Slave Portraiture In The Atlantic World by Agnes Lugo-Ortiz and Angela Rosenthal


4856e80d856b67d.jpg Author Agnes Lugo-Ortiz and Angela Rosenthal
Isbn 9781107004399
File size 38.8 MB
Year 2013
Pages 487
Language English
File format PDF
Category art



 

S lave P o rt rai t u r e i n t h e At lan t i c Wo r l d Slave Portraiture in the Atlantic World is the first book to focus on the individualized portrayal of enslaved people from the time of Europe’s full engagement with plantation slavery in the late sixteenth century to its official abolition in Brazil in 1888. While this period saw the emergence of portraiture as a major field of representation in Western art, “slave” and “portraiture” as categories appear to be mutually exclusive. On the one hand, the logic of chattel slavery sought to render the slave’s body as an instrument for production, as the site of a non-subject. Portraiture, on the contrary, privileged the face as the primary visual matrix for the representation of a distinct individuality. The essays in this volume address this apparent paradox of “slave portraits” from a variety of interdisciplinary perspectives. They probe the historical conditions that made the creation of such rare and enigmatic objects possible and explore their implications for a more complex understanding of power relations under slavery. Agnes Lugo-Ortiz is Associate Professor of Latin American and Caribbean Literatures and Cultures at the University of Chicago. She is the author of Identidades imaginadas: Biografía y nacionalidad en el horizonte de la guerra and co-editor of Herencia: The Anthology of Hispanic Literature of the United States; En otra voz: Antología de la ­literatura hispana de los Estados Unidos; and Recovering the U.S. Hispanic Literary Heritage, Volume V. Angela Rosenthal (d. 2010) was Associate Professor of Art History at Dartmouth College. She was the author of Angelika Kauffmann: Bildnismalerei im 18. Jahrhundert and Angelica Kauffman: Art and Sensibility, which won the 2007 Historians of British Art Book Award in the pre-1800 category. She also was co-editor of The Other Hogarth: Aesthetics of Difference. Pp S lave P o rt rai t u r e i n t h e At lan t i c Wo r l d Ed it e d b y Agnes Lugo-Ortiz The University of Chicago Angela Rosenthal Dartmouth College 32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013-2473, USA Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge. It furthers the University’s mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning, and research at the highest international levels of excellence. www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781107004399 © Cambridge University Press 2013 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2013 Printed in the United States of America A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication data Slave portraiture in the Atlantic world / [edited by] Agnes Lugo-Ortiz, Angela Rosenthal. p.  cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-107-00439-9 (hardback) 1.  Slavery in art.  2.  Portraits.  3.  Slavery – Atlantic Ocean Region – History. I.  Lugo-Ortiz, Agnes I.  II.  Rosenthal, Angela. N8243.S576S54  2012 704.9’49306362–dc23    2011036251 ISBN 978-1-107-00439-9 Hardback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party Internet Web sites referred to in this publication and does not guarantee that any content on such Web sites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. C ontents page vii xiii xvii List of Plates and Figures List of Contributors Acknowledgments Introduction: E nvi s i oni ng Slave Po rt rai t ure Angela Rosenthal and Agnes Lugo-Ortiz 1 Part I. Vi si b il ity a n d I nv is ib ility 1 Slave ry and th e Po s s i bi l i ti e s o f Po rt rai t ure Marcia Pointon 41 2 Subjectivity and Slave ry i n Po rtrai t ure : F ro m Courtly to Co mme rci al So ci e ti e s David Bindman 71 3 Lo oking fo r Sci pi o Mo o rh ead : A n “A f r i can Pai nt e r ” in Revoluti onary No rth A me ri ca Eric Slauter 89 Part II. Slave Po r tr a itu re, C o lo n ia lis m , and Mo de r n Im p erial Cu lt u re 4 Thre e Ge nt l e me n f ro m E s me ral das : A Po rt rai t Fit for a Ki ng Tom Cummins 119 5 Metamorph o s e s o f t h e S e l f i n E ar ly - M o d e r n S pai n : Slave Portrai ture and th e Cas e o f Juan d e Pare ja Carmen Fracchia 147 v Contents 6 O f Sai lo rs and Slave s : Po rt rai t ure , P ro pe rty, and th e Tri al s o f Ci rcum - At lant i c S ub j e c t i vi t i e s, ca . 1750– 1830 Geoff Quilley 7 B e twe e n Vi o l e nce and Re d e m p t i on: S lave Po rtrai ture i n E arly P lantat i on C uba Agnes Lugo-Ortiz 171 201 Part I I I . Su b jec ts to Sc ien t i f i c and E t hnogr aphi c Know ledge 8 A l be rt E ck h out’ s A f r i c a n W o m a n a n d C h i l d ( 1641 ) : E t h no g raph i c Po rt rai t ure , S lave ry, and th e New Wo rl d Sub j e c t Rebecca P. Brienen 9 E m b o dy i ng A f r i can K now l e d g e i n C o loni al S ur i nam : Two Wi l l i am B lak e E ng ravi ng s i n Ste d man ’ s 179 6 N a r r a t i v e Susan Scott Parrish 10 E xqui s i t e E m p ty S h e l l s : S c ul p t e d S lave Po rt rai t s and th e Fre nch E th no g raphi c Tur n James Smalls 229 257 283 Part I V. Fa c ing Ab o litio n 11 Wh o I s t h e S ub j e c t ? M ar i e - G ui l h e l m i ne B e no i st ’ s P o r t r a i t d ’u n e N é g r e s s e Viktoria Schmidt-Linsenhoff 12 Th e Many Face s o f Tou s sai nt L ou ve rt ure Helen Weston 13 C i n q u é : A He ro i c Po rtrai t f o r t he A b o l i t i oni st Cau s e Toby Maria Chieffo-Reidway 14 Th e I nt re pi d M ar i ne r S i mão : Vi s ual H i sto r i e s o f B lac k ne s s i n t h e L u s o - At lant i c at t h e E nd o f th e Slave Trad e Daryle Williams Index vi p 315 345 375 405 433 P lates and F igures Plates 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Color plates follow page 116 Diego Velázquez, Juan de Pareja William Hoare of Bath, Portrait of Ayuba Suleiman Diallo, called Job ben Solomon (1701–73) Andrés Sánchez Galque, Portrait of Don Francisco de Arobe and his sons Don Pedro and Don Domingo Juan de Pareja, The Calling of Saint Matthew William Hogarth, Captain Lord George Graham, 1715–47, in his Cabin José Nicolás de Escalera, Familia del Conde de Casa Bayona (Family of the Count of Casa Bayona) Albert Eckhout, African Woman and Child Charles Henri Joseph Cordier, Negro of the Sudan in Algerian Costume Marie-Guilhelmine Benoist, Portrait d’une Négresse (Portrait of a Negress) Nathaniel Jocelyn, Portrait of Cinqué José Correia de Lima, O Retrato do Intrépido Marinheiro Simão, Carvoeiro do Vapor Pernambucana (The Portrait of the Intrepid Mariner Simão, Coalman of the Steamship Pernambucana) Figures I.1 John Michael Wright, Portrait of Miss Butterworth of Belfield Hall I.2 John Trumbull, George Washington page 2 3 vii Plates and Figures I.3 J. T. Zealy, Renty, Congo, Plantation of B. F. Taylor, Esqu. I.4 Kara Walker, Untitled I.5 Diego Velázquez, Juan de Pareja I.6 John Philip Simpson, The Captive Slave I.7 William Hackwood for Josiah Wedgwood, Am I Not a Man and a Brother? I.8 Anonymous, Flora’s Profile I.9 Detail of Figure I.8 (bill of sale) 1.1 Anonymous artist, Elihu Yale, the 2nd Duke of Devonshire, Lord James Cavendish, Mr. Tunstal, and a Page 1.2 Detail of Figure 1.1 (page) 1.3 William Hoare, Job, Son of Solliman Dgiallo, High Priest of Bonda in the Country of Foota, Africa 1.4 William Hoare of Bath, Portrait of Ayuba Suleiman Diallo, called Job ben Solomon (1701–73) 1.5 Richard Avedon, William Casby, born into slavery, Algiers, Louisiana, March 24, 1963 1.6 (After Scipio Moorhead?), Phillis Wheatley, Negro Servant to Mr. John Wheatley, of Boston 1.7 John Singleton Copley, Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Izard (Alice Delancey) 1.8 Hubert Gravelot after Francis Hayman, Mr. B reading Pamela’s letter 1.9 Solomon in his Plantation Suit 2.1 Titian, Laura Dianti 2.2 Joshua Reynolds, Paul Henry Ourry 2.3 Gerard Hoet after Godfrey Kneller, Frederick Duke of Schonberg 2.4 Godfrey Kneller, Two Studies of a Black Page 2.5 Thomas Gainsborough, Ignatius Sancho 2.6 Joshua Reynolds, John Manners, Marquess of Granby 2.7 Guilaume du Mortier, Antonio Emanuele Ne Vunda 2.8 Johann Gottfried Haid after Johann Nepomuk Steiner, Angelo Soliman 2.9 Daniel Chodowiecki, La Cervelle d’un peintre 3.1 (After Scipio Moorhead?), Phillis Wheatley, Negro Servant to Mr. John Wheatley, of Boston 3.2 P.F. (Pompey Fleet). Title page of The Prodigal Daughter 3.3 Phillis Wheatley. Title page of Bickerstaff’s Boston Almanack 3.4 John Smibert, The Bermuda Group (Dean Berkeley and His Entourage) 3.5 John Singleton Copley, Mrs. Richard Skinner (Dorothy Wendell) 3.6 John Singleton Copley, Boy with a Flying Squirrel (Henry Pelham) viii p 9 15 16 17 18 20 21 42 43 44 45 50 57 58 59 60 72 74 76 77 78 79 80 82 84 90 97 103 104 104 105 Plates and Figures 3.7 Jonathan Spilsbury after Mason Chamberlin, The Reverend Mr. Samson Occom 3.8 John Singleton Copley, Paul Revere 3.9 Auction notice, Boston Gazette, 2 January 1775 4.1 Andrés Sánchez Galque, Portrait of Don Francisco de Arobe and his sons Don Pedro and Don Domingo 4.2 Detail of Figure 4.1 (cartouche) 4.3 Modern map of Ecuador 4.4 Fray Pedro Bedón, Virgin of the Rosary 4.5 Andrés Sanchéz Galque, Christ at the Column with Saint Peter 4.6 Detail of Figure 4.5 (signature) 4.7 Detail of Figure 4.1 (goatee) 4.8 Detail of Figure 4.1 (Don Pedro’s face) 4.9 Detail of Figure 4.1 (Don Domingo’s face) 4.10 Jama-Coaque warrior figurine 5.1 Juan de Pareja, The Calling of Saint Matthew 5.2 Diego Velázquez, Juan de Pareja 5.3 Detail of Figure 5.1 (Pareja’s self-portrait) 5.4 Diego Velázquez, detail of Las Meninas (Velázquez’s self-portrait) 5.5 Detail of Figure 5.1 (Saint Matthew and the African slave) 5.6 Detail of Figure 5.1 (scene depicting Moses) 5.7 Diego Velázquez, Kitchen Maid with Supper at Emmaus 5.8 Michel Lasne after Aubin Vouet, Baptism of the Ethiopian by Saint Philip 6.1 John Singleton Copley, Watson and the Shark 6.2 Théodore Géricault, The Raft of the Medusa 6.3 William Hogarth, Captain Lord George Graham, 1715–47, in his Cabin 6.4 Detail of Figure 6.3 (black servant) 6.5 George Woodward, engr. Roberts, A Sailor Sitting for his Miniature 6.6 Anonymous artist, Sailors in Westminster Abbey 6.7 William Hogarth, The Rake’s Progress 6.8 William Elmes, A Milling Match Between Decks 6.9 Daniel Orme after W. Denton, Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa the African 6.10 Gabriel Bray, The Fantyman Head Dress, Gold Coast, Africa 6.11 Gabriel Bray, Lieutenant Gabriel Bray Sketching in Watercolours 6.12 Gabriel Bray, Lieutenant Gabriel Bray Shaving 6.13 Anonymous artist, Her Mistress’s Clothes 7.1 José Nicolás de Escalera, Familia del Conde de Casa Bayona (Family of the Count of Casa Bayona) 106 107 109 121 122 123 127 128 129 133 134 135 140 148 149 152 155 157 159 161 163 172 173 175 176 177 179 183 184 186 191 192 193 195 204 P ix Plates and Figures 7.2 Detail of Fig. 7.1 (slave) 205 7.3 William Dobson, Portrait of John, 1st Lord Byron (ca. 1600–52) 206 7.4 Gerard Soest, Portrait of Cecilius Calvert, Second Lord of Baltimore, with grandson and attendant 207 7.5 Justus Englehardt Kühn, Portrait of Henry Darnall III 208 7.6 José Campeche, Exvoto de la Sagrada Familia (Exvoto of the Holy Family) 213 7.7 Schematic floor plan, Church of Santa María del Rosario 214 7.8 José Nicolás de Escalera, Glorificación de Santo Domingo (Glorification of Santo Domingo) 215 7.9 José Nicolás de Escalera, La Rosaleda de Nuestra Señora (The Rose Garden of Our Lady) 215 7.10 José Nicolás de Escalera, Donación de la Virgen al Glorioso Santo Domingo (Donation of the Virgin to the Glorious Santo Domingo) 216 8.1 Albert Eckhout, African Woman and Child 230 8.2 Albert Eckhout, African Man 231 8.3 Albert Eckhout, Woman on Beach 232 8.4 Anonymous artist, Las castas 233 8.5 Pieter de Marees, How the Women Comport Themselves 234 8.6 Albert Eckhout, Tupinamba Woman 238 8.7 Albert Eckhout, Tapuya Woman 239 8.8 Zacharias Wagener, Molher Negra (Black Woman) 241 8.9 Pieter de Marees, The Inhabitants of Capo Lopo Gonsalves 244 8.10 Albert Eckhout, Albino Man of African Descent 250 9.1 Franceso Bartolozzi, frontispiece from Narrative of a five years’ expedition against the Revolted Negroes of Surinam … 260 9.2 William Blake, attributed, after J. G. Stedman, March thro’ a swamp or Marsh in Terra-firma 264 9.3 William Blake after J. G. Stedman, The celebrated Graman Quacy 268 9.4 William Blake after J. G. Stedman, A Coromantyn free Negro or Ranger armed 272 9.5 William Hogarth, A Midnight Modern Conversation 273 9.6 Anonymous artist, Mr. T. [Thomas Dartmouth] Rice as the Original Jim Crow 275 10.1 Charles Henri Joseph Cordier, Saïd Abdallah, de la tribu de Mayac, Royaume de Darfour (Saïd Abdallah of the Mayac Tribe, Kingdom of Darfur) 284 10.2 Jean-Baptiste Pigalle, Le Nègre Paul 287 10.3 Jean-Antoine Houdon, Buste d’une négresse 288 10.4 Ochi-Fékoué, Life cast 292 10.5 Seïd Enkess, Life cast 293 x p Plates and Figures 10.6 Charles Henri Joseph Cordier, La Vénus Africaine (African Venus or Négresse des colonies) 294 10.7 Charles Henri Joseph Cordier, Negro of the Sudan in Algerian Costume 300 10.8 Charles Henri Joseph Cordier, Câpresse des Colonies (Négresse des Colonies) 302 10.9 Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, Pourquoi naître esclave? (Why Be Born a Slave?) 303 11.1 Marie-Guilhelmine Benoist, Portrait d’une Négresse (Portrait of a Negress) 316 11.2 Anonymous artist (Brazilian School), Mulher de Bahía (Woman of Bahia) 317 11.3 Maud Sulter, Bonnie Greer 319 11.4 Francisco Goya, The Duchess of Alba Holding María de la Luz 320 11.5 Sophie de Tott, Ourika 321 11.6 Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, Portrait du citoyen Belley, ex-représentant des colonies 326 11.7 T. Holloway after J. G. Stedman, Portrait of Joanna 328 11.8 Raphael, Portrait of a Young Woman (La Fornarina) 329 11.9 Graigner after Thomas Stothard, The Voyage of the Sable Venus 330 11.10 Anonymous artist, Hottentotte à Tablier 331 11.11 Jacques-Louis David, Self-Portrait 332 11.12 Jacques-Louis David, Henriette Verninac, née Henriette Delacroix 333 11.13 Jacques-Louis David, Madame Récamier 334 11.14 Pierre Dumonstier le Jeune, The Hand of Artemisia Gentileschi 338 12.1 “Fort de Joux, Jeudi 7 Avril 1803, Mort de Toussaint Louverture, Le Précurseur, Liberté Haiti” 348 12.2 Reiner Vinkeles after Daniel Vrydag, Saint Domingue, A Slave Defending His Master during the 1791 Revolt 351 12.3 John Kay, Toussaint Louverture 353 12.4 J. Bordes after Marcus Rainsford, Toussaint Louverture 355 12.5 Denis A. Volozan, Equestrian Portrait of Toussaint Louverture on Bel-Argent 356 12.6 Delpech after Nicolas-Eustache Maurin, Toussaint Louverture 358 12.7 Cell in the fortress of Joux, occupied by Toussaint Louverture 360 12.8 Bove after Jean Charles Develly, Le 11 juillet 1825. L’Ordonnance de S. M. Charles X, qui reconnaît l’indépendance d’Haïti, est reçu par le Président Boyer, aux acclamations de toutes les classes d’habitans de l’Ile 361 12.9 Villain (rue de Sèvres), Le Général Toussaint Louverture à qui le Général Leclerc avait envoyé ses enfants, pour tâcher par là de l’engager à déserter la cause des noirs, les renvoie après les avoir embrassés 362 P xi Plates and Figures 12.10 La citoyenne Rollet after Fougea, Le Nègre armé 12.11 Villain, La Mort de Toussaint Louverture 12.12 After a drawing by Montfayon, Toussaint Louverture 13.1 Nathaniel Jocelyn, Portrait of Cinqué 13.2 John Neagle, Pat Lyon at the Forge (1779–1829) 13.3 John Sartain after Nathaniel Jocelyn, Cinqué 13.4 John Warner Barber after Amasa Hewins, Death of Capt. Ferrer, the Captain of the Amistad, July, 1839 13.5 Titian, Ecce Homo 13.6 Sierra Leone North West of the Peninsula on Entering the Estuary 13.7 John Warner Barber, Southeastern View of West Rock and Westville 13.8 Samuel Finley Breese Morse, Benjamin Silliman (1779–1864) 13.9 Profile depiction of an African man (Judges Cave) 13.10 Frederic Edwin Church, West Rock, New Haven 14.1 José Correia de Lima, O Retrato do Intrépido Marinheiro Simão, Carvoeiro do Vapor Pernambucana (The Portrait of the Intrepid Mariner Simão, Coalman of the Steamship Pernambucana) 14.2 Jean-Baptiste Debret, Les rafraichissements de l’après dîner sur la Place du Palais (After Dinner Refreshments on the Palace Square) 14.3 Jean-Baptiste Debret, Les barbiers ambulants (Itinerant Barbers) 14.4 João Goston, Negra posando em estúdio (Black Woman Posing in the Studio) 14.5 Anonymous artist, Stowage of the British Slave Ship “Brookes” under the Regulated Slave Trade Act of 1788 14.6 Joseph Mallord William Turner, Slave Ship (Slavers Throwing Overboard the Dead and Dying, Typhoon Coming On) 14.7 Francisco de Paula Brito and Louis Thérier, SIMÃO Heròe do Vapor Brasileiro Pernambucana (Simão, Hero of the Brazilian Steamship Pernambucana) 14.8 Advertisements for daguerreotype studios, runaway slaves, a “sociable and loyal” cook, the Paula Brito-Thérier lithograph, and theatrical performances of Pedro-Sem, among others, 16 November 1853 14.9 Anonymous artist, O preto Simão, salvador dos naufragos da PERNANBUCANA (The Black Man Simão, Savior of the Castaways of the PERNANBUCANA [sic]) 14.10 Augusto Müller, Retrato de Manoel Correia dos Santos, Mestre de Sumaca (Portrait of Manoel Correia dos Santos, First Mate of a Smack) xii p 364 367 368 376 380 382 384 389 390 392 393 394 395 406 412 412 413 414 415 420 422 423 427 C ontributors David Bindman. Emeritus Professor of the History of Art at University College London. He has written extensively on British art and most recently on art and race. He is the author of Ape to Apollo: Aesthetics and the Idea of Race in the 18th Century (Cornell, 2002) and is currently editing, with Henry Louis Gates, Jr., The Image of the Black in Western Art in ten volumes, the first eight of which have been published, with the final two, on the twentieth century, to appear in 2014. Rebecca P. Brienen. Associate Professor of Art History and director of the Art History program at the University of Miami. She is the author of Visions of Savage Paradise: Albert Eckhout, Court Art in Colonial Dutch Brazil (Amsterdam, 2006) and was a Kluge Fellow at the Library of Congress in 2010–2011. Toby Maria Chieffo-Reidway. Independent Cultural Historian, B.A., George­ town University; M.A. and Ph.D., The College of William and Mary. She is a recipient of a NEH research grant and was a Smithsonian Institution predoctoral Fellow, National Museum of American History and National Portrait Gallery. Tom Cummins. Dumbarton Oaks Professor of the History of Pre-Columbian and Colonial Art and chairman of the Department of the History of Art and Architecture, Harvard University. He is the author of Toasts with the Inca: Andean Abstraction and Colonial Images on Quero Vessels (Michigan, 2002) and Beyond the Lettered City: Indigenous Literacies in the Andes (with Joanne Rappaport; Duke, 2012), which received the 2013 Latin American Studies Association’s Bryce Wood Book Award. xiii Contributors Carmen Fracchia. Lecturer in Early Modern Spanish Visual Studies and former director of the Centre for Iberian and Latin American Visual Studies, Birkbeck University of London; Visiting Professor, Department of Social Anthropology, University of Granada, Spain, and a member of international collaborative networks, sponsored by the Spanish government, on the Anthropology of Slavery, Memory of Slavery, and Slavery and Abolitionism. Agnes Lugo-Ortiz. Associate Professor of Latin American literatures and Caribbean cultural history at the University of Chicago. She is the author of Identidades imaginadas: Biografía y nacionalidad en el horizonte de la guerra (Cuba, 1860–1898) (Puerto Rico, 1999) and co-editor of several collections on Latino/a literature including Herencia: The Anthology of Hispanic Literature of the United States (Oxford, 2002). She is currently working on a book on the visual cultures of slavery in colonial Cuba (1727–1886). Susan Scott Parrish. Associate Professor in the Department of English Language and Literature at the University of Michigan. She is the author of American Curiosity: Cultures of Natural History in the Colonial British Atlantic World (North Carolina, 2006), which was awarded the Ralph Waldo Emerson Prize and the Jamestown Prize. Marcia Pointon. Professor Emerita in History of Art at the University of Manchester and Honorable Research Fellow at the Courtauld Institute of Art. Her books include Hanging the Head: Portraiture and Social Formation in Eighteenth-Century England (Yale, 1993) and Brilliant Effects: A Cultural History of Gem Stones and Jewellery (Yale, 2009). Portrayal and the Search for Identity was published by Reaktion Books in 2013. Geoff Quilley. Senior Lecturer in Art History at the University of Sussex. His research focuses on British art and empire in the long eighteenth century; his most recent book, Empire to Nation: Art, History and the Visualization of Maritime Britain, 1768–1829, was published by Yale University Press in 2011. He has just completed a two-year Leverhulme Fellowship toward research for a new book on British art and the East India Company. Angela Rosenthal. Educated in Germany and the United Kingdom, she was Associate Professor of Art History and chair of the Department of Art History at Dartmouth College. Her work focused on British and continental European art within a global perspective. She authored Angelika Kauffmann: Bildnismalerei im 18. Jahrhundert (Reimer, 1996) and Angelica Kauffman: Art and Sensibility (Yale, 2006), which won the 2007 Historians of British Art Book Award in the xiv p Contributors pre-1800 category, and she co-edited the volume The Other Hogarth: Aesthetics of Difference (Princeton, 2001). Viktoria Schmidt-Linsenhoff. Professor Emerita of Art History at the University of Trier, Germany. She was co-author and co-editor of Das Subjekt und die Anderen: Interkulturalität und Geschlechterdifferenz (Berlin, 2001) and of The Family of Man 1955–2001: Humanism and Postmodernism: A Reappraisal of the Photo Exhibition (Marburg, 2004). Two recent publications include her two-volume Ästhetik der Differenz: Postkoloniale Perspektiven vom 16. bis 21. Jahrhundert (Marburg, 2010) and “On and beyond the Colour Line: Afterimages of Old and New Slavery in Contemporary Art since 1990” in Birgit Haehnel and Melanie Ulz (eds.), Slavery in Art and Literature: Approaches to Memory, Trauma, and Visuality (Berlin, 2010). Eric Slauter. Associate Professor of American cultural, intellectual, and literary history and director of the Karla Scherer Center for the Study of American Culture at the University of Chicago. He is the author of The State as a Work of Art: The Cultural Origins of the Constitution (Chicago, 2008). James Smalls. Professor of Art History and Theory at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. His research focuses on the intersections of race, gender, and queer sexuality in the visual culture of the nineteenth century and that of the black diaspora. He is the author of Homosexuality in Art (Parkstone, 2003) and The Homoerotic Photography of Carl Van Vechten (Temple, 2006). Helen Weston. Professor Emerita of Art History at the University of London. Her work has focused on political and post-colonial questions concerning the art of the French Revolution, with some emphasis on portraiture. She co-edited, with William Vaughan, David’s The Death of Marat (Cambridge, 2000). Daryle Williams. Associate Professor of History at the University of Maryland. He is the author of Culture Wars in Brazil: The First Vargas Regime, 1930–1945 (Duke, 2001), winner of the American Historical Association’s John Edwin Fagg prize. He served as associate director of the David C. Driskell Center for the Study of the African Diaspora from 2002 to 2004 and is currently writing a book on the Free Africans of Brazil. P xv Acknowledgments This book travels back and forth across the Atlantic, through a dilated span of almost four centuries, in search of traces left by those often lost to the history of art or to philosophical accounts on the “modern subject.” Such a project could not have been possible without the anchoring support, faith, and sustenance of countless people during the many years that the two of us devoted to its preparation. We would first like to thank the institutions and units that provided material help to secure permission to use the many images discussed in the following essays or that provided a structural foundation for our work: at Dartmouth College, the Office of the Dean of the Arts and Humanities and former dean Kate Conley, the Leslie Center for the Humanities and its former directors Jonathan Crewe and Adrian Randolph, the Hood Museum of Art and its former interim director Katherine Hart, and the Department of Art History; at the University of Chicago, the Center for Latin American Studies and its director Mauricio Tenorio and former acting director Alan Kolata, and the Center for the Study of Race, Politics, and Culture and its former director Ramón Gutiérrez. This kind of support is always about more than funding or hosting. It is an expression of belief in the importance of a project and of confidence in its stewardship, and for this we are deeply grateful. The staff at all of these units was extremely generous in good and, especially, in difficult times. We would like to make particular mention of Jan Smarsik, Steve Dyer, Kathleen O’Malley, Isabel Weatherdon, and Betsy Alexander at Dartmouth, and Josh Beck and Clare Buttry at Chicago. Their unwavering disposition to lend a helping hand with good humor and a sense of commitment made all the difference and was fundamental to keeping the project on track at crucial moments. We would also like to acknowledge the Paul Mellon Centre, the Yale Center for British Art, the Clark Art Institute, and the W. E. B. DuBois Institute at Harvard University for their xvii Acknowledgments collegial sharing of information and intellectual support, as well as those individuals and institutions, mentioned throughout this volume, who have granted us permission to reproduce some of the works that appear here. The anonymous readers for Cambridge University Press provided thoughtful suggestions and productive critiques of the manuscript version of this book. To them, to our editor Beatrice Rehl, to our assistant editors Anastasia Graf and Amanda Smith, and to the members of the Cambridge production team, especially James Dunn, Holly Johnson, and David Anderson, we offer our thanks for their care of and trust in this work. Friends and colleagues from all quarters of our lives have followed throughout the years, to varying degrees, our obsession with and passion for the questions raised in this volume. Many listened with interest to our reflections about the project and offered, often inadvertently, useful insights. Others were simply there to provide love and support, which is in itself no small feat. There are too many to list here, and we have no doubt that our faulty memory, not a lack of gratitude, leads us to some involuntary omissions. Yet, mindful of this risk, we nonetheless wish to thank the following: First, Marianne Hirsch and Mario Santana for their generous and encouraging readings of an earlier version of our introduction to this book (its limitations are, of course, our sole responsibility); at Dartmouth, Mary Desjardins, Mark Williams, Amy Lawrence, Kathleen Corrigan, Irene Kacandes, Silvia Spitta, Gerd Gemünden, Jonathan Crewe, Melissa Zeiger, Ada Cohen, Joy Kenseth, Mary Coffey, Annelise Orleck, Alexis Jetter, Michelle Meyers (d. 2012), Josie Harper, Francine A’Ness, Doug Moody, Paula Sprague, Miguel Valladares, Israel Reyes, and Katherine Hart; in New York, Diana Taylor, Leo Spitzer, Eric Manheimer, Lori Novak, Jill Lane, and Lauren Jacobi; in New Haven, Jacqueline Goldsby and George Chauncey; in Cuba, Raida Mara Suárez Portal, Orelvis Rodríguez Morales, Margarita Suárez, Zoila Lapique, Luisa Campuzano, Ambrosio Fornet, and Carlos Venegas; in Madrid, Maricruz de Carlo; in México, Zaide Silvia Gutiérrez and Richard McDowell; in or from Puerto Rico, Ivette Hernández, Luis Avilés, Malena Rodríguez-Castro, Rubén Ríos-Avila, Mara Negrón (d. 2012), Licia Fiol-Matta, Aldo Lauria, Arcadio Díaz-Quiñones, Maruja García-Padilla, Angel Quintero Rivera, Juan Gelpí, Carlos Pabón, Edna Román, Mari Quiñones, and Carmen Luisa González; in Chicago, Miriam Hansen (d. 2011), Stephan Palmié, Daín Borges, Loren Kruger, Darby English, Elisa Martí-López, Bernadette Fort, Miguel Amat, and Nathalie Bouzaglo; in London, John Brewer and Marcia Pointon; in Frankfurt, Viktoria Schmidt-Linsenhoff (d. 2013); and in Washington, Yuriko Jackall. Special thanks go to Toula Polygalaktos for her help during the final push. We would also like to evoke here the beloved memory of Suzanne and Half Zantop, whose lives were shared with ours, and whom we senselessly lost in January 2001. They would have been eager to support us in this endeavor, and we know that something good must be missing from the content of this book because of their absence. xviii p

Author Agnes Lugo-Ortiz and Angela Rosenthal Isbn 9781107004399 File size 38.8 MB Year 2013 Pages 487 Language English File format PDF Category Art Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare Slave Portraiture in the Atlantic World is the first book to focus on the individualized portrayal of enslaved people from the time of Europe’s full engagement with plantation slavery in the late sixteenth century to its final official abolition in Brazil in 1888. While this period saw the emergence of portraiture as a major field of representation in Western art, ‘slave’ and ‘portraiture’ as categories appear to be mutually exclusive. On the one hand, the logic of chattel slavery sought to render the slave’s body as an instrument for production, as the site of a non-subject. Portraiture, on the contrary, privileged the face as the primary visual matrix for the representation of a distinct individuality. Essays address this apparent paradox of ‘slave portraits’ from a variety of interdisciplinary perspectives, probing the historical conditions that made the creation of such rare and enigmatic objects possible and exploring their implications for a more complex understanding of power relations under slavery.     Download (38.8 MB) New Frontiers of Slavery Madness and Modernism: Insanity in the Light of Modern Art, Literature, and Thought Georg Simmel: Rembrandt: An Essay in the Philosophy of Art The Slave Trade and Culture in the Bight of Biafra: An African Society in the Atlantic World Art Unlimited?: Dynamics and Paradoxes of a Globalizing Art World (Cultural Studies) Load more posts

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