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The ideas of psychoanalyst Otto Gross (1877±1920) have had a seminal
in¯uence on the development of psychoanalytic theory and clinical practice
and yet his work has been largely overlooked. For Freud, he was one of
only two analysts `capable of making an original contribution' (Jung was
the other), and Jung called Gross `my twin brother' in the course of their
This is a major interdisciplinary enquiry into the history, nature and
plausibility of the idea of a `sexual revolution', drawing also on the related
®elds of history, law, criminology, literature, sociology and philosophy.
Divided into four parts and offering an interdisciplinary and international
range of contributors, areas of discussion include:
a contemporary perspective on sexual revolutions
the broad in¯uence of Otto Gross
the father±son con¯ict
a Jungian perspective on history
Sexual Revolutions introduces Gross's work to the academic and clinical
®elds of psychoanalysis and Jungian Analysis. Although most people
associate the term with the 1960s, its foundations lie in the long-neglected
but sensational work of the early psychoanalyst Otto Gross. This book will
be essential reading for all psychoanalysts and Jungian analysts with an
interest in learning more about his work.
Gottfried Heuer is a Jungian Training Analyst and Supervisor, and a Body
psychotherapist, with over 35 years' private practice in West London. He is
an independent scholar with over 60 published papers on the links between
analysis, radical politics, body psychotherapy and spirituality, and on the
history of analysis. He is co-founder and Chair of the International Otto
Gross Society, for which he (co-)edited seven volumes of Congress
proceedings, and editor of Sacral Revolutions Re¯ecting on the Work of
Andrew Samuels ± Cutting Edges in Psychoanalysis and Jungian Analysis,
Psychoanalysis, History and the Father
Edited by Gottfried Heuer
First published 2011 by Routledge
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This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2011.
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Ø 2011 selection and editorial matter Gottfried Heuer; individual chapters,
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or
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British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Sexual revolutions : psychoanalysis, history and the father / edited by
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN 978-0-415-57043-5 (hardback) ± ISBN 978-0-415-57044-2 (pbk.)
1. Gross, Otto, 1877-1920. 2. Psychoanalysis. 3. Jungian psychology.
4. Psychology, Pathological. I. Heuer, Gottfried, 1944±
ISBN 0-203-83471-2 Master e-book ISBN
ISBN: 978-0-415-57043-5 (hbk)
ISBN: 978-0-415-57044-2 (pbk)
With gratitude, in love
`Create new heavens and a new earth'
(Isaiah 65: 17)
Otto Gross's 1919 call to replace the `will to power' with the `will to
relating' as `the highest, the essential goal of all revolutions' re-emerged
in the 1960s as `make love, not war!': Now, if God is love, then making
love is to invoke the sacred ± `two bodies, one ¯esh' ± and `in our ¯esh
we shall see God' (Job 19: 26).
Gottfried M. Heuer
Introduction: `The angel of history': `The past and the present
are entwined like lovers in an embrace'
GOTTFRIED M. HEUER
Jung and history: Adumbrations of a post-Jungian approach
to psychoanalytic history
Sexual revolutions: Towards a brief history, from the Fall of
Man to the present
Fathers and sons
Elementary my dear Holmes: Hans Gross, the father of
Criminology, and Arthur Conan Doyle
Kafka, sex and the Jews
SANDER L. GILMAN
5 Gross v. Gross
GERHARD M. DIENES
6 Sigmund Freud, Max Weber and the sexual revolution
È TZ VON OLENHUSEN
Psychoanalysis, literature and sociology
7 Freud, Gross, sexual revolution
8 The birth of intersubjectivity: Otto Gross and the
development of psychoanalytic theory and clinical practice
GOTTFRIED M. HEUER
9 Wilhelm Reich's theory of sexuality
10 Otto Gross's in¯uence on German-language writers
JENNIFER E. MICHAELS
11 `Making history': D. H. Lawrence, Frieda Weekley and
12 No place for a sexual revolutionary: Heidelberg and
13 Sexual liberation: Where have we got to? Psychoanalysis
and the engagement with sexual liberation
SUSIE ORBACH IN CONVERSATION WITH BRETT KAHR
14 Carnal critiques: Promiscuity, politics, imagination, spirituality
15 Rethinking virginity: A post-Jungian reframing
16 The colour of rainbows: The advent of post-postmodernity
and the notion of forgiveness
17 `The sacredness of love' or `Relationship as third, as religion':
Otto Gross's concepts of relationship today
GOTTFRIED M. HEUER
0.1 Otto Gross. Graphic design by Gottfried M. Heuer (after
a photo of Otto Gross).
0.2 Otto Gross, 1877±1920. Generally assumed to be from an
earlier date than the one given with the dedication,
`z[ur]. fr[eundlichen]. Er[innerun]g' (in fond memory).
3.1 Hans Gross, 1847±1915. Painting after a photograph,
artist unknown. Reproduction Hans Gross Archive/Gernot
6.1 Frieda Gross, 1876±1950, with her and Otto Gross's son
8.1 Otto Gross (second from left), undated.
8.2 Jung's radical 1944 formulation of the mutual
interrelationship between analyst and patient. From
his The Psychology of the Transference (1944: para. 422).
8.3 Dorian Feigenbaum, 1887±1937, with Otto Gross, at the
end of the First World War.
12.1 Else JaffeÂ, 1874±1973.
16.1 Otto Gross's letter to his wife, Frieda, undated
17.1 Ferdinand Heinrich Eggeling, 1877±1954. Ilse Bauer
Archive, LuÈbeck, Germany.
18.1 Otto Gross and Hans Gross. Psychoanalysis and
Criminology ± Libido and Power: Eighth International
Otto Gross Congress, Graz, 2011.
Unless stated otherwise, all images Ø The Otto Gross Archive/Gottfried M.
David Bennett teaches English and Cultural Theory at the University of
Melbourne and is a visiting professor in the Department of History,
Classics and Archaeology at Birkbeck College, University of London.
He has published around 90 scholarly articles in the ®elds of literary,
musical and cultural history, including a dozen on the political and
economic histories of psychoanalysis and sexology in such journals as
New Literary History, Public Culture and Textual Practice. His books
include Cultural Studies: Pluralism and Theory (1993), Multicultural
States: Rethinking Difference and Identity (1998), Sounding Postmodernism (2009) and Postmodernism, Music and Cultural Theory (2009).
Dr. Gerhard M. Dienes, born in Graz, Austria, read History and was
appointed curator at the Museum of the City of Graz in 1980. He was
the museum's director from 1990 to 2004 and has worked for the
Universalmuseum Joanneum, Styria, since 2005. From 1985 to 1994 he
lectured at the University of Graz and he is a member of the Advisory
Committee on the Promotion of Culture in Styria, currently based in
Graz. He has curated more than 70 exhibitions in Austria and abroad
and has authored about 150 publications on the history of transport and
on local, social, economic and industrial history. Further ®elds of
interest include suburbs, cultural history, the history of mentalities and
the history of the Alps-Adriatic region.
Sander L. Gilman is a distinguished professor of the Liberal Arts and
Sciences and Professor of Psychiatry at Emory University, Atlanta, USA
(Director of the Program in Psychoanalysis and the Health Sciences
Humanities Initiative). A cultural and literary historian, he is the author
or editor of over 80 books. He is the editor of Race and Contemporary
Medicine: Biological Facts and Fictions (2008) and the author of Diseases
and Diagnoses: The Second Age of Biology (2010); the basic study of the
visual stereotyping of the mentally ill, Seeing the Insane (1982, reprinted
1996); and the standard study of Jewish Self-Hatred (1986).
Albrecht GoÈtz von Olenhusen, Dr. Jur., Freiburg i. Br., is a lawyer, law
historian and lecturer at the University of DuÈsseldorf. His works include
publications on Walter Benjamin, Siegfried Kracauer, Louis Blanc,
Proudhon, Karl May, Johannes Nohl, Erich MuÈhsam, Franz Jung,
and Hans and Otto Gross. He co-edited two Congress Proceedings of
the International Otto Gross Society (Die Gesetze des Vaters, Graz
2003, Marburg, 2003; Psychoanalyse und Expressionismus, Dresden 2008,
Marburg, 2010). List of publications: www.drgoetzvonolenhusen.de
Jungian Analyst Birgit Heuer is a senior practitioner with 30 years of
clinical experience. She is also trained in body-oriented psychotherapy
and ± informally as a personal pupil of the late Rose Gladden ± in
healing. She has served on the training committee of the British
Association of Psychotherapists and was clinical supervisor at Kingston
University Health Centre, London, for a number of years. She has
written and lectured internationally on the psychodynamics of the
healing process, on the body in psychotherapy and on forgiveness. At
present she is engaged in doctoral research on sanatology, her term for a
psychotherapeutic theory of health and healing.
Dr. Gottfried M. Heuer is a Jungian training analyst and supervisor with
the Association of Jungian Analysts, London and a Neo-Reichian body
psychotherapist. He has been in clinical practice for over 35 years and is
also an independent scholar, graphic artist, photographer, sculptor and
poet. He has written over 60 published papers on the links between
analysis, radical politics, body psychotherapy and spirituality, as well as
on the history of analytic ideas, in journals including Spring, the International Journal of Psychoanalysis, the Journal of Analytical Psychology,
the International Journal of Jungian Studies, Harvest, Psychotherapy and
Politics International. He is (co-) editor of seven congress and symposium
proceedings for the International Otto Gross Society (www.ottogross.org/), which he co-founded, and editor of Sacral Revolutions: Re¯ecting
on the Work of Andrew Samuels: Cutting Edges in Psychoanalysis and
Jungian Analysis, Routledge (2010). He is author of `In My Flesh I Shall
See God' ± Body and Psyche in Analysis (2009), available as a podcast at
http://www.guildofpastoral psychology.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id= 215&Itemid=102
Amanda Hon, MA, Adv Dip, is a psychotherapist registered with the United
Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy and has a private practice in West
London. She trained at the Centre for Transpersonal Psychology, London
and holds a Masters degree in Jungian and Post-Jungian Studies from the
Centre for Psychoanalytic Studies, University of Essex, UK. She is a
Director/Trustee of FreshStart Psychotherapy, a charity that provides
low-cost psychotherapy to members of the Greater London community.
Professor Brett Kahr is Senior Clinical Research Fellow in Psychotherapy
and Mental Health at the Centre for Child Mental Health in London,
and Honorary Visiting Professor in the School of Arts at Roehampton
University, London. He also serves as Consultant Psychologist to the
Bowlby Centre, and as the Chair of the British Society of Couple
Psychotherapists and Counsellors, the Professional Association of the
Tavistock Centre for Couple Relationships, at the Tavistock Institute
of Medical Psychology. He is a Registered Psychotherapist with the
Council for Psychoanalysis and Jungian Analysis, the United Kingdom
Council for Psychotherapy and the British Psychoanalytic Council. His
many books include Sex and the Psyche (2007).
Kevin Lu is a PhD candidate and lecturer in psychoanalytic studies at the
University of Essex, UK. He is the Director of the MA in Jungian and
Post-Jungian Studies and a member of the Executive Committee of the
International Association for Jungian Studies. He holds degrees from
New College, University of Toronto (BA Hons) and Heythrop College,
University of London (MA in Psychology of Religion). His doctoral
thesis explores the possibility of a distinctly Jungian approach to
Jennifer E. Michaels is Samuel R. and Marie-Louise Rosenthal Professor of
Humanities and Professor of German at Grinnell College in Iowa, USA.
She received her MA degree in German from Edinburgh University and
an MA and a PhD in German from McGill University in Montreal,
Canada. She has published four books and numerous articles about
twentieth-century German and Austrian literature and culture, which is
her main teaching and research interest, and has served as president of
the German Studies Association and the Rocky Mountain Modern
Thomas MuÈhlbacher, Dr. Jur., graduated from the University of Graz,
Austria, in 1986 and was appointed as a judge in 1990. Since 2010 he has
been chief prosecutor of the Public Prosecution Service Graz/Austria and
vice president of the Association of Austrian Prosecutors. He has written
several publications on criminal law and proceedings, the history of
criminology and Hans Gross.
Susie Orbach is a psychoanalyst and writer whose interests have centred
around feminism and psychoanalysis; the construction of femininity and
gender; globalisation and body image; emotional literacy and psychoanalysis; and the public sphere. She co-founded The Women's Therapy
Centre in London in 1976 and The Women's Therapy Centre Institute,
New York, in 1981. Her numerous publications include the classic Fat is
a Feminist Issue, along with other such in¯uential texts as Hunger Strike,
The Impossibility of Sex and the recently published Bodies. Susie is a
founder member of Antidote (working for emotional literacy) and
Psychotherapists and Counsellors for Social Responsibility and is
convener of Anybody (www.any-body.org), an organisation campaigning for body diversity. She is currently chair of the Relational School in
the UK and has a clinical practice, seeing individuals and couples.
Andrew Samuels is Professor of Analytical Psychology at the University of
Essex and holds visiting chairs at London, Roehampton and New York
Universities. He is a Training Analyst for the Society of Analytical
Psychology and is in clinical practice in London. He works internationally as a political consultant and is co-founder of Psychotherapists
and Counsellors for Social Responsibility and chair of the United
Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy. His books have been translated
into 19 languages and include Jung and the Post-Jungians, The Father, A
Critical Dictionary of Jungian Analysis, The Plural Psyche, Psychopathology, The Political Psyche and Politics on the Couch (www.andrew
Alfred Springer, MD, is a professor in Psychiatry at the Medical University
of Vienna and a psychoanalyst (VPA). He is director emeritus of
the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Addiction research and editor of
Wiener Zeitschrift fuÈr Suchtforschung. Books include Kokain: Mythos
und RealitaÈt; Pathologie der geschlechtlichen IdentititaÈt; HomosexualitaÈt
und Transsexualismus; and Die Wiener Drogenszene. He has published
widely on drug addiction and sexuality (with a focus on gender dysphoria); the history of psychoanalysis; the political discourse on psychoanalysis; literature and psychoanalysis; fetishism and the visual arts;
movies and psychoanalysis; the cultural aspects of psychoanalysis and
the cultural and political involvement of psychoanalysts (with a focus on
Otto Gross and German expressionism); and the history of psychiatry
(with a focus on national socialism). On the occasion of Freud's 150th
birthday, he lectured in Vienna, Toronto and Istanbul.
Nick Totton is a therapist and trainer in private practice. Originally a
Reichian body therapist, he currently teaches and practises his own
synthesis, Embodied-Relational Therapy. He holds an MA in Psychoanalytic Studies, and has also worked with Process Oriented Psychology
and trained as a craniosacral therapist. He is currently immersed in
ecopsychology. His books include The Water in the Glass: Body and
Mind in Psychoanalysis; Body Psychotherapy: An Introduction; Psychotherapy and Politics; and Press When Illuminated: New and Selected
Poems. There is an extensive website at www.erthworks.co.uk. Nick lives
in Yorkshire with his partner and grows vegetables.
John Turner was formerly a senior lecturer in English at Swansea
University, South Wales. He has written books on Wordsworth and
Macbeth, co-authored two books on Shakespeare and written over 20
essays on D. H. Lawrence as well as an as yet unpublished book on D.
H. Lawrence and the history of psychoanalysis. Together with Gottfried
Heuer, he is currently preparing an English edition of the complete
psychoanalytic writings of Otto Gross.
Sam Whimster is professor of social economics at the Global Policy
Institute, London Metropolitan University. He is the editor of the
international journal Max Weber Studies and is currently involved in a
new edition and translation of Weber's Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, to be
published by Routledge. He is a founder member of the Otto Gross
Gesellschaft and his Max Weber and the Culture of Anarchy was published by Macmillan in 1998. He is currently putting together a database
of Max Weber's letters.
For the exhibition entitled The Laws of the Father: Freud/Gross/Kafka
and the accompanying symposia on which the present volume is based,
support of the following organisations is gratefully acknowledged: The
Anna Freud Centre, London; the Austrian Cultural Forum, London;
BruÈhl, Austria; the City of Graz Culture and the Federal State of Styria
Culture, Austria; the Freud Museum, London; the International Otto
Gross Society, Hannover/London; Pischler Engineering; University of
Graz, Austria; and the Universalmuseum Johanneum, Graz.
The front and back cover compositions are both variations on a theme
by Agnolo Bronzino: Allegory with Saturn, Cupid and Venus (ca. 1550).
Sadly, high copyright costs make a reproduction ± even on the smallest
scale ± an impossibility, but the image is available on numerous internet
sites: just Google `Bronzino Allegory of Venus and Cupid'.
In gratitude to the contributors and my editors at Routledge, Kate
Hawes, Erasmis Kidd and Sarah Gibson, and to Sally Mesner Lyons for
her careful and caring copy-editing. Many thanks also to Brendan O'Brien
for his meticulous work on compiling the index, and to Kristin Susser of the
Gottfried M. Heuer
London, June 2010
`The angel of history'1
`The past and the present
are entwined like lovers in an embrace' 2
Gottfried M. Heuer
We create the meaning of events. [. . .] The meaning of events is the way
to salvation you create. The meaning of events comes from the possibility
of life in this world that you create. [. . . It] is not in events, and not in the
soul, but is the God standing between events and the soul, the mediator
of life, the way, the bridge, and the going across.
C. G. Jung (2009: 239)
This volume presents a multi-faceted, interdisciplinary and international
approach by authors from six countries and three continents to the theme
of Psychoanalysis, History and the Father and the ways in which each of
these impacts on the other with the explicit aim of furthering individual
and collective growth and healing. As each is seen in the alive ¯uidity of
its changing reality, a pluralistic approach is required. Unavoidably, this
creates certain overlaps, yet within the context of the individual text, each
contributes to a unique perspective and thus ful®ls an important function.
Taken together as a whole, these individual voices of the different authors
collectively are `looking back towards the future', as it were, in the way the
philosopher Walter Benjamin spoke of `the angel of history':
His face is turned towards the past. [. . .] The angel would like to stay,
awaken the dead, and make whole what has been smashed. But a storm
is blowing from Paradise, it has got caught in his wings [. . .] that the
angel can no longer close them. The storm irresistibly propels him into
the future to which his back is turned.
(Benjamin 1940: 259±260)
In this respect there is an important parallel with analytic clinical work.
The continuation of the psychoanalytic revolution which Otto Gross
started by sowing the seeds of change from a hierarchical ± I might also
say `patriarchal' ± and authoritarian analyst±patient relationship of the
Author Gottfried Heuer Isbn 9780415570442 File size 2.4 MB Year 2011 Pages 312 Language English File format PDF Category Psychology Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare The ideas of psychoanalyst Otto Gross (1877-1920) have had a seminal influence on the development of psychoanalytic theory and clinical practice and yet his work has been largely overlooked. For Freud, he was one of only two analysts ‘capable of making an original contribution’ (Jung was the other), and Jung called Gross ‘my twin brother’ in the course of their mutual analysis. This is a major interdisciplinary enquiry into the history, nature and plausibility of the idea of a ‘sexual revolution’, drawing also on the related fields of history, law, criminology, literature, sociology and philosophy. Divided into four parts and offering an interdisciplinary and international range of contributors, areas of discussion include: * a contemporary perspective on sexual revolutions * the broad influence of Otto Gross * the father/son conflict * a Jungian perspective on history. Sexual Revolutions introduces Gross’ work to the academic and clinical fields of psychoanalysis and Jungian analysis. Although most people associate the term with the 1960s, its foundations lie in the long-neglected but sensational work of the early psychoanalyst Otto Gross. This book will be essential reading for all psychoanalysts and Jungian analysts with an interest in learning more about his work. Download (2.4 MB) Understanding Dreams In Clinical Practice Deconstructing Normativity? On Sublimation: A Path To The Destiny Of Desire, Theory, And Treatment Landscapes Of The Dark: History, Trauma, Psychoanalysis Basic Psychoanalytic Concepts on the Theory of Instincts (Volume 3) Load more posts