Religions, Culture and Healthcare, Second Edition by Susan Hollins

3259829fb733d71-261x361.jpg Author Susan Hollins
Isbn 9781846192609
File size 2.92MB
Year 2016
Pages 154
Language English
File format PDF
Category fitness


Religions, Culture and Healthcare Second Edition This page intentionally left blank Religions, Culture and Healthcare A practical handbook for use in healthcare environments Second Edition Susan Hollins NHS Chaplain and Life Coach Radcliffe Publishing Oxford • New York CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 © 2009 by Susan Hollins CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Version Date: 20160525 International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-138-03095-4 (eBook - PDF) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. While all reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, neither the author[s] nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publishers wish to make clear that any views or opinions expressed in this book by individual editors, authors or contributors are personal to them and do not necessarily reflect the views/opinions of the publishers. The information or guidance contained in this book is intended for use by medical, scientific or health-care professionals and is provided strictly as a supplement to the medical or other professional’s own judgement, their knowledge of the patient’s medical history, relevant manufacturer’s instructions and the appropriate best practice guidelines. Because of the rapid advances in medical science, any information or advice on dosages, procedures or diagnoses should be independently verified. The reader is strongly urged to consult the relevant national drug formulary and the drug companies’ and device or material manufacturers’ printed instructions, and their websites, before administering or utilizing any of the drugs, devices or materials mentioned in this book. This book does not indicate whether a particular treatment is appropriate or suitable for a particular individual. Ultimately it is the sole responsibility of the medical professional to make his or her own professional judgements, so as to advise and treat patients appropriately. The authors and publishers have also attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint. Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. 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Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at and the CRC Press Web site at Contents Foreword to the first edition vi Preface to the second edition vii About the author Acknowledgements viii ix Dedication X Chapter 1 C ultural and religious diversity within healthcare l Chapter 2 Spiritual care 11 Chapter 3 Elements of care 23 Chapter 4 Religions and other faith groups • B aha'i • Buddhist • Christian • Other groups - Christian S cience - Jehovah's Witness - Mormon ( Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints ) - Rastafari • Hindu • Muslim • American Indian/Alaska Natives • Jain • Jewish • Pagan • Sikh • Zoroastrian Appendix 25 26 29 34 43 43 46 51 53 58 66 77 80 85 96 1 04 1 10 1 14 Further reading 127 Resources 129 Index 135 v Foreword to the first edition It is with great pleasure that I write this foreword for Religions, Culture and Healthcare: a practical handbook for use in healthcare environments. In the E quality and Human Rights Group at the Department of Health, we actively promote innovative approaches to embedding the principles of equality, fair treatment, dignity and respect and valuing diversity into the D epartment and the NHS . These values and principles lie at the heart of the Department' s drive to recognise the needs of patients and staff from diverse religious groups, and to respond sensitively and appropriately to those needs . This is a much-welcomed guide on an issue which is at the heart of so many of us - our faith, our individual cultural identity, and our religious and spiritual needs . We are fortunate to live in a multi- cultural, multi­ faith society, and the fact that the UK has more diverse faith communities than any other country in the European Union is something that we have every reason to be proud of. Valuing differences unites us, bringing us together and strengthening our society. This guidance highlights the importance of celebrating this diversity as well as dealing with the challenges it poses us. It promotes a commitment to dignity and respect, to providing appropriate and sensitive care to all, and to patient-led care and individual choice at all stages of a patient's health and social care, from birth to the end of life . It is a key part of the NHS Plan that any reform of the NHS and social care must ensure the delivery of fair, appropriate and equitable access of services to all. Indeed, the White Paper Choosing Health, published in November 2 0 04, underlined our aim for everyone to achieve improved health, and to focus specifically on inequalities in health. Spiritual care, then, is something that is essential within the NHS . As an organisation employing over 1 .4 million staff, and with over five and a half million elective hospital admissions every year, it' s vital that the NHS positions itself at the forefront of recognising the needs of the diverse patients and users that are part of, and use, its services . W e need t o ensure that w e are able t o respond t o the religious and spiritual needs of patients and staff, whatever their faith or belief. This is why I am delighted to write the foreword for this guidance which contributes towards making the NHS a place where people from all backgrounds feel valued, respected and treated fairly - a crucial goal for us all in delivering a patient-led NHS . Surinder Sharma National Director for Equality and Human Rights Department of Health and the NHS December 2005 vi Preface to the second edition All healthcare providers are required to have a sound working knowledge of the main religions to enable them to give sensitive and appropriate care to patients. This handbook is intended to be of practical assistance to healthcare staff in helping them to gain a fuller understanding of the nine world faiths and to be able to apply this knowledge in a variety of circumstances . I have also included information about some less well­ known and some emerging faith communities as these also take their place within a society where diversity is the norm and no longer the exception. C ollectively these faith communities represent a cultural and religious diversity that is vibrant and creative . Individually they may present challenges to healthcare providers to develop and manage their services in ways that are more sensitive and responsive to their patients' particular needs . A maj or precept in this book, both explicit and implicit, is the necessity for healthcare professionals to maintain an openness of mind - a positive regard - towards all patients, and to seek to avoid at all costs an easy placing of them within certain stereotypical frames . In this way the care that is provided can be of the highest order in relation to the patients' cultural, religious and spiritual needs and requirements . The information provided here could be regarded as a starting point on a j ourney of mutual discovery between the healthcare provider and the patient. On this j ourney into new territory there are highly significant clues to inform and improve not only the relationship between the healthcare profes ­ sional and the patient, but also t o improve the outcome of treatment. The design of this handbook is intended to facilitate access to various types of information relating to the different stages and needs of life from within the spectrum of both maj or and minor religions . It is not intended that it should sit on a high shelf behind the locked doors of an office . B etter that it is always to be found, increasingly dog-eared perhaps, at the nursing station, and in the pockets of doctors and other non-ward-based healthcare staff. Although it has been my intention to provide essential and relevant information, I have steered away from an encyclopaedic approach . I hope that as healthcare professionals gather this essential information they will also become confident in its judicious application, avoiding the stereo ­ typical responses i n order t o discover the individual a t the heart of their care . If additional information about certain aspects of patient care within a particular religion is needed, I hope that the Resources section at the end of the volume will provide further signposts for this j ourney. Susan Hollins January 2009 vii About the author Following 1 6 years as a priest in the parochial ministry of The Church of England, Susan Hollins has worked in the UK National Health Service as a healthcare chaplain since 1 999, firstly in the acute sector, followed in 2 0 04 by work at national level developing a workforce strategy for NHS healthcare chaplains. She is the author of a new and extremely compre ­ hensive list of religious affiliations and belief systems which is to be used extensively in the UK National Health Service and government organ ­ isations. Trained in psychodynamic counselling and following a recent appointment at the Royal Brompton Hospital in London Susan now works as a life coach. viii Acknowledgements Much of the information contained within this book is in the public domain, and is often passed on by word of mouth. My role therefore has been that of gatherer of scattered information. Other people have also been collecting this important information for use not only within healthcare, but also in business environments in our globally diverse community. ix Dedication For my Father - a true seeker on his winding spiritual j ourney remembering you with love and gratitude . Chapter I Cultural and religious diversity within healthcare Who am I? I am not the sum total of clinical statistics held on my health record. I am not 'Bed 2 7 CA breast ( or whatever illness I might happen to have ) . ' When I come into your hospital as a patient, I may feel like a stranger in a foreign land. I do not speak 'clinical-ese' or 'medical-itian. ' I may not know how to get to the ward or the unit without the need for signposts, verbal directions and the hospital map, now deeply creased with greasy patches held tightly in my rather moist hand. I feel vulnerable . I feel naked even though I am wearing my clothes ( or some of them) . By contrast, you may seem to me like some foreign force who, with knives and machines and other alien implements, may threaten to invade the land that is my body and cause overwhelming feelings of fear and anxiety to wash over me like waves breaking on a beach in a storm. Whatever my physical or mental condition when I arrive in your territory, you may have your way, and I will give my consent, perhaps unwillingly yet knowingly, bartering and negotiating my way through the minefield of procedures until I catch sight of the door marked Exit - and, gaining your consent, am given my discharge papers and sight of the door to my home . Although this might be a rather exaggerated ( and vividly imagined!) narrative of a patient experience in any hospital, nevertheless it seeks to capture some of the strong feelings of anxiety, apprehension and even hostility that many patients experience when they enter hospital either as emergency admissions or as elective patients . Yet if my language and my cultural, religious and spiritual maps and compass are not set in the same way as yours, if the way that I dress seems to hide who I am and risks frustrating your professional care, we may as a result be at cross -purposes and I may be the loser. Hospitals are foreign territories, and they remain so despite the increase in sensitive and patient- friendly health design in many parts of the world. This patient-friendly design seeks to soften and domesticate the real and necessary business of healthcare which, although multifaceted, is neces­ sarily clinical, and may often feel immensely impersonal despite the soft facades and all the other well-intentioned strategies to assist my j ourney through this new-found strange land. Healthcare staff may forget that, to begin with at least, they may be regarded as members of the invading force, the alien enemy, even though 2 Religions, culture and healthcare their task and calling is high and healing. Healthcare staff have a crucial role in setting the patient at ease in this foreign territory . They are the welcoming party who sues for peace . They are the translators of clinical-ese and medical-itian into everyday language so that the patient and his or her relatives may understand the process and procedures . They are the givers of reassurance alongside the medication. They are the astute commun ­ icators between the patient and other healthcare staff. Their understand­ ing of what it feels to be ill, vulnerable and scared needs to be profound. As providers of 'hospital-ity', they recognise that their patients are also customers - key stakeholders in a multi-billion- dollar business. We are all in the numbers game after all, or so it seems . . . But what does all of this have to do with cultural and religious diversity? It has everything to do with the culturally diverse societies in which we live . Religion still plays a key part - both conscious and unconscious - in the social identity of individuals, communities and neighbourhoods . Unless we are able to appreciate and understand that hidden within the long robes of the Muslim woman, under the Kippah of an Orthodox Jewish man, within the seasonal rituals practised by the young Wiccan or in the family photos arranged on the top of the bedside locker there are maj or clues to the mystery of the person in the bed, then caring for patients of all cultures - the obvious and the hidden - will remain a game of clinical and financial numbers . Hospitals are places where people struggle to hang on to their indi­ viduality amid the clinical procedures set in place to help to restore their mental and/or physical health. Failing to pay adequate attention to the individual only reinforces their vulnerability and a perception that they are no longer in control of what happens to them, despite the consent forms that they are required to sign. It is no secret that the populations of Western Europe and the USA are becoming increasingly diverse . For example, in the USA, by 2 0 5 0 the number of adults belonging to what are now termed minority ethnic groups ( Hispanic, B lack, Asian, Native American, Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander or Mixed Race ) is proj e cted to be 4 3 9 million or 5 4% of the total adult population. The Hispanic adult population alone is proj e cted to increase to 1 3 3 million or 3 0% of the total population. By contrast, the proportion of Non-Hispanic Whites in the adult population is proj ected to decrease from the current level of 6 6% to 46% over the same time period. 1 It has become normative for people to respond in non- religious terms when invited to state whether they have any religious affiliation on admission to hospital. In so many ways the term 'spiritual, but not religious' captures the freeing up of people 's thinking and believing in relation to the traditional and ancient faiths that have spanned thousands of years . In the USA, where religion exercises considerable influence at all levels of public and private life, the Religious Landscape Forum Survey Cultural and religious diversity within healthcare 3 indicates a marked and noteworthy increase ( 1 6% ) in the number of Americans who state that they are unaffiliated to any particular religion. Diversity and fluidity are now key words in any discussion, debate and decision making about the provision and delivery of healthcare services . The reason for this is that cultural diversity has become a permanent characteristic of our western societies, even if our national institutions, government bodies, and private businesses and local communities are to a greater or lesser extent playing 'catch-up ' with this reality. Diversity is also the pacemaker specifically in relation to the increasing fluidity of people' s religious affiliation and sense o f belonging t o a particular faith . A s cultural diversity increases and deepens in our common life, so other religions and spiritual pathways present themselves to us for consideration. We may regard cultural and religious diversity as colours in a giant palette of paints - so many shades and nuances of colour from which we may choose, to a greater or lesser extent, the particular colours for our own lives . Whereas religious belief among members of families was once set firm, and was handed on from generation to generation, the current patterns of religious affiliation now reveal far greater fluidity, flux and change . People now feel at greater liberty to choose a different faith from the one in which they were nurtured within their family. Among families it is more common for there to be members of more than one particular faith, as well as members who do not have or do not wish to have a specific faith. What seems to be emerging is a gradual shift from a religion-centric life to a spirituality­ centric life . Within Western society as a whole, then, it seems fair to say that people' s regard for their lives is understood far more in terms of a spiritual j ourney of discovery that encompasses the whole of life, with many twists and turns along the way, than in terms of a straight road marked by certainties . In the American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS Survey) 2 0 0 1 , respondents were asked 'What is your religion, if any? ' 2 The replies revealed a significant difference between respondents who identified with a particular religion and those who were affiliated to one . The authors of the ARIS Survey describe it in the following terms : 'identifica­ tion as a state of heart and mind and affiliation as a social condition. ' 2 S o it is that respondents in both the ARIS Survey and the Pew Forum Survey spoke of identifying with a particular religion even though their attend­ ance at a place of worship might be irregular ( i . e . on a broad spectrum encompassing complete non-attendance, monthly attendance and irregu ­ lar attendance ) . What mattered most to these respondents was that they identified with a particular religion even though they rarely worshipped with other members of the same faith community. The factors that give rise to this feeling of identification with a particular religion will of course be immensely varied. We know that stereotypes reinforce negative thoughts about those who are different from ourselves, yet how often do we base our approach to 4 Religions, culture and healthcare patients upon such stereotypes? How often do we work from the foundation of our own assumptions and limited knowledge about other cultures and traditions when caring for patients? Such limited knowledge and understanding only serve to reduce the quality of care that we provide for those whose language, lifestyle and belief system are clearly different from our own. We are cultural beings . From birth to death, culture informs and shapes us - for better as well as for worse. Every culture has its shadow side, which often emerges at times of personal or communal crisis, when we discover its limitations . The positive elements of our culture are often what we recall when we are far from what we recognise as our home and our roots, and when we crave the familiarity and comfort of what is normal and usual to us in terms of the food we eat, the language we use, the buildings we inhabit and the things we enj oy doing. B etween the crisis and the need for 'home comfort', culture is implicit in every part of our lives, so that it may become impossible to define what is culturally distinct about ourselves and the community that we call ' ours . ' Sometimes definitions and critiques of our culture belong only to the comedian and the satirist, or to the travel writer - those who enj oy observing the oddities and richness of what is usual and ordinary, and commenting upon them in their idiosyncratic ways that make us laugh or rage, or both. Within a society that is inherently diverse, we can no longer live as if the culture is monochrome . Even within societies that share a common heritage and language, there are cultural nuances and shifts, so that we are identified by our regional accents, the phrases that we use at particular times, the food we eat and the clothes we choose to wear. These straightforward examples of cultural diversity illustrate a simple truth, namely that societies have been both threatened and strengthened by rich diversity throughout history. We also know, at great cost, that cultures and whole peoples have been destroyed by an unbalanced desire on the part of others for a monochrome culture that can be controlled. In many countries today there is a far greater diversity of people from vastly different cultures who seek to coexist creatively and to build a future together. One of the essential characteristics of membership of such a society is that each of us has a responsibility not only to understand our own culture but also to discover and understand other cultures. There is a requirement for us all to become far more literate about cultures that are different from our own. In embarking upon a j ourney of discovery about other cultures, the oppor­ tunity to grow in tolerance and understanding towards others who are 'not like us' presents itself very clearly. Within healthcare environments, where patients are naturally vulnerable, our greater understanding and appreciation of different cultures will deepen our pastoral care as well as our clinical care . The image of an onion, with many different layers, has been used to describe the different elements within a cultural identity. 3 The different Cultural and religious diversity within healthcare 5 layers illustrate the ways in which culture influences our lives, from the implicit to the explicit. The outer layer illustrates how culture influences the outward, external elements of our lives ( e . g . the food we eat, the design of the buildings in our towns and citie s ) . The second layer illustrates how culture informs and shapes the norms and values in our society and community. At this level the influences are often unspoken and implicit, tending towards universal themes which relate to ethical standards and values. The final, core layer contains those elements of culture whose threads can be traced through centuries of evolution and development. These also focus upon the initial creation and foundation of a community, and ultimately a civilisation - the immediate environment, and the potential resources of climate and geography for the establishment and maintenance of a society. It is this deeply hidden element or layer of culture that provides the foundation for the other layers that emerge over time as the society matures and develops. It is this core element that provides the 'basic assumptions' of any culture, 3 which are deeply implicit and not generally articulated. Gert Hofstede, the Dutch cultural analyst, has identified several levels of uniqueness in what he terms 'human mental programming.14 These levels of uniqueness are human nature ( the foundation level ) , culture ( the middle level ) and personality (the top level ) . There are also three other key elements that are relevant to each level, namely the universal, that which is inherited, and that which is specific to a particular individual or group . The foundation level of human nature possesses universal characteristics such as needs and wide -ranging abilities, including the ability to feel and express or withhold emotion. These sit alongside inherited characteristics that influence and modify these universal abil­ ities. In the same way, culture is both learned and specific to a group or society. As culture is learned, it is passed not only from one generation to the next, but also between different groups. A person has the capacity to absorb both the learned and the inherited ways of being and interacting in the world and in relationship to others, while possessing unique personal characteristics . This pattern illustrates the fact that human beings have a tremendous capacity to adapt to new and diverse cultural environments and to move between them successfully. I hope that any broad definition of culture would include the beliefs, values, customs, thoughts, actions and communications both of individu ­ als and of the institutions of racial, ethnic, social or religious groups. 5 This breadth of definition highlights the inherent complexity within culture and reminds us of the requirement to begin to look at life from a perspective other than our own - or, as the Native American saying goes, 'Walk a mile in another man's moccasins before you criticise him . ' Yet culture, although multi-layered i n itself, i s only one element o f our complex social identity. These different elements can be seen as fluid or overlapping patterns (see Figure 1 . 1 ) . 6 Religions, culture and healthcare • Workplace role and relationships Physical and psy chological health, wellbeing Religion, spirituality, personal values and philosophy • Local, communal and national identity, culture, religion, belonging Education, community, environment Self gender, sexual orientation, family ethnicity • Universal values, philosophy, identity Figure 1.1 Cultural matrix. From the moment of our birth we are shaped by our experiences, which are set within a familial group, a neighbourhood, a society, a particular religion perhaps, a culture, and an ethnic group . When viewed in this way it is clear that any combination of these elements will provide the dominant strands of our own social identity. So, too, the dominance of any of these elements will shift in relation to the different roles that we undertake . When a person becomes a hospital patient, the pattern shifts once more . Identity then tends to be more focused upon mental and physical health, and upon our primary relationships. Religious and spiritual needs also tend to increase in importance during this time . Given this varied and fluid pattern, the application of stereotypes is unhelpful. When we attend with interest to j ust one of the elements that make up another's sense of identity, we begin to enter their world and to see through their eyes. We become more able to recognise the appro ­ priateness - or otherwise - of the care that we provide . Different cultural traditions also influence the way in which a person will respond to illness and to treatment. Such responses may be as conditioned as those relating to the way in which we dress and behave . Some will regard illness as having a spiritual dimension, sometimes received as a 'j udgement' or as some effect of an unknown cause, and they will seek spiritual guidance and support. Others may regard illness as being caused by a combination of several factors, such as lifestyle, environmental conditions, or j ust bad luck. It is appropriate to take seriously the person's value and belief system as an inherent element within their total care, not only in terms of paying them close attention, but also to support them in tapping into their inner resources and other support networks to strengthen their well-being. Cultural and religious diversity within healthcare 7 Not everyone has the same attitude towards healthcare professionals. Whereas in western society doctors are held in particularly high regard, in other cultures healthcare staff are regarded as equals, and sometimes as friends in whom one can confide . With such differences in approach and emphasis, it is all the more important for healthcare staff to work towards a mutual understanding of roles and responsibilities with the patients in their care, and to avoid the status quo approach. Increasing numbers of people have multiple ethnic and cultural iden ­ tities . In general, people manage to live with these differences and to move smoothly between the different worlds that they represent. However, some people from immigrant communities find the transition from one culture to another so traumatic and destabilising that their mental health suffers . Yet a great deal can be learned from people belonging to minority ethnic groups who have left behind the relative security of their own country with its particular habits and traditions, and who have struggled to adapt to a new and very different - if not alien - culture . During the process of adaptation, which varies in length from one person to another, many people become far more aware of their own culture as well as the new culture . Sometimes this leads them to become more critically aware of the shortcomings of their normative culture at the same time as being critical of the new culture, which may often feel overwhelming. This experience is both costly and potentially creative . A healthcare culture may threaten to overwhelm the individual patient and their family. This pattern is exacerbated when the culture and ethnic identity of the patient and their relatives differs from that of the country that is providing the healthcare . Immense barriers of language and interpretation are erected, across which the easiest route to take is the normative one, often to the detriment of the patient's well-being. Yet the dominant healthcare culture of a country may also threaten to overwhelm those for whom there are no immediate cultural differences of language . One reason for this is that becoming a hospital patient can be both an alien experience and an alienating one . We are uprooted from all that is familiar in order to become dependent on both the healthcare professionals who treat us and the actual treatment processes that are set in place for our recovery. Adj ustment to this change takes time, even when there are no significant cultural barriers . It takes much longer, and may not occur at all, when the cultural differences remain unrecognised to a significant extent. Sometimes a patient may feel that the institution and those who represent it are not heeding their needs and wishes. When this happens, the temptation is for the institution to be defensively inflexible and thus risk losing the remaining trust of the patient. C ulture and language may influence a matrix of elements: 8 Religions, culture and healthcare • • • • the way in which illness, disease and their causes are perceived by the patient the behaviour of patients, and their attitudes towards healthcare providers the delivery of services by the provider, who may not appreciate or understand the cultural traditions and requirements of the patient the patient's belief systems with regard to health, well-being and healing. A variety of cultural competency tools are now available6 which can be used in healthcare settings to enable deeper and clearer knowledge and understanding about the psychosocial and spiritual needs of patients from different cultures. When used flexibly, these tools help the patient to understand that you are 'on side' with them in seeking to treat them appropriately and with due regard for their spiritual and cultural dis ­ position. I n addition, w e may develop our own inner checklist of good practice behaviours, an example of which is given below. • • • • • • • Develop a good awareness and understanding of your own cultural patterns and assumptions, especially where these might inhibit your positive response to patients who have a different culture, religion or lifestyle . B e aware that cultural identity is fluid and organic rather than rigid and unchanging. Seek to listen to the patient with an open and attentive mind. Seek to discover more about the patient's values, beliefs and culture and the ways in which these are important and meaningful to them. Seek to avoid stereotypical thinking. Maintain an awareness of the other elements that may inform and sustain a person's identity. Use information about a person's culture, religion, etc. judiciously, rather than applying it rigorously and without due regard for their individual needs . Any substantive attention to cultural and religious needs incurs finan­ cial costs, such as the provision of adequate interpreting services, or ensuring that sufficient female doctors are employed within a hospital, to take two obvious examples. Yet the financial costs to the health provider tend to be greater when culturally sensitive services are not provided. These costs manifest themselves as formal complaints, to which could be added the psychological cost to the patient and their family. Other elements of cost tend to remain hidden. These include the wasting of both staff and patient time, together with feelings of frustration, helplessness, and disillusion, alienation and a failure of trust among the patient and their family. C ollectively these tend to signal poor outcomes for those whose physical and mental health is already compromised. Cultural and religious diversity within healthcare 9 It goes without saying that trust is crucially important in relationships between healthcare staff and the patients in their care . When caring for patients from different cultures, the establishment of trust is even more crucial so that those who have already been made vulnerable through illness are not set at greater disadvantage by being treated without consideration for their cultural needs . There is now an ample body of evidence to show that people who are unfamiliar with a healthcare system, especially those from immigrant communities, are far less inclined to make themselves heard - not because they might not have a sound cause, but because the prevailing institutional culture alienates rather than supports them. The challenge to develop culturally sensitive services within healthcare invites the institution to engage both in attentive listening to these different voices and in collaborative creative thinking in order to see how the shape of services might be altered to accommodate different needs . The financial costs incurred in any modifications to service provision will be outweighed by the increase in mutual understanding and trust, which will have its own beneficial effect upon the patient population. The routes to such changes lead through the educational pathways for all healthcare staff, as well as in careful attention to healthcare practice . This handbook will play its part well if, as a result of judiciously applying the information contained within it, staff gain an increased understanding of the different beliefs and practices contained within the various faith groups, and in so doing pay greater attention to the religious and cultural needs of those in their care . The groundswell of increased understanding and awareness that will be generated by this will in turn influence the pattern of service provision such that maj or discrepancies have a much stronger chance of being redressed. References 1 America . gov. 1 5 August 2 0 0 8 : US minorities will be the maj ority by 2 042, C ensus B ureau says; www. america . gov/stl diversity- english/2 0 0 8/August 2 0 0 8 0 8 1 5 1 4 0 0 5 xlrennef0 . 1 07 8 1 0 6 .html ( acce ssed 2 4 August 2 0 08 ) . 2 Kosmin BA, Mayer E and Keysar A. American Religious Identification Survey. New 3 Trompenaars F . Riding the Waves of Culture: understanding cultural diversity in 4 Hofstede G . Cultures and Organisations: software of the mind. London : McGraw­ York: Graduate C enter of the C ity University of New York; 2 0 0 1 , p. 9 . business. London : Nicholas Brealey; 1 9 9 3 . Hill B ook Company; 1 9 9 1 . 5 The United States D epartment of Health and Human S ervices, Office of Minority Health; www. omhrc ( accessed 26 August 2 0 0 8 ) .

Author Susan Hollins Isbn 9781846192609 File size 2.92MB Year 2016 Pages 154 Language English File format PDF Category Fitness Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare Health professionals provide care to patients of differing religions and cultures, and knowledge of their cultural and religious background, way of life and beliefs and practices is vital to delivering sensitive and responsive care. This revised and updated guide provides practical and comprehensive information on each of the major faiths, providing an accessible reference for appropriate day to day care of patients in multicultural societies. Healthcare professionals, including doctors, nurses, midwives, healthcare assistants, physiotherapists, psychologists, hospital chaplains and administrative staff will find it an indispensable ready reference.     Download (2.92MB) The Good Mentoring Toolkit for Healthcare Patient Flow: Reducing Delay in Healthcare Delivery All About Boxer Dog Puppies Undoctored: Why Health Care Has Failed You and How You Can Become Smarter Than Your Doctor Caregiver’s Guide: Care for Yourself While You Care for Your Loved Ones Load more posts

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