Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals by Katie Salen Tekinba?


79588178098f33f-261x361.jpeg Author Katie Salen Tekinba?
Isbn 9780262240451
File size 8MB
Year 2003
Pages 688
Language English
File format PDF
Category games


 

Table of Contents Table of Contents Rules of Play - Game Design Fundamentals.....................................................................................................1 Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................1 Preface..................................................................................................................................................................1 Chapter 1: What Is This Book About?............................................................................................................1 Overview.................................................................................................................................................1 Establishing a Critical Discourse............................................................................................................2 Ways of Looking.....................................................................................................................................3 Game Design Schemas...........................................................................................................................4 Game Design Fundamentals...................................................................................................................5 Further Readings.....................................................................................................................................6 Further Reading......................................................................................................................................6 Chapter 2: The Design Process.........................................................................................................................1 Iterative Design.......................................................................................................................................1 Commissions...........................................................................................................................................2 Game Design Exercises..........................................................................................................................3 Creation............................................................................................................................................4 Modification.....................................................................................................................................5 Analysis............................................................................................................................................7 Further Reading......................................................................................................................................8 The Design and Testing of the Board Game- Lord of the Rings............................................................9 Design Process........................................................................................................................................9 Scripted Game System..........................................................................................................................10 Playtesting.............................................................................................................................................11 More Changes.......................................................................................................................................12 The Road Goes Ever On.......................................................................................................................13 Unit 1: Core Concepts.......................................................................................................................................1 Chapter List..............................................................................................................................................1 How does play happen?...........................................................................................................................1 Chapter 3: Meaningful Play..............................................................................................................................1 Overview.................................................................................................................................................1 Introducing Meaningful Play..................................................................................................................1 Meaning and Play...................................................................................................................................2 Two Kinds of Meaningful Play...............................................................................................................3 Discernable.......................................................................................................................................4 Integrated..........................................................................................................................................5 Summary.................................................................................................................................................6 Chapter 4: Design..............................................................................................................................................1 Introducing Design..................................................................................................................................1 Some Definitions of Design....................................................................................................................2 Design and Meaning...............................................................................................................................4 Semiotics: A Brief Overview..................................................................................................................4 Four Semiotic Concepts..........................................................................................................................5 A Sign Represents Something Other Than Itself....................................................................................6 Signs Are Interpreted..............................................................................................................................7 Meaning Results When a Sign Is Interpreted.........................................................................................7 i Table of Contents Table of Contents Chapter 4: Design Context Shapes Interpretation.................................................................................................................8 Summary...............................................................................................................................................10 Chapter 5: Systems............................................................................................................................................1 Introducing Systems...............................................................................................................................1 The Elements of a System.......................................................................................................................2 Framing Systems.....................................................................................................................................4 Open and Closed Systems.......................................................................................................................5 Summary.................................................................................................................................................6 Chapter 6: Interactivity.....................................................................................................................................1 Introducing Interactivity.........................................................................................................................1 Defining Interactivity..............................................................................................................................1 A Multivalent Model of Interactivity......................................................................................................3 But Is it "Designed" Interaction?............................................................................................................4 Interaction and Choice............................................................................................................................5 Choice Molecules....................................................................................................................................7 Anatomy of a Choice..............................................................................................................................8 Space of Possibility...............................................................................................................................10 Further Reading....................................................................................................................................12 Summary...............................................................................................................................................13 Chapter 7: Defining Games...............................................................................................................................1 Overview.................................................................................................................................................1 Play and Game........................................................................................................................................2 Comparing Definitions...........................................................................................................................3 Definition 1: David Parlett...............................................................................................................4 Definition 2: Clark C. Abt................................................................................................................4 Definition 3: Johann Huizinga.........................................................................................................5 Definition 4: Roger Caillois.............................................................................................................6 Definition 5: Bernard Suits...............................................................................................................6 Definition 6: Chris Crawford...........................................................................................................7 Definition 7: Greg Costikyan...........................................................................................................8 Definition 8: Elliot Avedon and Brian Sutton-Smith.......................................................................8 A Comparison.......................................................................................................................................10 Our Definition.......................................................................................................................................11 The Puzzle of Puzzles...........................................................................................................................11 Role-Playing Games.............................................................................................................................12 Further Reading....................................................................................................................................14 Summary...............................................................................................................................................14 Chapter 8: Defining Digital Games..................................................................................................................1 Overview.................................................................................................................................................1 The Computer Is Not a Computer...........................................................................................................1 What Can It Do?.....................................................................................................................................2 Integration...............................................................................................................................................6 Summary.................................................................................................................................................7 Chapter 9: The Magic Circle............................................................................................................................1 Overview.................................................................................................................................................1 Boundaries..............................................................................................................................................2 ii Table of Contents Table of Contents Chapter 9: The Magic Circle Enter In....................................................................................................................................................3 Temporary Worlds..................................................................................................................................4 The Lusory Attitude................................................................................................................................5 Further Reading......................................................................................................................................7 Summary.................................................................................................................................................7 Chapter 10: The Primary Schemas..................................................................................................................1 A Conceptual Framework.......................................................................................................................1 What Is a Schema?..................................................................................................................................2 RULES: Formal Schemas.......................................................................................................................3 PLAY: Experiential Schemas.................................................................................................................4 CULTURE: Contextual Schemas...........................................................................................................5 Summary.................................................................................................................................................5 Commissioned Game 1 — Richard Garfield....................................................................................................1 Rules.......................................................................................................................................................1 Scoring....................................................................................................................................................2 Design Notes...........................................................................................................................................3 Sibling Rivalry.................................................................................................................................4 Unit 2: Rules.......................................................................................................................................................1 Chapter List..............................................................................................................................................1 Chapter 11: Defining Rules...............................................................................................................................1 Overview.................................................................................................................................................1 A Deck of Cards......................................................................................................................................2 Other Kinds of Rules..............................................................................................................................3 Qualities of Rules....................................................................................................................................3 Rules in Context......................................................................................................................................5 Summary.................................................................................................................................................6 Chapter 12: Rules on Three Levels..................................................................................................................1 Overview.................................................................................................................................................1 Tic-Tac-What?........................................................................................................................................1 Under the Hood.......................................................................................................................................2 Being a Good Sport.................................................................................................................................3 Three Kinds of Rules..............................................................................................................................4 Operational Rules.............................................................................................................................4 Constituative Rules...........................................................................................................................4 Implicit Rules...................................................................................................................................4 The Rules of Chutes and Ladders...........................................................................................................4 Chutes and Ladders: Operational Rules...........................................................................................6 Chutes and Ladders: Constituative Rules.........................................................................................6 Chutes and Ladders: Implicit Rules.................................................................................................7 The Identity of a Game...........................................................................................................................8 Specificity of Rules.................................................................................................................................9 Designing Elegant Rules.......................................................................................................................10 Further Reading....................................................................................................................................12 Summary...............................................................................................................................................12 iii Table of Contents Table of Contents Chapter 13: The Rules of Digital Games.........................................................................................................1 Rules as a Whole.....................................................................................................................................1 So What Are the Rules?..........................................................................................................................2 The Rules of Tetris..................................................................................................................................3 Rules and Not Rules...............................................................................................................................4 Wheels Within Wheels...........................................................................................................................5 Constituative.....................................................................................................................................6 Operational.......................................................................................................................................7 Implicit.............................................................................................................................................7 Why Rules?.............................................................................................................................................8 Summary.................................................................................................................................................8 Chapter 14: Games as Emergent Systems.......................................................................................................1 Introducing Emergent Systems...............................................................................................................1 Complexity..............................................................................................................................................2 Messengers and Buildings......................................................................................................................3 Simple Complexity.................................................................................................................................4 What Complexity Is Not.........................................................................................................................5 Four Kinds of Systems............................................................................................................................6 Two Horrible Games...............................................................................................................................7 Emergence...............................................................................................................................................9 Parts and the Whole..............................................................................................................................10 Object Interactions................................................................................................................................11 Life, the Game......................................................................................................................................12 Bottom-Up Behaviors...........................................................................................................................14 Emergence in Games............................................................................................................................15 Designing Surprise................................................................................................................................16 Engine Tuning.......................................................................................................................................17 Second-Order Design............................................................................................................................19 Further Reading....................................................................................................................................20 Summary...............................................................................................................................................21 Chapter 15: Games as Systems of Uncertainty...............................................................................................1 Overview.................................................................................................................................................1 Introducing Uncertainty..........................................................................................................................1 Certainty, Uncertainty, and Risk.............................................................................................................2 The Feeling of Randomness....................................................................................................................3 Probability in Games..............................................................................................................................5 Dice Probability......................................................................................................................................5 Chance and Game Play...........................................................................................................................7 Case Study One: Thunderstorm..............................................................................................................9 Thunderstorm...................................................................................................................................9 Case Study Two: Pig.............................................................................................................................10 Pig...................................................................................................................................................10 Breakdowns in Uncertainty...................................................................................................................12 Breakdown 1: Computer Randomness...........................................................................................12 Breakdown 2: Strategizing Chance................................................................................................13 Breakdown 3: Probability Fallacies...............................................................................................14 Meaningful Chance...............................................................................................................................15 Further Reading....................................................................................................................................16 Summary...............................................................................................................................................17 iv Table of Contents Table of Contents Chapter 16: Games as Information Theory Systems......................................................................................1 Introducing "Information"......................................................................................................................1 Information Theory.................................................................................................................................2 Probability and Guesswork.....................................................................................................................4 Noise in the Channel...............................................................................................................................5 Redundancy in the System......................................................................................................................7 Balancing Act..........................................................................................................................................9 Further Reading......................................................................................................................................9 Summary...............................................................................................................................................10 Chapter 17: Games as Systems of Information...............................................................................................1 Introducing a Different Kind of Information..........................................................................................1 Perfect and Imperfect Information..........................................................................................................2 Enchanted Information............................................................................................................................4 Each turn, Enchanted..............................................................................................................................6 Hiding and Revealing Systems...............................................................................................................7 Summary.................................................................................................................................................8 Chapter 18: Games as Cybernetic Systems.....................................................................................................1 Introducing Cybernetic Systems.............................................................................................................1 Elements of a Cybernetic System...........................................................................................................2 Feedback Systems in Games...................................................................................................................5 Positive and Negative Basketball............................................................................................................6 Racing Loops..........................................................................................................................................7 Positive Feedback in a Game..................................................................................................................9 Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment...........................................................................................................10 A Simple Die Roll.................................................................................................................................11 Putting Feedback to Use.......................................................................................................................12 Afterword: Don't Forget the Participant...............................................................................................13 Further Reading....................................................................................................................................14 Summary...............................................................................................................................................15 Chapter 19: Games as Game Theory Systems................................................................................................1 Introducing Game Theory?.....................................................................................................................1 Decision Trees........................................................................................................................................2 Strategies in Game Theory......................................................................................................................5 Game Theory Games..............................................................................................................................6 Cake Division.........................................................................................................................................9 Playing for Pennies...............................................................................................................................11 The Prisoner's Dilemma........................................................................................................................12 Game Theory and Game Design...........................................................................................................13 Further Reading....................................................................................................................................14 Summary...............................................................................................................................................15 Chapter 20: Games as Systems of Conflict......................................................................................................1 Introducing Conflict................................................................................................................................1 Conflict Case Studies..............................................................................................................................2 Centipede..........................................................................................................................................2 Joust..................................................................................................................................................3 Gauntlet............................................................................................................................................4 Competition and Cooperation.................................................................................................................6 New Games.............................................................................................................................................8 v Table of Contents Table of Contents Chapter 20: Games as Systems of Conflict The Goal of a Game................................................................................................................................9 The Level Playing Field of Conflict.....................................................................................................11 Pig Redux..............................................................................................................................................13 Further Reading....................................................................................................................................14 Summary...............................................................................................................................................15 Chapter 21: Breaking the Rules.......................................................................................................................1 Introducing Rule-Breaking.....................................................................................................................1 Kinds of Rule-Breaking..........................................................................................................................2 Player Types.....................................................................................................................................2 Standard Players......................................................................................................................................3 Dedicated Players....................................................................................................................................3 Unsportsmanlike Players..................................................................................................................5 Degenerate Strategies..............................................................................................................................5 Degenerate Strategy Ecosystems............................................................................................................7 Cheats and Spoil-Sports..........................................................................................................................8 Five Player Types Compared..................................................................................................................9 Sanctioned Violations: Professional Sports..........................................................................................10 Sanctioned Cheating: Illuminati...........................................................................................................11 Hacks, Cheats, and Mods: Digital Rule-Breaking................................................................................13 Easter Eggs.....................................................................................................................................13 Cheat Codes....................................................................................................................................13 Game Guides and Walkthroughs....................................................................................................13 Workarounds..................................................................................................................................14 True Cheating.................................................................................................................................14 Hacks..............................................................................................................................................14 Spoil-Sport Hacking.......................................................................................................................14 Rule-Breaking as a Game Design Practice...........................................................................................15 Further Reading....................................................................................................................................17 Summary...............................................................................................................................................17 Commissioned Game 2 — Ironclad...................................................................................................................1 A game for 2 players...............................................................................................................................1 Rules.......................................................................................................................................................1 Playing Ironclad: The Spectacle of Mechanical Destruction..................................................................2 Playing Ironclad: The Technique of Scholarly Discourse......................................................................4 Design Notes...........................................................................................................................................6 Ironclad.............................................................................................................................................6 Unit 3: Play.........................................................................................................................................................1 Chapter List..............................................................................................................................................1 Chapter 22: Defining Play.................................................................................................................................1 Introducing Play......................................................................................................................................1 What Is Play?..........................................................................................................................................2 A General Definition of Play..................................................................................................................4 Play is free movement within a more rigid structure.......................................................................4 Transformative Play................................................................................................................................5 Being Playful..........................................................................................................................................6 Ludic Activities.......................................................................................................................................7 Game Play...............................................................................................................................................9 vi Table of Contents Table of Contents Chapter 22: Defining Play Summary...............................................................................................................................................11 Chapter 23: Games as the Play of Experience................................................................................................1 Introducing Experience...........................................................................................................................1 Qualities of Experience...........................................................................................................................2 Designing Interactive Experiences.........................................................................................................4 The Core Mechanic.................................................................................................................................4 Core Mechanics in Context.....................................................................................................................5 Tag....................................................................................................................................................5 Verbal Tennis...................................................................................................................................5 LOOP................................................................................................................................................6 Breaking Out of Breakout.......................................................................................................................7 Variations on a Core Mechanic...............................................................................................................8 Timed Play.......................................................................................................................................8 Breakthru..........................................................................................................................................9 Steering, Catching, and Invisible Bricks..........................................................................................9 Breaking Out..................................................................................................................................10 Repetitive Play...............................................................................................................................10 Putting It All Together..........................................................................................................................12 Further Reading....................................................................................................................................14 Summary...............................................................................................................................................15 Chapter 24: Games as the Play of Pleasure.....................................................................................................1 Introducing the Play of Pleasure.............................................................................................................1 Rule-Bound.............................................................................................................................................2 Autotelic Play.........................................................................................................................................3 Enter. Play. Stay......................................................................................................................................5 Typologies of Pleasure............................................................................................................................6 Game Flow..............................................................................................................................................8 Sculpting Desire....................................................................................................................................11 Patterns of Pleasure...............................................................................................................................13 The Role of the Goal.............................................................................................................................14 Goals Within Goals...............................................................................................................................15 Conditioned Pleasure............................................................................................................................17 Rewards and Schedules.........................................................................................................................18 Boredom and Anxiety: Flow Redux.....................................................................................................22 Anxiety and Boredom on the High Seas...............................................................................................24 Meaningful Pleasure.............................................................................................................................26 Against "Addiction"..............................................................................................................................29 Further Reading....................................................................................................................................31 Summary...............................................................................................................................................32 Chapter 25: Games as the Play of Meaning....................................................................................................1 Introducing the Play of Meaning............................................................................................................1 Two Kinds of Representation.................................................................................................................2 Systems of Meaning................................................................................................................................2 System and Context................................................................................................................................3 Emergent Representations......................................................................................................................4 The Context of Meaning.........................................................................................................................5 Down the Rabbit Hole............................................................................................................................6 In the Queen's Court...............................................................................................................................7 vii Table of Contents Table of Contents Chapter 25: Games as the Play of Meaning Framing Play...........................................................................................................................................8 Metacommunication and Play.................................................................................................................9 Captured by the Game..........................................................................................................................10 Further Reading....................................................................................................................................11 Summary...............................................................................................................................................12 Chapter 26: Games as Narrative Play.............................................................................................................1 Overview.................................................................................................................................................1 Introducing Narrative Play......................................................................................................................1 Narrative Tensions..................................................................................................................................2 A Framework for "Narrative".................................................................................................................4 Thunderstorm..........................................................................................................................................5 Two Structures for Narrative Play..........................................................................................................7 Narrative Goals.......................................................................................................................................9 Confict..................................................................................................................................................11 Uncertainty............................................................................................................................................12 Core Mechanics....................................................................................................................................13 Narrative Space.....................................................................................................................................14 Digital Game Spaces.............................................................................................................................16 Spaces of Adventure.............................................................................................................................20 Narrative Descriptors............................................................................................................................22 Worlds and Stories................................................................................................................................25 Crafting Game Narratives.....................................................................................................................27 Games as Narrative Systems.................................................................................................................28 Cutscenes..............................................................................................................................................30 Retelling Game Stories.........................................................................................................................35 The Replay............................................................................................................................................36 Recams..................................................................................................................................................37 Games Within Games...........................................................................................................................38 Further Reading....................................................................................................................................39 Summary...............................................................................................................................................40 Chapter 27: Games as the Play of Simulation.................................................................................................1 Introducing Simulation...........................................................................................................................1 Defining "Simulation"............................................................................................................................2 Game and Non-Game Simulations.........................................................................................................3 Meaningful Play and Simulation............................................................................................................5 Procedural Representation......................................................................................................................7 Represented Conflict.............................................................................................................................11 Procedural Characters...........................................................................................................................15 Designing Simulations..........................................................................................................................19 Learning from Wargames.....................................................................................................................22 The Field of Battle................................................................................................................................23 Simulation in Context...........................................................................................................................25 A Balanced Approach...........................................................................................................................26 The Value of Reality.............................................................................................................................28 Framing the Simulation........................................................................................................................29 The Immersive Fallacy.........................................................................................................................31 Metacommunicative..............................................................................................................................32 Remediating Games..............................................................................................................................33 The Character of Character...................................................................................................................34 viii Table of Contents Table of Contents Chapter 27: Games as the Play of Simulation Hacking the Holodeck...........................................................................................................................36 Further Reading....................................................................................................................................37 Summary...............................................................................................................................................38 Chapter 28: Games as Social Play....................................................................................................................1 Introducing Social Play...........................................................................................................................1 Social Relations......................................................................................................................................2 Player Roles............................................................................................................................................2 Three Emergent Social Games................................................................................................................6 Little Max.........................................................................................................................................6 Mafia................................................................................................................................................8 Stand Up...........................................................................................................................................9 Bounded Communities.........................................................................................................................10 Contract for Artifice..............................................................................................................................11 Knowing the Rules................................................................................................................................13 Transformative Social Play...................................................................................................................15 Ideal and Real Foursquare....................................................................................................................16 When Players Won't Be "Nice"............................................................................................................18 Forbidden Play......................................................................................................................................19 Metagame: the Larger Social Context..................................................................................................22 A Metagame Model..............................................................................................................................23 Designing the Metagame......................................................................................................................25 The Limits of Social Play.....................................................................................................................27 Further Reading....................................................................................................................................27 Summary...............................................................................................................................................28 Commissioned Game 3 — Sneak.......................................................................................................................1 A game for 3 or more players..................................................................................................................1 Introduction.............................................................................................................................................1 Rules.......................................................................................................................................................1 Materials...........................................................................................................................................1 Setting up..........................................................................................................................................1 Assigning Camps..............................................................................................................................1 Turns.................................................................................................................................................2 Drawing Challenges.........................................................................................................................2 Purchasing Information....................................................................................................................2 Next matches....................................................................................................................................3 During the Game..............................................................................................................................3 Winning............................................................................................................................................4 Design Diary...........................................................................................................................................4 Sneak................................................................................................................................................4 Initial Notes......................................................................................................................................4 Cloak and Dagger :Rules for Playtest 1...........................................................................................5 Notes from Playtest 1.......................................................................................................................6 Sneak :Rules for Playtest 2...............................................................................................................7 Notes from Playtest 2.......................................................................................................................9 Notes from Playtest 3........................................................................................................................9 Notes from Eric and Katie's playtesting.........................................................................................10 ix Table of Contents Table of Contents Unit 4: Culture...................................................................................................................................................1 Chapter List..............................................................................................................................................1 Chapter 29: Defining Culture...........................................................................................................................1 Overview.................................................................................................................................................1 Introducing Culture.................................................................................................................................2 Culture: A Framework............................................................................................................................2 Cultural Structures: A List......................................................................................................................3 Cultural Meanings: A Few Examples.....................................................................................................5 Cultural Texts: Trafficking in Signs.......................................................................................................6 Redefinition: Locating Design................................................................................................................7 Summary.................................................................................................................................................8 Chapter 30: Games as Cultural Rhetoric........................................................................................................1 Introducing Cultural Rhetoric.................................................................................................................1 What is Rhetoric?....................................................................................................................................2 Seven Rhetorics of Play..........................................................................................................................3 Two Examples........................................................................................................................................5 The Landlord's Game.......................................................................................................................5 Vampire: The Masquerade...............................................................................................................7 Rhetorics of Gender................................................................................................................................8 Boy Games..............................................................................................................................................9 Flipping the Gender Bit........................................................................................................................10 Transforming Spaces............................................................................................................................13 Battling Toys.........................................................................................................................................17 Toys: A social game for two players..............................................................................................18 Further Reading....................................................................................................................................20 Summary...............................................................................................................................................21 Chapter 31: Games as Open Culture...............................................................................................................1 Introducing Open Culture.......................................................................................................................1 Inventing Jenny.......................................................................................................................................2 Player-as-Producer..................................................................................................................................3 Meaningful Production...........................................................................................................................4 Open Source Games................................................................................................................................8 Game Systems.........................................................................................................................................9 Escape from the Dungeon.....................................................................................................................11 Telefragging Monster Movies...............................................................................................................13 Circle Back............................................................................................................................................15 Further Reading....................................................................................................................................16 Summary...............................................................................................................................................17 Chapter 32: Games as Cultural Resistance.....................................................................................................1 Overview.................................................................................................................................................1 Introducing Cultural Resistance..............................................................................................................1 DIY Gaming............................................................................................................................................2 Resistant Strategies.................................................................................................................................3 Strategies of Alteration.....................................................................................................................4 SOD..................................................................................................................................................4 Sailor Moon Wad.............................................................................................................................4 SimCopter Hack...............................................................................................................................5 Strategies of Juxtaposition................................................................................................................5 x Table of Contents Table of Contents Chapter 32: Games as Cultural Resistance Frag Queens......................................................................................................................................5 Blacklash..........................................................................................................................................5 Los Disneys......................................................................................................................................6 Strategies of Reinvention.................................................................................................................6 Universal Square..............................................................................................................................7 Counter-Strike..................................................................................................................................7 Additional Lines of Resistance...............................................................................................................8 Friction on the Playground.....................................................................................................................9 Resist!...................................................................................................................................................10 Further Reading....................................................................................................................................11 Summary...............................................................................................................................................12 Chapter 33: Games as Cultural Environment................................................................................................1 Raise the Red Flag..................................................................................................................................1 Introducing Cultural Environment..........................................................................................................2 Back to Basics.........................................................................................................................................2 Shall We Play a Game?...........................................................................................................................4 Web-based........................................................................................................................................5 Fictional game content disguised as reality......................................................................................5 Decentralized content.......................................................................................................................5 Game events occurred outside the web............................................................................................5 Episodic content...............................................................................................................................6 Distributed problem-solving.............................................................................................................6 Interaction between authors and players..........................................................................................6 Line blurred between players and game designers...........................................................................6 The Invisible Playground........................................................................................................................7 Public Spaces....................................................................................................................................8 Real-World Interaction.....................................................................................................................8 Emergent Storytelling.......................................................................................................................9 Meta-Narratives................................................................................................................................9 Current Events................................................................................................................................10 Ideological Environment.......................................................................................................................11 Lived Conflict.................................................................................................................................12 Interventions Shaking It Up...........................................................................................................12 Game Design Fundamentals.................................................................................................................13 The Artificial Question.........................................................................................................................14 Final Framings......................................................................................................................................15 Further Reading....................................................................................................................................16 Summary...............................................................................................................................................16 Commissioned Game 4 — Caribbean Star.......................................................................................................1 Overview.................................................................................................................................................1 Rules.......................................................................................................................................................1 Design Notes...........................................................................................................................................4 Caribbean Star..................................................................................................................................4 Racing Games vs.Fighting Games...................................................................................................5 First Rules Draft...............................................................................................................................6 Playtest Notes...................................................................................................................................9 Final Revisions: Friday June 22, 2001...........................................................................................10 ADDITIONAL READING AND RESOURCES..........................................................................11 CONCLUSION..............................................................................................................................12 xi Table of Contents Table of Contents Bibliography........................................................................................................................................................1 List of Games Cited............................................................................................................................................1 Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 A..............................................................................................................................................................1 Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 B..............................................................................................................................................................1 Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 C..............................................................................................................................................................1 Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 D..............................................................................................................................................................1 Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 E..............................................................................................................................................................1 Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 F..............................................................................................................................................................1 Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 G..............................................................................................................................................................1 Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 H..............................................................................................................................................................1 Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 I...............................................................................................................................................................1 Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 J...............................................................................................................................................................1 Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 K..............................................................................................................................................................1 Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 L..............................................................................................................................................................1 Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 M.............................................................................................................................................................1 Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 N..............................................................................................................................................................1 Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 O..............................................................................................................................................................1 Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 P..............................................................................................................................................................1 xii Table of Contents Table of Contents Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 Q..............................................................................................................................................................1 Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 R..............................................................................................................................................................1 Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 S..............................................................................................................................................................1 Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 T..............................................................................................................................................................1 Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 U..............................................................................................................................................................1 Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 V..............................................................................................................................................................1 Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 W.............................................................................................................................................................1 Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 Y..............................................................................................................................................................1 Index.....................................................................................................................................................................1 Z..............................................................................................................................................................1 List of Figures......................................................................................................................................................1 Chapter 6: Interactivity...........................................................................................................................1 Chapter 8: Defining Digital Games........................................................................................................1 Chapter 10: The Primary Schemas.........................................................................................................1 Chapter 12: Rules on Three Levels.........................................................................................................1 Chapter 13: The Rules of Digital Games................................................................................................1 Chapter 14: Games as Emergent Systems..............................................................................................1 Chapter 15: Games as Systems of Uncertainty.......................................................................................1 Chapter 17: Games as Systems of Information.......................................................................................1 Chapter 18: Games as Cybernetic Systems............................................................................................1 Chapter 19: Games as Game Theory Systems........................................................................................2 Chapter 20: Games as Systems of Conflict.............................................................................................2 Commissioned Game 2 — Ironclad........................................................................................................2 Chapter 22: Defining Play......................................................................................................................2 Chapter 23: Games as the Play of Experience........................................................................................2 Chapter 24: Games as the Play of Pleasure............................................................................................2 Chapter 26: Games as Narrative Play.....................................................................................................2 Chapter 27: Games as the Play of Simulation........................................................................................3 Chapter 28: Games as Social Play..........................................................................................................3 Chapter 30: Games as Cultural Rhetoric................................................................................................3 Chapter 31: Games as Open Culture.......................................................................................................3 Chapter 32: Games as Cultural Resistance.............................................................................................4 xiii Table of Contents Table of Contents List of Tables.......................................................................................................................................................1 Chapter 15: Games as Systems of Uncertainty.......................................................................................1 Chapter 30: Games as Cultural Rhetoric................................................................................................1 List of Sidebars....................................................................................................................................................1 Chapter 2: The Design Process...............................................................................................................1 Chapter 5: Systems.................................................................................................................................1 Commissioned Game 1 — Richard Garfield..........................................................................................1 Chapter 11: Defining Rules....................................................................................................................1 Chapter 12: Rules on Three Levels.........................................................................................................1 Chapter 20: Games as Systems of Conflict.............................................................................................1 Commissioned Game 2 — Ironclad........................................................................................................1 Chapter 22: Defining Play......................................................................................................................1 Chapter 24: Games as the Play of Pleasure............................................................................................1 Chapter 26: Games as Narrative Play.....................................................................................................2 Chapter 27: Games as the Play of Simulation........................................................................................2 Chapter 28: Games as Social Play..........................................................................................................2 Commissioned Game 3 — Sneak...........................................................................................................2 Chapter 32: Games as Cultural Resistance.............................................................................................2 Commissioned Game 4 — Caribbean Star.............................................................................................2 xiv Rules of Play - Game Design Fundamentals Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts London, England book design and photography | Katie Salen © 2004 Massachusetts Institute of Technology All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by any electronic or mechanical means (including photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval) without permission in writing from the publisher. This book was set in 8.8-point Myriad by Katie Salen and was printed and bound in the United States of America. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Salen, Katie. Rules of play : game design fundamentals / Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman. p.cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-262-24045-9 (hc : alk. paper) 1. Computer games-Design. 2. Computer games-Programming. I. Zimmerman, Eric. II. Title. QA76.76.C672S25 2003 794.8'1526-dc21 2003045923 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 To those for whom the game is made. Mr. Triggs, Tom Ockerse, H.F., and Dad; Enid, Gil, Laura, and Zach In gratefulness and love. Thank you to the many individuals who gave their time, expertise, support, friendship, and ideas; tothe game designers and developers who created the incredible body of work we examined in thecourse of our study, including Reiner Knizia, James Ernest, Kira Synder, Frank Lantz, and RichardGarfield, who all contributed original work to this volume; to our fearless readers John Sharp, FrankLantz, Henk van Assen, Ranjit Bhatnagar, Nancy Nowacek, Mark Owens, Peter Lee, and Julian Kücklich;to our own teachers and students who helped inspired clarity and invention; to Doug Sery and therest of MIT Press; and most of all to our families and friends, who waited patiently for us to join themback in the real world. We could not have done it without you. < Day Day Up > < Day Day Up > Rules of Play - Game Design Fundamentals 1 2 Rules of Play - Game Design Fundamentals 2 Rules of Play - Game Design Fundamentals Foreword For hundreds of years, the field of game design has drifted along under the radar of culture, producing timeless masterpieces and masterful time-wasters without drawing much attention to itself-without, in fact, behaving like a "field" at all. Suddenly, powered by the big bang of computer technology, game design has become a very big deal and the source of some provocative questions about the future of art and entertainment. In addressing these questions, the book you are holding raises quite a few of its own. On its surface Rules of Play appears to be calm and reasonable, carefully laying out a broad theoretical framework for understanding the field of game design. But beneath this calm surface, the book actually stakes out a controversial position in a dramatic, ongoing discussion about what games are and what they could become. In fact, from certain angles this book appears to have the burning impatience of a manifesto. What is the nature of this impatience? To some extent it is the frustration of workers who are asked to build a cathedral using only a toothbrush and a staplegun. Games are remarkably complex, both in their internal structure and in the various kinds of player experiences they create. But there exists no integrated set of conceptual tools for thinking about games. Until recently, if you were a game designer interested in the theoretical underpinnings of your field, you would be forced to stitch together a set of perspectives from sociology, anthropology, psychology, and mathematics, each of which brought its blindman's view of the elephant, and none of which considered games as a creative domain. More recently, within the field itself there has emerged a Babel of competing methodologies. Most of these have a practical focus on the nuts-and-bolts questions of the creative process of game design; few of them have attempted to ground their insights in a general theoretical system. But the impatience that gives this book its undercurrent of urgency is more than a response to the field's underdeveloped level of discourse. Why, after all, does game design need a theoretical framework? There is something more than insight, knowledge, and understanding at stake here. Remember that the authors of this book are not just academics looking at games from the outside; they are themselves active practitioners. Like many people working in this field, they are driven by the feeling that despite the breathtaking pace of recent technical and commercial advancement, games have remained creatively stunted. On the one hand, there is a sense of boundless potential, the much-dis-cussed possibility that games could succeed film as the defining form of popular culture for the new century. On the other hand, there is the reality of the game store-endless racks of adolescent power fantasies, witless cartoon characters, and literal-minded sports simulations. To get a feeling for the sense of potential that fuels this impatience, consider the vast kinds of experiences games can produce-complex networks of desire and pleasure, anxiety and release, wonder and knowledge. Games can inspire the loftiest form of cerebral cognition and engage the most primal physical response, often simultaneously. Games can be pure formal abstractions or wield the richest possible representational techniques. Games are capable of addressing the most profound themes of human existence in a manner unlike any other form of com-munication-open-ended, procedural, collaborative; they can be infinitely detailed, richly rendered, and yet always responsive to the choices and actions of the player. But where are the games that explore these diverse possibilities? Instead of the rich spectrum of pleasures games are capable of providing, we seem cursed to suffer an embarrassment of variations on the all-too familiar pleasures of running and jumping, of Hide and Go Seek and Tag, of Easter egg hunts and Cops and Robbers. And what happened to the explosion of formal experimentation during the early days of computer games? For a while it seemed that every other title was a fresh attempt to answer the question "What can you do with a computer?" Compare that with the current crop of computer games, the majority of which seem to be addressing the question "What can you do while controlling an avatar that is moving through a simulated three-dimensional space?" Foreword 1 2 Foreword This, then, is what is at stake: a vast discrepancy between the radical possibilities contained in the medium and the conservative reality of mainstream game development. And this is the way in which Rules of Play is more than a conceptual analysis of what games do; it is also an examination of what they can do, and by extension what they should do. One of the implications of Rules of Play's approach to its subject is that the proper way to understand games is from an aesthetic perspective, in the same way that we address fields such as architecture, literature, or film. This should not be confused with the domain of visual aesthetics, which is simply one facet of a game's creative content. Like film, which uses dramatic storytelling, visual composition, sound design, and the complex dynamic organizational process of editing in the construction of a single work, the field of game design has its own unique aesthetic. As laid out in the following pages, the real domain of game design is the aesthetics of interactive systems. Even before computers existed, creating games meant designing dynamic systems for players to inhabit. Every game, from Rock-Paper-Scissors to The Sims and beyond is a space of possibility that the players explore. Defining this space is the collaborative work of the game design process. Rules of Play is perhaps the first serious attempt to lay out an aesthetic approach to the design of interactive systems. At the dawn of the twenty-first century, interactive systems surround us not just as the material reality of our lives but also as a key conceptual model for understanding the world and our place in it, just as mechanical systems did for the Victorians. This is one reason that the importance of this book's project should not be underestimated. There is a reasonable oppositional perspective to the one I have imputed to the authors of Rules of Play. It goes something like this: all of this talk about aesthetics smacks of pretension and self-aggrandizement. Games are recreation, their purpose is to amuse us, and we shouldn't expected them to achieve profound levels of creative expression or relentlessly push creative boundaries. They are simply entertainment. There isn't much that you can say to this argument except to point out that pop culture has a surprising way of moving back and forth between the trivial and the profound. One person's harmless waste of time might be another's bid for tran-scendence-and games are certainly one of the best examples of how entertainment can be far from simple. In any event, the argument itself molds the subject of this debate. If enough people believe that games are meant to be mindless fun, then this is what they will become. If enough people believe that games are capable of greater things, then they will inevitably evolve and advance. We know that games are getting very big, very fast. But it is too early to tell exactly what direction their evolution will take. At this stage the entire field has the unpredictable energy of something enormous, balanced on one thin edge, still vulnerable to the effects of even a slight pressure. Under the guise of examining this curious object, the authors of Rules of Play are giving it an energetic shove. Of course, if you are holding this book then you also have a hand in it yourself. < Day Day Up > < Day Day Up > 2 Foreword

Author Katie Salen Tekinba? Isbn 9780262240451 File size 8MB Year 2003 Pages 688 Language English File format PDF Category Games Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare As pop culture, games are as important as film or television — but game design has yet to develop a theoretical framework or critical vocabulary. In Rules of Play Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman present a much-needed primer for this emerging field. They offer a unified model for looking at all kinds of games, from board games and sports to computer and video games. As active participants in game culture, the authors have written Rules of Play as a catalyst for innovation, filled with new concepts, strategies, and methodologies for creating and understanding games. Building an aesthetics of interactive systems, Salen and Zimmerman define core concepts like “play,” “design,” and “interactivity.” They look at games through a series of eighteen “game design schemas,” or conceptual frameworks, including games as systems of emergence and information, as contexts for social play, as a storytelling medium, and as sites of cultural resistance. Written for game scholars, game developers, and interactive designers, Rules of Play is a textbook, reference book, and theoretical guide. It is the first comprehensive attempt to establish a solid theoretical framework for the emerging discipline of game design.       Download (8MB) Game Invaders: The Theory and Understanding of Computer Games Tempest: Geometries Of Play The Role-Playing Society : Essays on the Cultural Influence of RPGs The Gameful World: Approaches, Issues, Applications Play Redux: The Form of Computer Games Load more posts

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