Research Perspectives on Functional Micro- and Nanoscale Coatings by Ana Zuzuarregui and Maria Carmen Morant-Miñana


5059d6cf8c75fcd.jpg Author Ana Zuzuarregui and Maria Carmen Morant-Miñana
Isbn 9781522500667
File size 32.6MB
Year 2016
Pages 511
Language English
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Category chemistry



 

Research Perspectives on Functional Micro- and Nanoscale Coatings Ana Zuzuarregui CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, Spain Maria Carmen Morant-Miñana CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, Spain A volume in the Advances in Chemical and Materials Engineering (ACME) Book Series Published in the United States of America by Information Science Reference (an imprint of IGI Global) 701 E. Chocolate Avenue Hershey PA, USA 17033 Tel: 717-533-8845 Fax: 717-533-8661 E-mail: [email protected] Web site: http://www.igi-global.com Copyright © 2016 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or distributed in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without written permission from the publisher. Product or company names used in this set are for identification purposes only. Inclusion of the names of the products or companies does not indicate a claim of ownership by IGI Global of the trademark or registered trademark. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Zuzuarregui, Ana, 1984- editor. | Morant-Minana, Maria Carmen, 1979editor. Title: Research perspectives on functional micro- and nanoscale coatings / Ana Zuzuarregui and Maria Carmen Morant-Minana, editors. Description: Hershey, PA : Information Science Reference, [2016] | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2015051301| ISBN 9781522500667 (hardcover) | ISBN 9781522500674 (ebook) Subjects: LCSH: Protective coatings--Materials. | Nanocomposites (Materials) | Thin films. Classification: LCC TA418.76 .R47 2016 | DDC 667/.9--dc23 LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2015051301 This book is published in the IGI Global book series Advances in Chemical and Materials Engineering (ACME) (ISSN: 2327-5448; eISSN: 2327-5456) British Cataloguing in Publication Data A Cataloguing in Publication record for this book is available from the British Library. All work contributed to this book is new, previously-unpublished material. The views expressed in this book are those of the authors, but not necessarily of the publisher. For electronic access to this publication, please contact: [email protected] Advances in Chemical and Materials Engineering (ACME) Book Series J. Paulo Davim University of Aveiro, Portugal Mission ISSN: 2327-5448 EISSN: 2327-5456 The cross disciplinary approach of chemical and materials engineering is rapidly growing as it applies to the study of educational, scientific and industrial research activities by solving complex chemical problems using computational techniques and statistical methods. The Advances in Chemical and Materials Engineering (ACME) Book Series provides research on the recent advances throughout computational and statistical methods of analysis and modeling. 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Chocolate Ave., Hershey, PA 17033 Order online at www.igi-global.com or call 717-533-8845 x100 To place a standing order for titles released in this series, contact: [email protected] Mon-Fri 8:00 am - 5:00 pm (est) or fax 24 hours a day 717-533-8661 Editorial Advisory Board Henk Bolink, ICMol/Universitat de València, Spain Raquel E. Galian, ICMol/Universitat de València, Spain Gemma Garcia-Mandayo, CEIT, Spain Damian Guironnet, University of Illinois, USA Derek Hansford, The Ohio State University, USA Mato Knez, CIC nanoGUNE, Spain Carles Lizandara-Pueyo, hte Company, Germany Aline Miller, University of Manchester, UK Ainara Rodriguez, CIC microGUNE, Spain Francois Rossi, ISPRA, Italy  Table of Contents Foreword............................................................................................................................................... xv Preface................................................................................................................................................. xvii Chapter 1 Functional Coatings: A Rapidly and Continuously Developing Field..................................................... 1 Ana Zuzuarregui, CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, Spain Maria Carmen Morant-Miñana, CIC NanoGUNE Consolider, Spain Chapter 2 Single Source Precursors for Semiconducting Metal Oxide-Based Films............................................ 26 Carolina Egler Lucas, University of Heidelberg, Germany Carlos Lizandara Pueyo, ICIQ, Spain Chapter 3 Synergism at the Nanoscale: Photoactive Semiconductor Nanoparticles and their Organic  Ligands................................................................................................................................................... 42 Raquel Eugenia Galian, University of Valencia, Spain Julia Pérez-Prieto, University of Valencia, Spain Chapter 4 Functional Polymeric Coatings: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications............................................. 78 Peter Zarras, NAWCWD, USA Paul A Goodman, NAWCWD, USA John D Stenger-Smith, NAWCWD, USA Chapter 5 Non-Hydrolyzed Resins for Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Coatings: Functional Coating Films by Moisture Curing................................................................................................................................... 105 Stefan Holberg, Danish Technological Institute, Denmark    Chapter 6 Research Perspectives on Functional Micro and Nano Scale Coatings: New Advances in Nanocomposite Coatings for Severe Applications............................................................................... 136 Jaime Andrés Pérez Taborda, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Colombia & Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid-CSIC, Colombia Elvis O. López, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Brazil Chapter 7 Functionalization of Surfaces with Optical Coatings Produced by PVD Magnetron  Sputtering............................................................................................................................................. 170 Walter Raniero, University of Trento, Italy Gianantonio Della Mea, University of Trento, Italy Matteo Campostrini, Legnaro National Laboratories, Italy Chapter 8 Analysis of Plasmonic Structures by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry...................................................... 208 Jose Luis Pau, Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain Antonio García Marín, Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain María Jesús Hernández, Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain Manuel Cervera, Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain Juan Piqueras, Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain Chapter 9 Functional Coatings for Bone Tissue Engineering.............................................................................. 240 M Tarik Arafat, University of Leeds, UK Xu Li, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology & Research), Singapore Chapter 10 Opto-Smart Systems in Microfluidics.................................................................................................. 265 Larisa Florea, Centre for Data Analytics, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland Dermot Diamond, Centre for Data Analytics, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland Fernando Benito-Lopez, Microfluidics UPV/EHU Cluster, Analytical Chemistry Department, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Spain Chapter 11 High-Tech Applications of Functional Coatings: Functional Coatings and Photovoltaic................... 289 Susana María Fernández, Ciemat, Spain Antonio Garrido Marijuan, Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria  Chapter 12 Advances in Functional Nanocoatings Applied in the Aerospace Industry......................................... 318 Rafael Vargas-Bernal, Instituto Tecnológico Superior de Irapuato, Mexico Chapter 13 Fundamental, Fabrication and Applications of Superhydrophobic Surfaces....................................... 341 Adel M Mohamed, Qatar University, Qatar & Suez University, Egypt Aboubakr Moustafa Abdullah, Qatar University, Qatar Mariam Al-Maadeed, Qatar University, Qatar Ahmed Bahgat, Qatar University, Qatar Chapter 14 Electrodeposition of Nickel-Molybdenum (Ni-Mo) Alloys for Corrosion Protection in Harsh Environments....................................................................................................................................... 369 Teresa D. Golden, University of North Texas, USA Jeerapan Tientong, Nakhon Sawan Rajabhat University, Thailand Adel M.A. Mohamed, Qatar University, Qatar Chapter 15 Concept of Advanced Thermal Barrier Functional Coatings in High Temperature Engineering Components......................................................................................................................................... 396 A.H. Pakseresht, Materials and Energy Research Center, Iran M.R. Rahimipour, Materials and Energy Research Center, Iran M. Alizadeh, Materials and Energy Research Center, Iran S.M.M. Hadavi, Materials and Energy Research Center, Iran A. Shahbazkhan, Sharif University, Iran Compilation of References................................................................................................................ 420 About the Contributors..................................................................................................................... 499 Index.................................................................................................................................................... 508 Detailed Table of Contents Foreword............................................................................................................................................... xv Preface................................................................................................................................................. xvii Chapter 1 Functional Coatings: A Rapidly and Continuously Developing Field..................................................... 1 Ana Zuzuarregui, CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, Spain Maria Carmen Morant-Miñana, CIC NanoGUNE Consolider, Spain Traditionally a coating is defined as a material layer applied onto a surface for protection or decoration. Usually it protects the surface from a variety of environmental problems such as corrosion of solder joints, moisture and mildew, fuels and process solvents, service temperatures and dust, dirt and physical damage from handling. Since 2010, the rapid advancement of the micro and nanotechnology has collided with the coatings field resulting in new coatings with novel properties and functions that differ from the traditional ones. Functional coatings consists of organic, inorganic or hybrid materials and can be prepared using a huge amount of techniques depending on the properties of the materials, the substrate and the final application of the coating. Therefore it is possible to find coatings with optical properties, thermal capabilities, structural and mechanical features, physico-chemical properties, magnetic and electric characteristics and biological purposes that cannot be found in the starting materials. Chapter 2 Single Source Precursors for Semiconducting Metal Oxide-Based Films............................................ 26 Carolina Egler Lucas, University of Heidelberg, Germany Carlos Lizandara Pueyo, ICIQ, Spain Materials possessing interesting properties for current and future everyday products always have a valuable place in the scientific research. Accordingly, semiconductor materials are the foundation of modern electronics. In most of the applications, metal oxide based semiconductors are at present generally useful in the form of thin films. Metal–alkoxo complexes constitute a very important group of precursors for oxide materials. The most common chemical approaches are well described in the literature and the most relevant pathways will be summarized later in this chapter.   Chapter 3 Synergism at the Nanoscale: Photoactive Semiconductor Nanoparticles and their Organic  Ligands................................................................................................................................................... 42 Raquel Eugenia Galian, University of Valencia, Spain Julia Pérez-Prieto, University of Valencia, Spain Photoactive nanoparticles are smart systems that exhibit unique optical properties. In general, their intrinsic properties are size dependent. The degree and type of response to size are both related to their composition. Nanoparticles usually require to be capped with organic ligands in order to be dispersible in an aqueous or organic media, thus leading to nanoparticle colloidal dispersions and enhancing the processability of the material. The organic ligand also plays a key role in their preparation. In addition, the high surface-to-volume ratio of the nanoparticles combined with the affinity of the ligands for the nanoparticle surface can be used to place a large number of functional molecules at their periphery. The purpose of this chapter is to understand the synergism between nanoparticles and organic ligands with regard to their preparation, performance, and applicability. Chapter 4 Functional Polymeric Coatings: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications............................................. 78 Peter Zarras, NAWCWD, USA Paul A Goodman, NAWCWD, USA John D Stenger-Smith, NAWCWD, USA Functional polymeric coatings comprise a diverse array of organic/inorganic functional groups, properties, and applications. This chapter attempts to provide a comprehensive review on the science and engineering of functional polymer coatings for both the novice and experienced chemist/chemical engineer. Functional polymer coatings are coatings that are designed through careful selection of organic/inorganic functional groups and controlled synthesis on the substrate’s surface. The design leads to changes in the surface properties (e.g., adhesion, wettability, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, anti-fouling, non-stick, and anti-scratch) of a particular substrate (metal, glass, wood, or plastic). Functional polymeric coatings represent the “next generation” of coatings. These coatings dynamically respond to their environment, as opposed to a static coating that is used as a simple barrier, or for decorative purposes. This review is divided into three sections: (1) functionalization of polymers, (2) polymer properties and surface analytical techniques, and (3) applications. Chapter 5 Non-Hydrolyzed Resins for Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Coatings: Functional Coating Films by Moisture Curing................................................................................................................................... 105 Stefan Holberg, Danish Technological Institute, Denmark This chapter focuses on resins based on non-hydrolyzed, monomeric and polymeric alkoxysilanes. As alternative to classical sol-gel processing, the resins are applied to a surface without a preceding hydrolysis step. Only after application, hydrolysis and condensation of the alkoxysilyl groups occur by means of atmospheric moisture to result cross-linked organic-inorganic hybrid coatings. While the use of non-hydrolyzed silanes is well established, for example by applying polyethyl silicate as binder for zinc-rich anti-corrosive primers, this chapter describes the chemical structures of various novel organicinorganic hybrid precursors that have significantly extended the area of application to adhesives and scratch-resistant, repellent, or anti-fouling coatings. At present, individual resins are produced and applied at industrial scale in the fields of protective coatings and automotive topcoats.  Chapter 6 Research Perspectives on Functional Micro and Nano Scale Coatings: New Advances in Nanocomposite Coatings for Severe Applications............................................................................... 136 Jaime Andrés Pérez Taborda, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Colombia & Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid-CSIC, Colombia Elvis O. López, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Brazil Research topics related to the production of nanocomposites are the most important directions of development of new semiconductor engineering, ensuring high nanocomposites obtaining useful properties in the scope of biophysical characteristics, biomedical and piezoelectric applications. We present two case studies as Hydroxyapatite are in medical applications and aluminum nitride as acoustic wave sensor. Hydroxyapatite, is the main inorganic structure of the tooth enamel and bone and is a biomaterial that is commonly used in biomedical applications that involve bone substitution, drug delivery and bone regeneration because of its excellent biocompatibility, high bioactivity and good osseoconductivity. Since the past decade. Aluminum nitride (AlN), an electrical insulating ceramic with a wide band gap of 6.3 eV, is a potentially useful dielectric material very important in fields such as optoelectronic and micro electronics. Chapter 7 Functionalization of Surfaces with Optical Coatings Produced by PVD Magnetron  Sputtering............................................................................................................................................. 170 Walter Raniero, University of Trento, Italy Gianantonio Della Mea, University of Trento, Italy Matteo Campostrini, Legnaro National Laboratories, Italy This chapter describes the functionalization of the surface of the glass through thin film inorganic coatings. Such filters called dichroic filters, following the physical principle of interference of light using the rules of optical physics. The design of the optical multilayer materials with high and low refractive index and optimizing the predetermined optical responses. The AFM quantify the real thickness and, calibrate the deposition plant, using as an input data for the simulation to evaluate the dispersion index refraction and absorption. The dichroic filters separate the incident radiation into two or more predetermined optical bands. The materials used are deposited using PVD Reactive Magnetron Sputtering, allows to increase the deposition rate, to obtain good homogeneity range of the surface deposited. The set point of deposition which allows to obtain stoichiometric oxides is analyzed with the technique RBS. These optical filters, also called dichroic are applied in the research field of the splitting photovoltaic concentration. Chapter 8 Analysis of Plasmonic Structures by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry...................................................... 208 Jose Luis Pau, Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain Antonio García Marín, Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain María Jesús Hernández, Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain Manuel Cervera, Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain Juan Piqueras, Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain This chapter focuses on the plasmonic effects that appear in the ellipsometric functions and the pseudodielectric function when metal thin films and nanoparticles are analyzed by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the visible, near infrared and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The chapter is structured in two large sections. The first section reviews the basics of total internal reflection  ellipsometry (TIRE), based on the excitation of surface polaritons in metal thin films. The conditions required to excite polaritons in TIRE systems are analyzed along with the main characteristics of those electromagnetic waves. The second section of the chapter is devoted to study the optical properties of plasmonic resonances in nanostructures and the characteristics introduced in the dielectric functions. The treatment of optical anisotropies and Fano resonances in the ellipsometric models is discussed. The last section of the chapter reviews the state of the art of the technique in biosensing applications. Chapter 9 Functional Coatings for Bone Tissue Engineering.............................................................................. 240 M Tarik Arafat, University of Leeds, UK Xu Li, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology & Research), Singapore This chapter outlines the application of coatings for implants and/or scaffolds used for bone tissue engineering (TE). Previously orthopaedic implants and/or scaffolds were designed considering mainly their mechanical aspects. However, due to the criticality of osteointegration with the surrounding tissues after implanting, the biological aspects of implants and/or scaffolds are becoming crucial. Recent trend is to use functional coatings like anti-infective, Ca-P and biomolecules coatings onto implants and/or scaffolds to improve anti-infective, osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties, respectively; thereby improving the osteointegration of the implant and/or scaffold with the surrounding tissue. Here, the application of different types of coatings on implants and/or scaffolds for bone TE will be described. The use of coatings as a drug and gene delivery carrier will also be covered in brief. As many of the coatings are still in preclinical testing stage, challenges associated with successful clinical use will be discussed as well. Chapter 10 Opto-Smart Systems in Microfluidics.................................................................................................. 265 Larisa Florea, Centre for Data Analytics, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland Dermot Diamond, Centre for Data Analytics, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland Fernando Benito-Lopez, Microfluidics UPV/EHU Cluster, Analytical Chemistry Department, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Spain The possibility of using photo-stimulus to control flow in microfluidics devices is very appealing as light can provide contactless stimulation, is biocompatible and can be applied in a non-invasive and highly precise manner. One of the most popular ways to achieve photo-control flow in microfluidic channels is throughout the use of photo-responsive molecules. We review here the different principles and strategies of using photo-responsive molecules to induce or control liquid motion using light, which include the use of photo-controlled polymeric actuators, photo-sensitive coatings, or photo-sensitive surfactants. We further analyse the capability of these approaches to induce flow control throughout the photo-operation of valves, photo-control of electro-osmotic flows or photo-manipulation of discrete microliter-sized droplets.  Chapter 11 High-Tech Applications of Functional Coatings: Functional Coatings and Photovoltaic................... 289 Susana María Fernández, Ciemat, Spain Antonio Garrido Marijuan, Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria In the proposed chapter, the authors will present an overview about the role of the main transparent conductive oxides as functional coatings and its incorporation into emerging large area flexible photovoltaic technologies. In particular, the authors will describe the state of the art in this area, with the highlight of establishing the importance of using transparent conductive oxides as an essential part of an industrial chain. In this sense, it will be emphasized the main requirements of transparent conductive oxides, the main deposition techniques employed for its fabrication, the different material alternatives that emerge as substitutes of conventional ones and, finally, the evaluation of the main risks found when the coatings will be incorporated in an industrial production chain of flexible devices. Chapter 12 Advances in Functional Nanocoatings Applied in the Aerospace Industry......................................... 318 Rafael Vargas-Bernal, Instituto Tecnológico Superior de Irapuato, Mexico Surfaces of aerospace components are subjected to heat, water, ice, electromagnetic waves, corrosion, abrasion, wear, thermal shock and/or fire during their lifetime. Materials science and engineering have introduced the use of coatings to protect the surface of the materials under these operating conditions. Materials such as ceramics, polymers, and metals and their combinations either as composites or hybrid materials, as well as functionalized versions of them, have been proposed as different design alternatives. Six different types of coatings can be identified: anti-corrosion, abrasion and wear-resistant, thermal barrier and flame-retardant, conductive, anti-icing, and superhydrophobic. This chapter will review the most important advances in functional nanocoatings, which are being researched and those already used in aerospace applications, as well as the profits that these materials can provide to the surfaces of the components where them are used. Chapter 13 Fundamental, Fabrication and Applications of Superhydrophobic Surfaces....................................... 341 Adel M Mohamed, Qatar University, Qatar & Suez University, Egypt Aboubakr Moustafa Abdullah, Qatar University, Qatar Mariam Al-Maadeed, Qatar University, Qatar Ahmed Bahgat, Qatar University, Qatar The need to create new enhanced corrosion resistant coatings has grown because of the financial burden corrosion places on certain industries such as oil industry. Organic inhibitors have been extensively reported to protect metals and metallic alloys from corrosion although they have a negative impact on environment. Development of better corrosion resistant coatings such as metal alloys, metal-ceramics, polymers, and hydrophobic films are examples of corrosion resistant coatings for metals and alloys. Recently, superhydrophobic coatings have been widely implemented into many fields including antifogging transparent materials, self-cleaning surfaces, biomedical and corrosion applications. In the proposed chapter, a comprehensive review will be dedicated for the fundamentals and developments of superhydrophobic materials including theoretical background; superhydrophobicity in nature; preparation techniques; and recent attempts to develop superhydrophobic surfaces.  Chapter 14 Electrodeposition of Nickel-Molybdenum (Ni-Mo) Alloys for Corrosion Protection in Harsh Environments....................................................................................................................................... 369 Teresa D. Golden, University of North Texas, USA Jeerapan Tientong, Nakhon Sawan Rajabhat University, Thailand Adel M.A. Mohamed, Qatar University, Qatar Electrodeposition of only molybdenum onto substrates is difficult, therefore molybdenum is typically deposited with iron-based alloys such as nickel. The deposition of such alloys is known as an induced codeposition mechanism. The electrodeposition of nickel-molybdenum alloys using alkaline plating solutions is covered in this chapter. The mechanism for deposition of nickel-molybdenum is reviewed, as well as the influence of the plating parameters on the coatings. Characterization of the coatings by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction is discussed and how deposition parameters affect morphology, composition, and crystallite size. Nickel-molybdenum alloys offer enhanced corrosion protection and mechanical properties as coatings onto various substrates. A survey of the resulting hardness and Young’s modulus is presented for several research studies. Corrosion parameters for several studies are also compared and show the percentage of molybdenum in the coatings affects these values. Chapter 15 Concept of Advanced Thermal Barrier Functional Coatings in High Temperature Engineering Components......................................................................................................................................... 396 A.H. Pakseresht, Materials and Energy Research Center, Iran M.R. Rahimipour, Materials and Energy Research Center, Iran M. Alizadeh, Materials and Energy Research Center, Iran S.M.M. Hadavi, Materials and Energy Research Center, Iran A. Shahbazkhan, Sharif University, Iran In conventional thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) the major problem is the spalling of a ceramic coating. This could be due to the large thermal stresses which are generated during thermal cycling on the oxidizing environment. One of the ways to improve the life span and overcome mentioned problems is introducing the concept of functionally graded materials (FGM) into the TBC. Functionally graded materials are referred to as a class of advanced materials that are distinguished by variation in their properties with varying their dimensions. Through employing a functionally graded thermal barrier coating (FG-TBC), an intermediate layer with a gradual compositional variation is embedded between the top and the bond coats. This layer(s), composed of ceramic and metal in various ratios, can achieve a gradual composition variation, thereby leading to gradual changes in microstructures and better mechanical and physical properties. Compilation of References................................................................................................................ 420 About the Contributors..................................................................................................................... 499 Index.................................................................................................................................................... 508 xv Foreword The principle of coating has always been an effective way towards adding a desired functionality to a material which otherwise would not be present. First attempts to perform even area-selective coatings can be seen in many caves as parietal art some of which reach 40.000 years of age. The paintings serve as an ancient and eternal hard disk that records stories and transmits them to later generations. Starting from there, coating has been considered a very efficient procedure for protecting or preserving goods and therefore has been continuously developed and optimized. Certainly, if we talk about coatings in the current time, our understanding is more technical. It is habitual to use the term “functional coatings”, although technically seen all coatings are inherently functional and there would be no necessity for explicitly mentioning it. Nevertheless, the terminology was largely adopted with the aim to emphasize that the described coating is vital part of a specific technology for which this particular coating was developed. Thus, the term shall stress the difference between what we consider being a trivial coating and a coating developed specifically for a technological application. During the past centuries our society has witnessed a great development of coatings in terms of both methodologies and materials and for a variety of purposes. One of the main drivers of the intense development has clearly been the electronics industry that strongly relies on a plethora of coating technologies in order to improve their processor chips, memories, etc. However, corrosion protection, biomedical applications, energy conversion or storage and further applications play meanwhile an equally important role for the development of a variety of coating strategies. In the meantime we can find coating technologies suitable for most of the goals we want to achieve. There are physical methods such as thermal evaporation, sputtering, pulsed laser deposition, etc., gas phase chemical deposition methods that include mainly chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or its subset atomic layer deposition (ALD), and wet-chemical strategies including sol-gel techniques, electroplating, polymerizations, and so on. Each of those techniques has advantages and disadvantages over the other, which makes the overall field being a colorful toolbox with a plethora of complementary tools. Coatings can be approached with three different points of view. First, there is the technological aspect where plenty of researchers or engineers invest considerable effort in order to improve technologies and/ or instrumentation for coating processes. The work of those people was and still is of critical importance, since only their work made coating technologies easily available for everybody, including industry. This part of the world of coatings is not covered with the present book and the interested reader may find plenty specialized literature elsewhere. The second and third point of view refer to the chemical aspect, that is, the development of chemicals that enable the deposition of a functional material at all and the view from the functionality perspective  Foreword that is needed for a specific application, respectively. This book is focused on the later mentioned two aspects. The reader will find examples of exciting applications that are enabled by various kinds of coatings and materials. Those span various emerging application fields including biomedical applications, optics and plasmonics, photovoltaics, corrosion protection, microfluidics, and so on. The routes to obtain the desired coatings vary between physical and chemical or electrochemical methods, which gives additional value to the book as it is not focused on a specific deposition technology. It rather shows that a wise choice of the pathway is necessary for obtaining the best possible results. Eventually the final application or device will benefit. The involved chemistries are utmost important for many of the procedures. Therefore some chapters address this issue with examples from metalorganic or polymer chemistry, which guides the reader into strategic considerations from the chemical point of view. Putting together all those aspects, this book is a truly multidisciplinary reference for the reader interested in functionalizing materials by coatings. It gives some insight into the planning needed for obtaining the desired results. Likewise it may act as source of inspiration for the reader as it describes a variety of concepts that may be adapted to further application areas and in this way enable exciting applications of functional coatings. Still, there is plenty of room for innovative research and development. Much remains to be done and some of the existing concepts may serve as a starting point for newcomers to the field who eventually will further improve the development and implementation of coating materials and methodologies in the forthcoming decades. History has shown that coating follows our civil development for a long time and therefore it is obvious that the future of our technologies will also be dependent on functional coatings. Mato Knez San Sebastián, October 2015 xvi xvii Preface A coating is defined as a material that is applied to cover the surface of an object, usually known as substrate, with a defined purpose. When the purpose of the coating is devoted to the change of one or more properties of the treated material for techonological or scientific applications, it is renamed as functional coating. In our age-old culture functional coatings are the ideal solution to solve problems arising in daily life situations and tools. In the same way as chemistry is a part of our everyday life, functional coatings can be found in almost every object, gadget or device you can see or touch. However, in the last 20 years the advances made in the preparation of different functional coatings with diverse composition have allowed the development of the so-called smart coatings. In this period of time, the functional coatings field has evolved from just decorative and protective films to coatings with multiple functions and applications. These applications consist of thin or thick films that can be the fundamental unit for next generation devices. To fulfill this objective, it is necessary to develop new methods or adapt and optimize the existing ones to fabricate novel coatings with unique properties. The methodology employed to obtain the described functional materials and their subsequent modification depends on the advanced properties we want to imbue to the new materials. Different techniques (both well established and novel ones) have enabled the deposition of these materials from gas, solution or solid phase and the transference of their unique properties to the substrate. Vapor deposition techniques (such as atomic layer deposition, chemical vapour deposition, physical vapor deposition) have been used widely in microelectronics and microsystems. Chemical, electrochemical and spin or dip coating techniques stand out as the prefferred ones to implement functional coatings from liquid sources with unique and advanced features. Roll-to-roll coating processes are employed to transfer the standard protocols and functional coatings to flexible substrates in the industrial network. Although solid phase fabrication methods are almost nonexistent in the academic areas, they are highly used in industry and commercial fields. Laser micro- nanomachining and thermal spray coatings can yield surfaces with antibacterial behaviour, conductive, protective and superhydrophobic properties. These techniques provide a great number of possibilities to transform the selected substrates from basic materials to multifunctional materials which are capable of changing their properties after an appropiate stimuly in a controlled way and then become an useful, active and smart component of the targeted device. The nature of the selected material for the coating implementation ranges from metal or semiconductor nanoparticles or layers to inorganic, organic or hybrid films and polymers. Functional coatings are materials or composites with specified functional groups or features, which show specific physical, chemical, or biological properties or capabilities depending on the nature of the film or particle and the interaction with the sensitive material or surface treated. In the last years, much effort has been devoted to the implementation of metallic, inorganic and organic coatings both in industrial and academic fields.  Preface The configuration or structure of the coating is designed depending on the application. Optical coatings usually consist of multilayers that change de reflection properties to obtain surfaces with high selectivity, antirreflective coatings or erosion protection. Structured coatings generally present superhydrofobic properties and can be employed in the production of self-cleaning surfaces and in devices intented to work in oily environments. Resistance to high temperatures can be accomplished using multilayers or hybrid coatings that can be even employed as fire retardant elements if they are composed fo specific materials or compounds. Aditionaly, hybrid nanocomposites can be used for many applications. Photoresponsive, photoluminiscent or conductive nanoparticles can be dispersed in an organogel or polymer matrix in order to obtain films with self-erasable, optical and electrical outstanding properties respectively. Self-assembled monolayers can be used to fabricate antiffogging surfaces for instance. Melted coatings are usually employed in the area of non-volatile memories to confere dual properties resulting of the mixture of well defined interfaces. Coatings formed enterely by nanoparticles can be used for numerous applications such as drug-delivery, bactericide or gas sensors. This book covers key aspects in the preparation methods, modification, organization and utilization of the functional coatings in micro, nano and biotechnology. The book can be divided in two sections. The first one (chapter 1–6) is related to general aspects of synthesis of coatings and characterization of inorganic precursors, polymers and hybrid components. The second part (chapter 7-15) is related to specific applications of the materials developed by many research groups all over the world. The objective of chapter 1 is to compile the advances in the field of functional coatings in order to obtain a comprehensive view of the different approaches that can be carried out when functionalizing surfaces or materials with layers or nanoparticles from different components and with particular applications or purposes. Metal–alkoxo complexes constitute a very important group of precursors to fabricate oxide materials that are in the foundation of modern electronics. Moreover, capping semiconductors or metallic nanoparticles with organic ligands results in an interesting approach to achieve hybrid photoactive compounds with novel properties that can be applied in the form of coating. A summary of these techniques and some of these applications are described in chapter 2 and chapter 3, respectively. Chapter 4 describes the preparation, functionalization, analysis and usages of the next generation of polymeric functional coatings. Chapter 5 describes the chemical structures of various novel organic-inorganic hybrid precursors that can be applied to fabricate coatings with many more functionalities that the ones employed nowadays in the industry. The last chapter of the first section is dedicated to nanocomposites. In chapter 6 the use of hydroxyapatite for medical applications and the implementation of acoustic wave sensors using aluminum nitride as dielectric material are presented. Coming to the applications part of the book, some optical functionalities of coatings are presented. Chapter 7 describes the fabrication of dichroic filters on glass surfaces through thin film inorganic multilayer coatings implemented by PVD reactive magnetron sputtering, whereas chapter 8 focuses on the plasmonic effects found when analyzing metal thin films and nanoparticles with spectroscopic ellipsometry for biomedical applications. As a matter of fact, biomedicine seems to be one of the most demanding fields in the fabrication of micro and nanoscale functional coatings, as is evidenced in chapter 9 where the application of biocompatible coatings for implants and/or scaffolds used in bone tissue engineering is outlined. Chapter 10 presents the bridge between both optical and biomedical applications of functional coatings, describing the use of photo-stimulus to control flow in microfluidic devices. The last part of the second section of the book is devoted to some of the technological applications of smart coatings. Chapter 11 provides an overview about the role of the main transparent conductive oxides as functional coatings and its incorporation into emerging large area flexible photovoltaic techxviii Preface nologies. Functional coatings are widely used in aerospace components (chapter 12), which are subjected to extremely harsh conditions that demand properties as hydrophobicity and abrasion resistance, among others. However, the use of superhydrophobic coatings has not been limited to aerospace materials as it can be inferred from chapter 13. The application of superhydrophobic surfaces especially in anti-corrosion elements is one of the key topics of the chapter. Chapter 14 goes deeper in this research area, providing an accurate description of the state of the art of the implementation of coatings for corrosion protection, the ones based on Ni-Mo alloys in particular. Finally chapter 15 discusses the use of functionally graded materials in thermal barrier coatings and remarks the advantages of the use of these composed multilayers to overcome the usual problems inherent to these protective layers. The target audience of this book is a multidisciplinary collective composed by scientific and academic communities connected somehow with material science, thin-film technologies, nano and microtechnology and nanoscience. This includes researchers all around the world and students and scholars from all Universities and Colleges where the fields of materials, their properties and the technological applications of them are subjected to study. It will help them to definitively understand some basic concepts of the functional coatings and find the new advances occurred in the field. Also, the book offers recommendations to researchers on how to address their research in the future in order to revolutionize the current state of the art and open new possibilities and applications that cannot be imagined nowadays. The book covers the lack of specific recoplation of data about this subject and collects all the newest information around this topic increasing the visibility of the research performed in this area. The fact of having a complete book dedicated to functional coatings writen by experts in the area is the best way of diseminating the knowledge around this topic and encouraging other researchers and students to join this fascinating and constantly evolving subject. Finally, we would like to thank all the authors, reviewers and advisory board members for participating in the development of this book despite their busy agendas. Special thanks to Professor Mato Knez for employing his valuable time to write the foreword and to Rachel Ginder and Katherine Shearer for assisting us during the preparation of the book. Ador & San Sebastián, November 2015 Maica Morant CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, Spain Ana Zuzuarregui CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, Spain xix

Author Ana Zuzuarregui and Maria Carmen Morant-Miñana Isbn 9781522500667 File size 32.6MB Year 2016 Pages 511 Language English File format PDF Category Chemistry Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare Just as chemistry is a part of our daily lives, functional coatings can be found in almost every object, gadget or device you can see or touch. However, in the last 20 years the advances made in the preparation of different functional coatings with diverse compositions have allowed the development of nanoscale coatings that are more cost-effective and environmentally conscious than traditional coatings. Research Perspectives on Functional Micro- and Nanoscale Coatings highlights critical research on preparation methods, modification, organization, and utilization of functional coatings in micro, nano, and biotechnology. Emphasizing emerging developments and global research perspectives, this publication is a pivotal resource for engineers, researchers, and graduate-level students interested in learning about emerging developments in functional coatings and nanotechnology.     Download (32.6MB) Physicochemical Hydrodynamics Applied Mathematical Models and Experimental Approaches in Chemical Science Industrial Biocatalysis Nanoscience and Computational Chemistry: Research Progress Molecular Imprinting: Principles and Applications of Micro- and Nanostructure Polymers Load more posts

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