however, will need instruction prior to completing the requirements. Scouts may train as a single buddy pair or in small groups. Training sessions can be on a flexible schedule. Alternatively, larger groups may train together on a more formal basis at prearranged times. A counselor may also provide individual instruction as long as there is another adult or youth present. Subject to equipment availability and other constraints, each candidate should have the opportunity to choose which of the optional requirements he will complete. The “Aquatics” section of Camp Program and Property Management provides a suggested outline for Swimming merit badge instruction. The merit badge instruction should begin with a review of requirement 3. This will lay a suitable foundation for safety and first aid requirements 1 and 2. This review also will indicate individual levels of skill proficiency in various strokes, floating, and feetfirst entry. Scouts should learn the leaping entry in the first session. The leaping entry, the preferred entry for the swim tests used in the Second and First Class rank requirements, should be taught and emphasized in the first session as a safety skill to be used throughout the class. The faceup float (requirement 6a) 35957 ISBN 978-0-8395-3352-8 ©2008 Boy Scouts of America 2010 Printing BANG/Brainerd, MN 1-2010/059413 also should be taught in the First Class session as a confidence builder and as a resting and survival procedure for use during the class and beyond. Stroke instruction should begin in the first session and continue throughout the course. Base individualized instruction on the proficiency of each participant. Each participant may be given the opportunity to complete the stroke requirement (requirement 5) when he appears ready. Regarding other requirements, Scouts should first master surface dives (requirement 7) before beginning snorkeling and scuba diving (requirement 8a). They should receive diving instruction (requirement 9) prior to competitive skills instruction (requirement 8b). Survival skills and knowledge (requirements 4, 6b, 6c, and 6d) can be covered at any time, because they relate closely to the safety and preliminary skills in requirements 1 and 3. If Scouts complete requirement 10 concurrently with in-water skills instruction, then the pertinent information should be presented early enough in the course to allow time for Scouts to study and prepare individual exercise program plans. Requirement 10c must be completed in writing. Requirements 10a, 10b, and 10d may be done orally, but Scouts should not simply listen to a presentation from the counselor. Each merit badge candidate must learn the material and demonstrate that knowledge by explaining the facts or concepts to his counselor. swimming     3 REQUIREMENTS (Starting 1/1/2015) Requirements 1.Do the following: 1. Discuss the prevention of and treatment for health concerns a.Explain to your counselor how Scouting’s Safe Swim Defense plan that could occur while swimming, including hypothermia, anticipates, helps prevent and mitigate, and provides responses to likely hazards sunburn, heat exhaustion, heatstroke, muscle you may encounterdehydration, during swimming activities. cramps, hyperventilation, spinal injury,that stings and bites, and b.Discuss the prevention and treatment of health concerns could occur while cuts and scrapes. swimming, including hypothermia, dehydration, sunburn, heat exhaustion, heatstroke, muscle cramps, hyperventilation, spinal injury, stings and bites, and 2. Do the following: cuts and scrapes. a. Identify the conditions that must exist before performing CPR on a person.successfully Explain howcomplete to recognize 2.Before doing the following requirements, the BSA swimmer such over conditions. test: Jump feetfirst into water the head in depth. Level off and swim 75 yards in a strong manner using one or more of the following strokes: sidestroke, breaststroke, b. Demonstrate proper technique for performing CPR using trudgen, or crawl; then swim 25 yards using an easy, resting backstroke. The 100 a training device approved by your counselor. yards must be completed in one swim without stops and must include at least one sharp turn. After completing the swim, rest by floating. 3. Before doing the following requirements, successfully complete Second Class rank requirements 7a–7c and 3.Swim continuously forFirst 150Class yardsrank using the following9a–9c. strokes in good form and in a requirements strong manner: front crawl or trudgen for 25 yards, back crawl for 25 yards, sidestroke Second rank and requirements: for 25 yards, breaststroke forClass 25 yards, elementary backstroke for 50 yards. (7a) Tell what precautions must be taken for a safe swim. 4.Do the following: (7b)  Demonstrate abilitywith to jump feetfirst into a. Demonstrate water rescue methods byyour reaching your arm or leg, by reaching water over your head depth, level off why and swimming swim with a suitable object, and by throwing lines andinobjects. Explain 25 feet on the asurface, stop, turn sharply, resume rescues should not be attempted when reaching or throwing rescue is possible, then return to your and explain why and howswimming, a rescue swimmer should avoidstarting contactplace. with the victim. b.With a helper and a practice victim, show a line rescue both as tender and as (7c) Demonstrate water rescue methods by reaching rescuer. The practice victim should be approximately 30 feet from shore in with your arm or leg, by reaching with a suitable deep water. object, and by throwing lines and objects. Explain why swimming rescues should not be attempted 5.Do the following: a reaching or throwing rescue is possible, and a. Float faceup in a resting when position for at least one minute. explain andfive howminutes. a rescue swimmer should b. Demonstrate survival floating forwhy at least withGuard–approved the victim. c. While wearing a properlyavoid fittedcontact U.S. Coast life jacket, demonstrate the HELP and huddle positions. Explain their purposes. d. Explain why swimming or survival floating will hasten the onset of hypothermia in cold water. 4        swimming 6.In water over your head, but not to exceed 10 feet, do each of the following: a. Use the feetfirst method of surface diving and bring an object up from the bottom. b. Do a headfirst surface dive (pike or tuck), and bring the object up again. c. Do a headfirst surface dive to a depth of at least 5 feet and swim underwater for three First Class rank requirements: strokes. Come to the surface, take a breath, and repeat the sequence twice. (9a) Tell what precautions must be taken for a 7. Following the guidelines set in the BSA Safe Swim Defense, in water at least 7 feet safe trip afloat. deep*, show a standing headfirst dive from a dock or pool deck. Show a long shallow (9b)  Before thepool following dive, also from thedoing dock or deck. requirement, successfully complete the BSA swimmer test: *If your state, city, or local community requires a water depth greater than 7 feet, it is important to abide byinto thatwater mandate. Jump feetfirst over your head in depth, swim 75 yards in a strong manner using one or more 8. Explain theof health benefits of regularsidestroke, aerobic exercise, and discuss why swimming the following strokes: breaststroke, is favored as both fitness and therapeutic exercise. trudgen, or crawl; then swim 25 yards using an easy, resting backstroke. The 100 yards must be swum continuously and include at least one sharp turn. REQUIREMENTS through After completing the swim,12/31/2014 rest by floating. (9c)  With a helper andtreatment a practicefor victim, 1. Discuss the prevention of and healthshow concerns that could occur while a line rescue both as tender and as sunburn, rescuer. heat exhaustion, heatstroke, swimming, including hypothermia, dehydration, Thehyperventilation, practice victim should approximately muscle cramps, spinal be injury, stings and bites, and cuts and scrapes. 30 feet from shore in deep water. 2. Do the following: a. Identify the conditions that must exist before performing CPR on a person. Explain how 4. Demonstrate survival skills by jumping feetfirst into deep to recognize such conditions. water wearing clothes (shoes, socks, swim trunks, long b. Demonstrate proper technique for performing CPR using a training device approved by belt, and long-sleeved shirt). Remove shoes and yourpants, counselor. socks, inflate the shirt, and show that you can float using shirtthe forfollowing support.requirements, Remove and inflate the pants. SwimSecond Class rank 3. Beforethe doing successfully complete 50 feet using the inflated for support, then show how requirements 8a through 8c andpants First Class rank requirements 9a through 9c. to reinflate the pants while still afloat. Second Class rank requirements 8a through 8c: 5. Swim continuously for 150 yards using the following (8a) Tell what precautions must be taken for a safe swim. strokes in good in a strong (8b) Demonstrate your form abilityand to jump feetfirstmanner: into water front crawl or in trudgen 25off yards, back 25 feet on over your head depth, for level and swim crawl for 25 yards, for 25 yards, the surface, stop, turnsidestroke sharply, resume swimming, breaststroke for 25 yards,place. and elementary then return to your starting backstroke for 50 yards. (8c) Demonstrate water rescue methods by reaching with your arm or leg, by reaching with a suitable 6. Do the following: object, and by throwing lines and objects. Explain a. Float faceup in a resting position why swimming rescues shouldfor notatbe attempted when a reaching or throwing rescue least one minute. is possible, and explain why and how a rescue b. Demonstrate survival floating for at least swimmer should avoid contact with the victim. minutes. First Classfive rank requirements 9a through 9c: (9a) Tell what precautions be taken a safe trip c.  While wearing a must properly fittedfor personal afloat. flotation device (PFD), demonstrate the HELP (9b) Before doing the positions. following requirement, and huddle Explain theirsuccessfully purposes. complete the BSA swimmer test: Jump feetfirst into water d. Explain why swimming or survival floating over your head in depth, swim 75 yards in a strong will using hastenone theoronset cold water. manner moreofofhypothermia the followingin strokes: sidestroke, breaststroke, trudgen, or crawl; then swim 25 yards using an easy, resting backstroke. swimming        5 The 100 yards must be swum continuously and include at least one sharp turn. After completing the swim, rest by floating. (9c) With a helper and a practice victim, show a line rescue both as tender and as rescuer. The practice victim should be approximately 30 feet from shore in deep water. In by water over feetfirst your head, notwater to exceed 10 feet, do (shoes, each of 4. Demonstrate survival 7.  skills jumping intobut deep wearing clothes following: socks, swim trunks, longthe pants, belt, and long-sleeved shirt). Remove shoes and socks, inflate the shirt, and show that float method using theofshirt for support. Remove a.  Useyou thecan feetfirst surface diving and bring and an inflate the pants. Swim 50 feet using the inflated for support, then show how to reinflate the object up frompants the bottom. pants while still afloat. b. Do a headfirst surface dive (pike or tuck), and bring the object 5. Swim continuously for 150 yards usingup theagain. following strokes in good form and in a strong manner: front crawl or trudgen for 25 yards, back crawl fora25 yards, sidestroke for 25 c. Do a headfirst surface dive to depth of at least 5 feet and swim underwater for three strokes. Come to the 6. Do the following: surface, take a breath, and repeat the sequence twice. a. Float faceup in a resting position for at least one minute. b. Demonstrate survival least five minutes. 8. floating Do ONEforofatthe following: c. While wearing a properly fitted personal flotation device (PFD), demonstrate the a. Demonstrate snorkeling and scuba diving knowledge: HELP and huddle positions. Explain their purposes. (1)  Demonstrate and of mask, snor-will d. Explain whyselection swimming or fit survival floating the onset hypothermia coldand water. kel,hasten and fins; discussofsafety in bothinpool open-water snorkeling. 7. In water over your head, but not to exceed 10 (2) Demonstrate proper of mask, snorkel, feet, do each of theuse following: and fins for underwater search rescue. a. Use the feetfirst method of and surface diving and bring an object up from the bottom. (3) Describe the sport of scuba diving or snorkelb. and Do ademonstrate headfirst surface dive (pike or ing, your knowledge of tuck), BSA and bring the object up relating again. to that sport. policies and procedures c. Do a headfirst surface dive to a depth of at OR least 5 feet and swim underwater for three strokes. competitive Come to theswimming surface, take a breath, b. Demonstrate the following skills: and repeat the sequence twice. (1) Racing dive from a pool edge or dock edge (no elevated dives from racing platforms or 8. Do ONE of the following: starting blocks) a. Demonstrate snorkeling and scuba diving knowledge: and (2) fit Racing formsnorkel, for 25 yards on one competitive 1. Demonstrate selection of mask, and fins; discuss safety instroke both pool and open-water snorkeling. (front crawl, back crawl, breaststroke, or butterfly) 2. Demonstrate proper use of mask, snorkel, and fins for underwater search and rescue. (3) Racing turns for the stroke that you chose in 8b(2), 3. Describe the sport of scuba diving or snorkeling, and demonstrate your knowledge of if the to camp BSA policies and proceduresOR, relating that facilities sport. cannot accommodate the racing turn, repeat 8b(2) with an additional stroke. OR (4) Describe the sport of competitive swimming. 9. Following the guidelines set in the BSA Safe Swim Defense, in water at least 7 feet deep, show a standing headfirst dive from a dock or pool deck. Show a long shallow dive, also from the dock or pool deck. 9. Following the guidelines set in the BSA Safe Swim Defense, in water at least 7 feet deep, show a standing headfirst dive from a dock or pool deck. Show a long shallow dive, also 10. Do the following: from the dock or pool deck. a. Explain the health benefits of regular aerobic exercise, and explain why 10. many Do the following: people today do not get enough of the beneficial kinds of exercise. b. Discuss why swimming favoredofas both aaerobic fitness exercise, and a therapeutic exercise. a. Explain the health is benefits regular c. Write a plan for a swimming exercise program that will promote aerobic/vascular and explain why many people today do not get enough fitness, strength and muscle tone, body flexibility, and weight control for a person of the beneficial kinds of exercise. of Scout age. Identify resources and facilities available in your home community that would be needed for suchisafavored program. b. Discuss why swimming as both a fitness and d. Discuss with your counselor a therapeutic exercise. the incentives and obstacles for staying with the fitness program you identified in requirement 10c. Explain the unique benefits that c.  Writebe a plan forfrom a swimming exercise could gained this program, andprogram discuss that how will personal health promote aerobic/vascular fitness, strength and muscle awareness and self-discipline would relate to your own willingness and ability tone,such bodyaflexibility, to pursue program. and weight control for a person of Scout age. Identify resources and facilities available in your home community that would be needed for such a program. d. Discuss with your counselor the incentives and obstacles for staying with the fitness program you identified in requirement 10c. Explain the unique benefits that could be gained from this program, and discuss how personal health awareness and self-discipline would relate to your own willingness and ability to pursue such a program. swimming     7 Contents Safety. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Swimming Skills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Swimming Strokes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Surface Dives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Snorkeling and Scuba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Diving. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Competitive Swimming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Swimming for Fitness and Health. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Swimming Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 swimming     9 .Safety Safety Developed more than 60 years ago, the procedures included in the Boy Scouts of America’s water safety plan have earned Scouting what is believed to be the most commendable water safety record of any youth organization in the United States. BSA Safe Swim Defense All swimming activity in Scouting is conducted according to Safe Swim Defense standards. The eight points of Safe Swim Defense are as follows. 1. Qualified Supervision All swimming activity must be supervised by a mature and conscientious adult age 21 or older who understands and knowingly accepts responsibility for the well-being and safety of those in his or her care, and who is trained in and committed to compliance with the eight points of BSA Safe Swim Defense. It is strongly recommended that all units have at least one adult or older youth member currently trained in BSA Swimming and Water Rescue or BSA Lifeguard to assist in the planning and conduct of all swimming activities. swimming        11 Safety. 2. Personal Health Review A complete health history is required of all participants as evidence of fitness for swimming activities. Forms for minors must be signed by a parent or legal guardian. Participants should be asked to relate any recent incidents of illness or injury just prior to the activity. Supervision and protection should be adjusted to anticipate any potential risks associated with individual health conditions. For significant health conditions, the adult supervisor should require an examination by a physician and consult with the parent, guardian, or caregiver for appropriate precautions. 3. Safe Area All swimming areas must be carefully inspected and prepared for safety prior to each activity. Water depth, quality, temperature, movement, and clarity are important considerations. Hazards must be eliminated or isolated by conspicuous markings and discussed with participants. Controlled access. There must be safe areas for all participating ability groups to enter and leave the water. Swimming areas of appropriate depth must be defined for each ability group. The entire area must be within easy reach of designated rescue personnel. The area must be clear of boat traffic, surfing, or other nonswimming activities. Safe areas are best inspected as a team so hazards can be identified and removed if possible. 12        swimming Bottom conditions and depth: The bottom must be clear of trees and debris. Abrupt changes in depth are not allowed in the nonswimmer area. Isolated underwater hazards should be marked with floats. Rescue personnel must be able to easily reach the bottom. Maximum recommended water depth in clear water is 12 feet. Maximum water depth in turbid water is 8 feet. .Safety Visibility. Underwater swimming and diving are prohibited in turbid water. Turbid water exists when a swimmer treading water cannot see his feet. Swimming at night is allowed only in areas with both surface and underwater lighting. Diving and elevated entry. Diving is permitted only into clear, unobstructed water from heights no greater than 40 inches. Water depth must be at least 7 feet for dives from fixed heights up to 18 inches and at least 10 feet for dives from the side or a diving board for heights from 18 inches to 40 inches. Persons should not jump into water from heights greater than they are tall, and only into water depths where impact with the bottom is absent or slight. No elevated entry is permitted where the person must clear any obstacle, including land. Water temperature. Comfortable water temperature for swimming is near 80 degrees. Activity in water at 70 degrees or less should be of limited duration and closely monitored for negative effects of chilling. Water quality. Bodies of stagnant, fetid water, areas with significant algae or foam, or areas polluted by livestock or waterfowl should be avoided. Comply with any signs posted by local health authorities. Swimming is not allowed in pools with green, murky, or cloudy water. Moving water. Participants should be able to easily regain and maintain their footing in currents or waves. Areas with large waves, swiftly flowing currents, or moderate currents that flow toward the open sea or into areas of danger should be avoided. Weather. Participants should be moved from the water to a position of safety whenever lightning or thunder threatens. Wait at least 30 minutes after the last lightning flash or thunder before leaving shelter. Take precautions to prevent sunburn, dehydration, and hypothermia. PFD use. Swimming in clear water over 12 feet deep, in turbid water over 8 feet deep, or in flowing water may be allowed if all participants wear properly fitted personal flotation devices and the supervisor determines that swimming with PFDs is safe under the circumstances. swimming        13 Safety. 4. Response Personnel (Lifeguards) Every swimming activity must be closely and continuously monitored by a trained rescue team on the alert for and ready to respond during emergencies. Professionally trained lifeguards satisfy this need when provided by a regulated facility or tour operator. When lifeguards are not provided by others, the adult supervisor must assign at least two rescue personnel, with additional numbers to maintain a ratio to participants of 1:10. The supervisor must provide instruction and rescue equipment and assign areas of responsibility as outlined in the BSA publication Aquatics Supervision. The qualified supervisor, the designated response personnel, and the lookout work together as a safety team. A simple emergency action plan should be formulated by the safety team and shared with participants as appropriate. 5. Lookout The lookout continuously monitors the conduct of the swim, identifies any departures from Safe Swim Defense guidelines, alerts response personnel as needed, and monitors the weather and environment. The lookout should have a clear view of the entire area but be close enough for easy verbal communication. The lookout must have a sound understanding of Safe Swim Defense but is not required to perform rescues. The adult supervisor may serve simultaneously as the lookout but must assign the task to someone else if engaged in activities that preclude focused observation. 14        swimming .Safety 6. Ability Groups All youth and adult participants are designated as swimmers, beginners, or nonswimmers based on swimming ability confirmed by standardized BSA swim classification tests. Each group is assigned a specific swimming area with depths consistent with those abilities. The classification tests should be renewed annually, preferably at the beginning of the season. Swimmers pass this test: Jump feetfirst into water over the head in depth. Level off and swim 75 yards in a strong manner using one or more of the following strokes: sidestroke, breaststroke, trudgen, or crawl; then swim 25 yards using an easy resting backstroke. The 100 yards must be completed in one swim without stops and must include at least one sharp turn. After completing the swim, rest by floating. Beginners pass this test: Jump feetfirst into water over the head in depth, level off, and swim 25 feet on the surface. Stop, turn sharply, resume swimming, and return to the starting place. Anyone who has not completed either the beginner or swimmer tests is classified as a nonswimmer. The nonswimmer area should be no more than waist to chest deep and should be enclosed by physical boundaries such as the shore, a pier, or lines. The enclosed beginner area should contain water of standing depth and may extend to depths just over the head. The swimmer area may be up to 12 feet in depth in clear water and should be defined by floats or other markers. swimming        15 Safety. 7. Buddy System Every participant is paired with another participant. Buddies stay together, monitor each other, and alert the safety team if either needs assistance or is missing. Buddies check into and out of the area together. Buddies are normally in the same ability group and remain in their assigned area. If they are not of the same ability group, then they swim in the area assigned to the buddy with the lesser ability. Buddy checks indicate how closely the buddies are keeping track of each other. Roughly every 10 minutes, or as needed to keep the buddies together, the lookout, or other person designated by the supervisor, gives an audible signal, such as a single whistle blast, and a call for “Buddies.” Buddies are expected to raise each other’s hand before completion of a slow, audible count to 10. Buddies who take longer to find each other should be reminded of their responsibility for each other’s safety. A buddy check also helps the safety team monitor everyone in the water. If a buddy is missing, a search is begun immediately in accordance with a prearranged emergency action plan. If everyone has a buddy, a count is made by area and compared with the total number known to be in the water. Once the count is confirmed, a signal is given to resume swimming. 8. Discipline Rules are effective only when followed. All participants should know, understand, and respect the rules and procedures for safe swimming provided by Safe Swim Defense guidelines. Applicable rules should be discussed prior to the outing and reviewed for all participants at the water’s edge just before the swimming activity begins. People are more likely to follow directions when they know the reasons for rules and procedures. Consistent, impartially applied rules supported by skill and good judgment provide stepping-stones to a safe, enjoyable outing. 16        swimming .Safety Pool and Surf Swimming Safe Swim Defense applies to swimming at a beach, private or public pool, wilderness pond, stream, lake, or anywhere Scouts swim. Here are some additional points for the pool and the surf. Pool. If the swimming activity is in a public facility where others are using the pool at the same time and the pool operator provides guard personnel, there may be no need for additional Scout lifeguards and lookouts. However, there must always be an adult supervisor who understands his or her responsibility and ensures that the elements of Safe Swim Defense are followed. The buddy system is also critically important, even in a public pool. Even in a crowd, you are alone without protection if no one is paying attention to your circumstances. The rule that people swim only in water depths suited to their ability also applies at pools. Most public pools divide shallow and deep water. This may be enough for defining appropriate swimming areas. If not, the supervisor should clearly point out to participants the appropriate areas of the public facility. Surf. The surf environment—with its wave action, currents, tides, backwash, and sea life such as stinging jellyfish—requires precautions for safe swimming that aren’t necessary in other environments. A swimmer’s physical condition and skill are very important and should enable the swimmer to recover footing in waves, swim for long periods without getting worn out, and remain calm and in control when faced with unexpected conditions. Designated swimming areas are marked by flags or pennants that are easy to see. Beginners and nonswimmers should be positioned inshore from standing lifeguards who are equipped with rescue equipment. Better swimmers are permitted seaward of the lifeguards but must remain shoreward of anchored marker buoys. The lifeguard-to-swimmer ratio should always be 1-to-10 with a rescue team supplied with a rescue tube or other flotation aid stationed at the beach area. Unless your unit is experienced in ocean swimming, it is probably best to swim at a beach with professional lifeguards. swimming        17 Safety. Rip Currents The United States Lifesaving Association estimates that most rescues— about 80 percent—at surf beaches involve swimmers caught in rip currents. More than 100 swimmers die each year from this swimming hazard. Rip currents are long, narrow sections of water that form after waves break and the water goes back out. Rip currents form a funnel of current that moves much faster than the current on either side. The current can be so strong that it may be difficult or impossible to swim against it. It can carry an unsuspecting swimmer long distances from shore and even out to sea. Rip currents occur in oceans and any place where there are waves, including bodies of water such as the Great Lakes. To avoid getting caught in a rip current, do not swim near piers or jetties (walls built out into the water to protect a harbor or beach). Rip currents are often hard to see, but look for the following clues: • An area having a noticeable difference in water color • A channel of churning, choppy water • A line of foam, seaweed, or debris moving steadily away from shore • A break in the incoming wave pattern If you are caught in a rip current, don’t fight it by swimming toward   the beach. Instead,   turn and escape by swimming parallel to the shore. If that doesn’t work, float or tread water. Call or wave for help. waves beach 18        swimming

Author Boy Scouts of America Isbn 9780839533528 File size 6.18MB Year 2010 Pages 94 Language English File format PDF Category Sport Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare Merit Badge Pamphlets: An official Boy Scout merit badge pamphlet has been created for the BSA by topic authorities for each merit badge. The pamphlets contain requirements, introductory information and supplemental reference text. A scout can purchase pamphlets from BSA, find them in a troop library, or often-times check them out from a public library. There is also a Requirements Booklet with a merit badge list for quick reference. Each merit badge has a pamphlet that outlines the badge’s fulfillment requirements. While a scout does not need to have a pamphlet to earn a badge, the pamphlet suggests activities and demonstrations to help the scout earn a badge. Counselors use pamphlets to learn a scout’s requirements and create projects that are not listed in the pamphlet.     Download (6.18MB) Small-Boat Sailing Merit Badge Series Wilderness Survival Merit Badge Series Whitewater Merit Badge Series Water Sports Merit Badge Series Weather Merit Badge Series Load more posts

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