Say to the Sun, Don’t Rise,and to the Moon, Don’t Set by Say to the Sun

03575fe9352b1af.jpg Author Say to the Sun
Isbn 9780199357642
File size 2.6 MB
Year 2014
Pages 632
Language English
File format PDF
Category languages


Say to the Sun, “Don’t Rise,” and to the Moon, “Don’t Set” SOUTH ASIA RESEARCH Series Editor Martha Selby A Publication Series of The University of Texas South Asia Institute and Oxford University Press THE EARLY UPANIṢADS Annotated Text and Translation Patrick Olivelle INDIAN EPIGRAPHY A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan Languages Richard Salomon A DICTIONARY OF OLD MARATHI S. G. Tulpule and Anne Feldhaus DONORS, DEVOTEES, AND DAUGHTERS OF GOD Temple Women in Medieval Tamilnadu Leslie C. Orr JĪMŪTAVĀHANA’S DĀYABHĀGA The Hindu Law of Inheritance in Bengal Edited and Translated with an Introduction and Notes by Ludo Rocher A PORTRAIT OF THE HINDUS Balthazar Solvyns & the European Image of India 1740–1824 Robert L. Hardgrave MANU’S CODE OF LAW A Critical Edition and Translation of the Mānava-Dharmaśāstra Patrick Olivelle NECTAR GAZE AND POISON BREATH An Analysis and Translation of the Rajasthani Oral Narrative of Devnarayan Aditya Malik BETWEEN THE EMPIRES Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE Patrick Olivelle MANAGING MONKS Administrators and Administrative Roles in Indian Buddhist Monasticism Jonathan A. Silk ŚIVA IN TROUBLE Festivals and Rituals at the Paśupatinātha Temple of Deopatan Axel Michaels A PRIEST’S GUIDE FOR THE GREAT FESTIVAL Aghoraśiva’s Mahotsavavidhi Richard H. Davis DHARMA Its Early History in Law, Religion, and Narrative Alf Hiltebeitel POETRY OF KINGS The Classical Hindi Literature of Mughal India Allison Busch THE RISE OF A FOLK GOD Viṭṭhal of Pandharpur Ramchandra Chintaman Dhere Translated by Anne Feldhaus WOMEN IN EARLY INDIAN BUDDHISM Comparative Textual Studies Edited by Alice Collett THE RIGVEDA The Earliest Religious Poetry of India Edited and translated by Stephanie W. Jamison and Joel P. Brereton SAY TO THE SUN, “DON’T RISE,” AND TO THE MOON, “DON’T SET” Two Oral Narratives from the Countryside of Maharashtra Edited and Translated by Anne Feldhaus With Ramdas Atkar and Rajaram Zagade Say to the Sun, “Don’t Rise,”and to the Moon, “Don’t Set” Two Oral Narratives from the Countryside of Maharashtra z Edited and Translated by ANNE FELDHAUS WITH RAMDAS ATKAR AND RAJARAM ZAGADE 1 3 Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Oxford New York Auckland  Cape Town  Dar es Salaam  Hong Kong  Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices in Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press in the UK and certain other countries. Published in the United States of America by Oxford University Press 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 © Anne Feldhaus 2014 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permitted by law, by license, or under terms agreed with the appropriate reproduction rights organization. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of the above should be sent to the Rights Department, Oxford University Press, at the address above. You must not circulate this work in any other form and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Say to the sun, “don’t rise,” and to the moon, “don’t set” : two oral narratives from the countryside of Maharashtra / Edited and Translated by Anne Feldhaus with Ramdas Atkar and Rajaram Zagade. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN  978–0–19–935764–2 (cloth : alk. paper)  1.  Folk literature, Marathi— Translations into English.  2.  Dhangar (Indic people)—Folklore.  I.  Feldhaus, Anne, editor, translator. GR305.7.D53S28 2014 398.20954’79—dc23 2014000700 1 3 5 7 9 8 6 4 2 Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper Contents List of Maps vii Preface ix Abbreviations xiii PART I Introduction 1. Ovīs and Dhangars 3 2. The Art of the Ovīs 25 3. The World of the Ovīs 58 4. Pastoralist Life and Identity 89 5. Gender and Women in the Ovīs 108 PART II 6. The Story of Birobā 129 PART III 7. The Story of Dhuḷobā 303 Bibliography 585 Index 591 List of Maps Map 1. Places and Regions in the Ovī of Dhuḷobā Map 2. The Route between Phalṭaṇ and Ujjain Map 3. King Hemūt’s Exile 64 67 69 Preface I inherited the stories in these volumes. Like the casket containing Birobā’s mother, which fell from the sky and got buried in the ground, the stories simply fell to earth. They landed in my lap. Since the first time I visited India, in 1970, I had wanted to understand what I called “popular” religion in Maharashtra. After years of lonely struggle, I learned in the mid-1970s that there was already someone who had done a huge amount of work on “Volksreligion” in that region of India: a German professor named Günther Sontheimer. Following the advice of D. D. Kosambi, whom he had taken as his teacher, Sontheimer was searching for “folk religion” at what he took to be its roots:  in the living oral and ritual traditions of the Hāṭkar Dhangars of Maharashtra. I first met Sontheimer in Pune in 1979. There he introduced me to Ramdas Atkar and Rajaram Zagade, who were his two principal research assistants, and to Sakharam Lakade, a Dhangar shepherd who was Günther’s friend and most valuable “informant.” (I remember laughing with Günther when he first introduced me to Sakharam. “The Americans would call him my ‘informant,’ ” Günther said.) Günther took me along to his “field” sometimes, on short trips out of Pune. I translated his book on pastoral deities (Birobā, Mhaskobā und Khaṇḍobā:  Ursprung, Geschichte und Umwelt von pastoralen Gottheiten in Mahārāṣṭra) into English (Sontheimer 1989a), and in 1989–1990 he served as my sponsor for a fellowship that allowed me to write most of my own book on river goddesses (Feldhaus 1995) at the University of Heidelberg. Then Günther died, suddenly and unexpectedly, at the beginning of June 1992. Soon after, I  was invited to take his place at Heidelberg for a semester, to see his students through to the completion of their degrees. Now, on a cold, dark day in the German winter, I  sat in a sparsely furnished room in an ugly concrete building. With me were Heidrun Brückner, Aditya Malik, and other colleagues and students of x Preface Günther’s. We were at the South Asia Institute, the part of the University of Heidelberg where Günther had worked. His relatives had handed over to the Institute his library, his photographs, his audio tapes, his super-8 films, and his unfinished projects, and we were developing a plan for dealing with the inheritance. Worried about how we were going to take care of everything (and presumably also about how much it would all cost), the Director of the Institute asked what was in Günther’s tapes that made me so interested in working with them. Suddenly my halting, broken German became fluent. “A rich treasure of incredibly marvelous stories,” I said. And I started to cry. Thus began my relationship with the stories in these volumes. Because I inherited the stories, I did not carry out the original fieldwork on them that others who have published similar stories have done. I have attempted to carry out fieldwork of this sort, but I have had very little success. In the two decades since Sontheimer’s death, I have taped some ovīs, hoping to collect more like those in this volume. It has proved very difficult to get anything as good as these. Some Dhangars do not know how to sing ovīs. Some can repeat the lines of an ovī after someone else has sung them first, but few are able to sing “in front.” Many are not good performers, and even those who can give a lively rendering of a story often do not know it in its entirety, or they do not remember the kind of details that give the ovīs in these volumes their rich texture. It is difficult to record ovīs without the background noise of a festival, or without the percussion accompaniment that some singers say they need. It has been difficult to make appointments for recording sessions, given singers’ busy lives and the many other demands on my time and that of my fieldwork companions. And, most distressingly—even though I have traveled with Ramdas Atkar (who, as Sontheimer’s long-time assistant, is extremely knowledgeable about Dhangars and their culture), Sakharam Lakade (who, himself a Dhangar, was a connoisseur of ovīs), and Sudhir Waghmare (the most diplomatic man in the world)—we have had trouble gaining good singers’ trust. There was one promising group, for example, that we pursued for a couple of years. We spoke with them in their home village, went to villages where they had been invited to sing ovīs, and taped the ovīs they sang there. The leader of the group said that they would sing their most special ovī only in the course of their three-week pilgrimage, and then only at the locations where the various episodes narrated in it had taken place. I asked if we could travel with them and tape the ovī during the pilgrimage. Preface xi The leader said yes. So I procured a fellowship to carry out the project, got a semester’s leave from teaching at Arizona State University, bought an expensive new recording device, got Ramdas and Sudhir and Sakharam to take three weeks off from their normal lives, let my husband go home to the United States, spent weeks making complicated logistical arrangements, and set off for what promised to be a strenuous and exciting field trip. On the morning of the second day of walking, the leader of the group sent us a most disheartening message: we should not travel with his group any more, we should not tape their ovī any more:  we should simply go away. After confirming that this was really what the leader meant to tell us, we quickly packed our things and took our leave. This time there were tears not only in my eyes, but also in Sakharam’s. Such experiences made me realize all the more what a treasure Sontheimer and his assistants had collected. In order to make Marathi readers aware of the wealth of material available in the Sontheimer archive, Ramdas and Rajaram and I selected some of the best stories for publication in a Marathi book. We edited the stories carefully, listening again and again to the tapes, polishing the transcriptions repeatedly, and annotating them to help Marathi readers understand.1 In August 2006, Śrīvidyā Prakāśan, Pune, published the Marathi texts in a book entitled Marāṭhī Maukhik Vaṅmay: Sonthāymar Saṅgrahātīl Ovyā va Kathā (“Marathi Oral Literature:  Ovīs and Stories from the Sontheimer Archive”). The two longest, richest texts from this Marathi anthology are presented here in English translation. By publishing the translations, we hope to bring this type of Marathi oral literature to an even wider audience than the many readers we were able to reach through the Marathi book. In one of the most striking passages in his book on pastoralist deities, Sontheimer (1989a: 204, text 70) quotes Birobā as objecting to being put into a book. “I do not want to be shackled by anything,” he says. “No line is to be drawn to tell me to stop. I  am not to appear in any book (girantha, written grantha) or any manuscript (puti, written pothī).” Putting Birobā into a book is exactly what we have done here, and it is something we have done not only to Birobā but also to Dhuḷobā. By taping the ovīs, Sontheimer and his assistants gave them a permanence and rigidity that 1. Trying not to offend the politically heightened “religious sensibilities” of our potential audience in the wake of the January, 2004 attack on the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute in Pune, we even censored the language of some of our texts and left out one of the best stories entirely. xii Preface robbed them of their evanescent nature. By sitting before the tape recorder to sing and narrate the ovīs, the artists allowed this to happen. By publishing the ovīs in Marathi, Ramdas and Rajaram and I fossilized the oral performances as written texts. And now, by publishing the texts in English, we have torn them from their rural, nocturnal context and brought them into the dazzling, foreign arena of global literature. The ovīs are no longer just my inheritance. They have fallen into the lap of all the world. Anne Feldhaus Würzburg, 13 April 2011 Abbreviations B The ovī of Birobā as performed by the singers from Nimbavaḍe (Part II of this volume) BP The ovī of Birobā as performed by Dājī Rāmā Pokaḷe D The ovī of Dhuḷobā as performed by Dājī Rāmā Pokaḷe (Part III of this volume) Say to the Sun, “Don’t Rise,” and to the Moon, “Don’t Set” PART I Introduction 1 Ovīs and Dhangars In recent decades, a great deal of scholarly work on the cultures of South Asia has been devoted to oral literature and performance traditions in modern South Asian languages. This material presents a vast wealth of exciting, moving, entertaining, original, and sometimes quite strange narratives, rich in verbal art, striking in imagery, and filled with humor, suspense, and fun. Oral literature and its performance also provide extremely important insights into the life experiences, social arrangements, psychology, values, concepts, and material culture of the people for whom the literature and performances are still—or, until quite recently, were—the heart of a living cultural tradition. Like much of the South Asian oral literature that has been published and discussed since the 1980s, the oral texts presented and analyzed in this volume tell captivating stories about love, loyalty, treachery, struggle, and devotion. They reveal clearly and in depth the thoughts, beliefs, values, and assumptions of the men who performed them. In particular, they show a great deal about these men’s understanding of the relationships between men and women, among people in different social positions, and between humans and gods. What differentiates these texts from most of the others that have been published in English in recent decades is, first, that these texts were originally performed in Marathi, the language of Maharashtra, and, secondly, that they come from the oral traditions of pastoralists. Pastoralists and their traditions have long been extraordinarily important to the social, economic, political, and cultural life of the large area of western India called Maharashtra. The dry wilderness that covers most of not only Maharashtra but also the rest of the Deccan Plateau makes this enormous central part of India highly suitable for pastoralism. For

Author Say to the Sun Isbn 9780199357642 File size 2.6 MB Year 2014 Pages 632 Language English File format PDF Category Languages Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare Pastoralist traditions have long been extraordinarily important to the social, economic, political, and cultural life of western India. The Marathi-language oral literature of the Dhangar shepherds is not only one of the most important elements of the traditional cultural life of its region, but also a treasure of world literature. This volume presents translations of two lively and well-crafted examples of the ovi, a genre typical of the oral literature of Dhangars. The two ovis in the volume narrate the stories of Biroba and Dhuloba, two of these shepherds’ most important gods. Each of the ovis tells an elaborate story of the birth of the god-a miraculous and complicated process in both cases-and of the struggles each one goes through in order to find and win his bride. The extensive introduction provides a literary analysis of the ovis and discusses what they reveal about the cosmology, geography, society, and political arrangements of their performers’ world, as well as about the performers’ views of pastoralists and women.     Download (2.6 MB) Romancing Treason: The Literature Of The Wars Of Roses Literature As Translation, Translation As Literature Asian Literary Voices Persian Language, Literature And Culture: New Leaves, Fresh Looks Classical World Literatures: Sino-japanese And Greco-roman Comparisons Load more posts

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