Pathology, USMLE Step 1 – Volume 2: Systemic Pathology by


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USMLE Step 1 Pat hoi gy Volume 1: Basic Pathology Chapters 1-9 Volume 2: Systemic Pathology Chapters 10- 28 Kartik "Carlo" Rangaraj, MD National Instructor •aOJfii i GNA l EDUCATI & ... v 1. 1 Kartik "Carlo" Rangaraj, MD National Instructor, Pathology Steven R. Daugherty, PhD Director, Faculty and Curriculum at Becker Professional Education Chicago, IL The United States Medical Licensing Exami nation~ (USMLE'l>) is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and National Board of Medical Examiners® (NBME'l>). United States Medical Licensing Examination, USMLE, National Board o f Medical Examiners, and NBME are registered trademarks of the National Board of Medical Examiners. The National Board of Medical Examiners does not sponsor, endorse, or support Becker Professional Education in any manner. © 2013 by DeVry/Becker Educational Development Corp. All rights reserved. No part of th is work may be reproduced, translated, distributed, published or transmitted with out the prior written permission of the copyright owner. Request for permission or further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, DeVry/ Becker Educational Development Corp. 1 23 4 56 78 9 18 17 16 @ Dt:Vr'y/Bcckcr Educational Development Corp, AJI rights reserved. 15 14 13 ii Pathology Volume 1: Basic Pathology Unit 1 General Principles of Pathology Chapter 1 Cellular Pathophysiology .. . .... . .... . ... .. ... . .... . .... . ... . 1-1 1 Overview of Cellular Pathophysiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Tissue Hypoxia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- 2 Chapter 2 The Inflammatory Reaction . . .... . ... .. ... . .... . .... . ... . .... . 2-1 1 Overview of Inflammation . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2-1 2 The Process of Acute Inflammation . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 2-4 3 Chronic Inflammation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14 Chapter 3 Tissue Repair and Wound Healing . .... . ... . .... . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . 3-1 1 Overview of Regeneration and Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3- 1 2 3 Repair by Regeneration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3- 1 Types of Wound Healing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 4 Extracellular Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... .. 3-6 Chapter 4 Hemodynamics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 1 Normal Vascular Hemostasis . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 2 Hemodynamic Dysfunction . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 4-3 3 4 Diseases of Hypercoagulability .... ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... .. 4-10 Thrombosis ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . 4-12 5 Embolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13 6 7 Infarction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14 8 Shock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4- 17 Chapter 5 Neoplasia ... .. ... . .... . ... .. ... . .... . .... . ... . .... . .... . .. 5-1 Types of Neoplasms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5- 1 Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 5-4 Cancer Epidemiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 5-15 1 2 3 © Free Radical Cell Injury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20 Cellular Accumulations and Reversible Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-23 Cellular Responses to Stress . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 1-26 Cell Death (Necrosis) . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-30 Apoptosis .. ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 1-34 Hyperemia, Congestion, and Edema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15 DcVry/Bcckcr Educational Development Corp. All rights reserved. iii Pathology Unit 2 4 Diagnosis of Cancer . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ..... 5-16 5 Paraneoplastic Syndromes .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ....... 5-17 6 Cancer Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5- 18 Hematology Chapter 6 Red Blood Cell Pathology .. . .... . .... . ... . .... . .... . .... . ... . . 6-1 1 2 Red Blood Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 Anemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4 3 Microcytic Anemias . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... 6-6 4 Macrocytic Anemias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ....... 6-15 5 6 7 Normocytic Anemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6- 19 Chapter 7 White Blood Cell Pathology . .... . ... .. ... . .... . ... .. ... . .... . . 7-1 1 Blood Cell Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 2 Review of Morphology . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ..... 7-2 3 4 Quantitative Disorders ...... ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... 7-3 Chapter 8 Lymphoid Pathology .. ... . .... . .... . ... . .... . .... . ... . .... . . 8-1 1 Lymphoid Pathology Overview ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . 8- 1 2 3 Lymph Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1 Spleen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9 4 Thymus . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . 8-10 5 Plasma Cell Neoplasms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11 Chapter 9 Immunohematology . . . .... . .... . ... . .... . .... . ... .. ... . .... . 9-1 1 ABO Blood Group Antigens .... ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ...... 9- 1 2 3 4 5 6 Determining the ABO Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2 Myelofibrosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-30 Polycythemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ..... 6-31 Leukemias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6 Rh Antigen and Non-Rh Antigen Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3 Patient Crossmatch ...... ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . 9-5 Transfusion Reactions . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ..... 9-6 Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7 @ Dt:Vr'y/Bcckcr Educational Development Corp, AJI rights reserved. iv Pathology Volume 2: Systemic Pathology Unit 3 Cardiovascular Pathology Chapter 10 Cardiovascular Disorders . .. . .... . .... . ... .. ... . .... . .... . .. . 10-1 1 Heart Failure ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 10-1 2 Ischemic Heart Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 10-8 3 4 Cardiomyopathy . . . . . . . . . . . . 10- 15 Valvular Heart Disease . . . . . . . . 10-17 Endocarditis .... . . . . . . . . . . . 10-21 5 6 7 Chapter 11 Unit 4 Congenital Heart Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 10-25 Myocardial and Pericardia! Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-33 Cardiovascular Pathology .. .. ... . .... . ... . .... . .... . .... . ... 11-1 1 Hypertension ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 11-1 2 Arteriosclerosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 11-3 3 4 5 6 7 Hyperlipoproteinemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 -6 Aneurysms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-9 Benign Vascular Tumors . . . . . . . 11-11 Malignant Vascular Tumors .... . 11-13 Vasculitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 - 14 Respiratory Pathology Chapter 12 Pulmonary Pathology . . . .... . .... . ... . .... . .... . ... .. ... . .. . 12-1 © 1 Basics of the Pulmonary System . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 12-1 2 Pulmonary Function Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12- 2 3 4 5 6 7 Atelectasis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3 Chronic Obstructive Lu ng Disease (COPD) ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-5 Restrictive Lung Disease . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 12-9 Pulmonary Vascular Disease ... . 12- 13 Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-19 DcVry/Bcckcr Educational Development Corp. All rights reserved. v Pathology Unit 5 R e n a l P athology Chapter 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Unit 6 Renal Pathology . .... . ... . .... . .... . ... .. ... . .... . ... .. ... . 13-1 Overview of the Renal System ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ......... 13-1 Renal Functional Anatomy ... ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ....... 13-3 Renal Pathology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 -11 Glomerular Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-14 Diseases Affecting Tubules and I nterstitium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ... 13-25 Infection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ....... 13-28 Vascular Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13- 29 Urinary Tract Obstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-31 Renal Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... .... 13-33 Tumors of the Kidney . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ... 13-34 Lower Urinary Tract Pathology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 -35 Gastrointestinal Pathology Chapter 14 Gastrointestinal (GI) Pathology. . .... . ... .. ... . .... . .... . ... . . 14-1 1 2 Esophagus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2 3 4 5 Gastric Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-6 6 Diarrhea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ....... 14-16 7 Malabsorption Syndromes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-22 8 9 Appendicitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-23 10 11 12 Unit 7 Gastrointestinal (GI) Pathology Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ...... 14-1 Oral Cavity . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1 Acute Erosive (Hemorrhagic) Gastritis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ...... 14-8 Inflammatory Bowel Disease ... ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... .... 14-24 Hemorrhoids- Two Types .. ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ....... 14-25 Small and Large Bowel Polyps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-26 Intestinal Neoplasia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-27 Hepatobiliary Pathology/Pancreas Chapter 15 1 2 3 Hepatobiliary Pathology. . . .... . . . . . . . . . . .... . .... . ... . .... . . 15-1 Hepatic and Biliary Pathology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1 Cirrhosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-5 Cholestatic Diseases . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ..... 15-9 @ Dt:Vr'y/Bcckcr Educational Development Corp, AJI rights reserved. vi Pathology 4 Hepatic Inflammatory Diseases .. 15-12 5 Metabolic Liver Diseases ...... . 6 7 Hepatic Vascular Diseases ..... . 15-16 15-18 15-19 Hepatic Neoplastic Diseases ... . Chapter 16 Pancreatic Pathology . . . .... . .... . ... . .... . .... . ... .. ... . .. . 16-1 Unit 8 1 Congenital Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 16-1 2 3 Inflammation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16- 2 Neoplastic Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5 Reproductive Pathology Chapter 17 Male Reproductive Pathology ... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . ... . 17-1 Congenital Abnormalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1 1 2 3 Abnormalities of the Testes, Epididymis, and Scrotal Sac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4 4 Testicular Tumors-Major Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-6 5 Prostate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-8 6 Common Male Chromosomal Abnormalities ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 17-11 Penile Pathology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . 17-2 Chapter 18 Female Reproductive Pathology .. . ... . .... . .... . ... .. ... . ... . 18-1 © 1 Vulva Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18- 1 2 Vaginal Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Cervical Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... .. 18-3 Reproductive Physiology . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... .. 18-5 Effects of Pregnancy ......... . 18-11 Menopause . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-11 18-12 18-14 Hirsutism and Virilization ..... . Menstrual Dysfunction ....... . Uterine Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . Fallopian Tube Disorders ...... . Ovarian Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ... Gestational Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Genital Infections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Breast Anatomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nipple Discharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... DcVry/Bcckcr Educational Development Corp. All rights reserved. 18-17 18-20 18-21 18-23 18-27 18-31 18-32 vii Pathology Unit 9 16 Fibrocystic Change . . . . . . . . . . . 18-33 17 Benign Breast Tumors ....... . 18-34 18 Types of Breast Cancer ....... . 18-35 Endocrine Pathology Chapter 19 Endocrine Pathology . . .... . ... . .... . .... . ... . .... . .... . ... . 19-1 1 2 Overview of Pathology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1 3 The Hypothalamus and Pituitary: Anterior Pituitary . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ... 19-5 4 The Hypothalamus and Pituitary: Thyroid Hormone . . . . . . . . . . . ..... .. 19-10 5 6 7 The Hypothalamus and Pituitary: Adrenals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19- 21 Unit 10 The Hypothalamus and Pituitary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-3 Endocrine Pancreas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-33 Calcium Metabolism and Bone ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ........ 19-47 Nervous Pathology Chapter 20 Central Nervous System Pathology .. . .... . ... . .... . .... . ... .. . 20-1 1 Basic Neuroanatomy ...... ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... 20- 1 2 Central Nervous System Developmental Diseases ....... ...... ....... 20-3 3 4 5 Cerebral Herniation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-9 Head Trauma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-12 6 Spinal Cord Lesions . . . . . . . . . . 20-15 7 Cerebrovascular Disease ...... . 20-21 8 9 Infectious Diseases . . . . . . . . . . 20-31 Degenerative Diseases ... .... . 20-39 10 Central Nervous Tumors ..... . . 20-43 Chapter 21 Cranial Pressure Abnormalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-10 Peripheral Nervous System Pathology . .... . ... . .... . .... . ... .. . 21-1 1 Inflammatory Neuropathy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 -1 2 Hereditary Neuropathy ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . 21 -2 @ Dt:Vr'y/Bcckcr Educational Development Corp, AJI rights reserved. viii Pathology Chapter 22 Optic Pathology .. .. ... . .... . ... .. ... . .... . ... .. ... . .... . .. 22-1 1 Anatomy of the Eye . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . 22-1 2 Congenital Abnormalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-2 3 Eyelid Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-3 4 5 Conjunctival Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 22-4 Disorders of the Uvea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 22-6 6 Retinal Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-7 7 8 Macular Degeneration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-10 Ocular Melanoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . 22-11 Glaucoma ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . 22-12 9 Unit 11 Musculoskeleton and Connective Tissue Disorders Chapter 23 1 Connective T issue Disorders . ... . .... . .... . ... .. ... . .... . ... . 23-1 Types of Connective Tissue Disorders ... ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 23-1 Chapter 24 Joint Pathology . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . .... . . . . . . . . . .. ... . .... . ... 24-1 1 Classification of Joint Pathologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24- 1 2 3 4 5 6 Noninflammatory Arthritis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-2 Chapter 25 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 © Inflammatory Arthritis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 24-5 Arthritis of Metabolic Origin . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 24-12 Septic Arthritis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24- 15 Joint Tumors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-16 Bone Pathology .. . ... . .... . .... . ... .. ... . .... . ... .. ... . ... 25-1 The Skeleton ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 25-1 Congenital Bone Disease . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... .. 25-4 Metabolic and Acquired Bone Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-6 Trauma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-13 Infection ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... .. 25-16 Bone-Forming Tumors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 25-18 Cartilage-Forming Tumors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-20 8 Fibrous and Other Tumors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-21 9 Metastatic Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 25-22 DcVry/Bcckcr Educational Development Corp. All rights reserved. ix Pathology Chapter 26 Muscle Pathology . .. .. ... . .... . .... . ... . .... . .... . ........ . 26-1 1 Classification of Muscle Fiber Type and Innervation . . . . . . . . . ...... .... 26-1 2 3 Muscular Dystrophies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-3 Diseases of the Neuromuscular Junction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-7 Chapter 27 1 Soft Tissue Pathology .... . .... . ... . .... . .... . ... .. ... . .... . 27-1 Overview of Connective Tissue Tumors ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ... 27-1 2 3 Tumors of Fat Tissue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-1 4 Tumors of Muscle . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... 27-3 Unit 12 Tumors of Fibroblasts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-2 Dermatology Chapter 28 Dermatopathology .. . .... . .... . ... . .... . .... . ... .. ... . .... . 28-1 1 Overview and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-1 2 Infectious Diseases . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ..... 28-3 Inflammatory Dermatopathology ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ...... 28-10 3 4 Neoplastic Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-14 @ Dt:Vr'y/Bcckcr Educational Developmen t Corp, AJI rights reserved. X - Pathology Figures Chapter 1 Cellular Pathophysiology Figure 1-1.1 . ... Cellular Response to Stress and Injury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 1-1 Figure 1-2.0A ... Oxidative Phosphorylation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- 2 Figure 1-2.08 . .. Cyanosis in Patient With Tetralogy of Fallot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 Figure 1-2.1A ... Ischemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 1-4 Figure 1-2.18 . .. Hypoxemia . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 1-5 Figure 1-2.1C ... Airway Obstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- 6 Figure 1-2.10 . .. Respiratory Distress Syndrome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6 Figure 1-2.1E ... Pulmonary Embolus . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1-6 Figure 1-2.1F . .. Pulmonary Infarction .... ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 1-6 Figure 1 - 2.1G ... Diffusion Defect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- 7 Figure 1-2.1H . .. Anemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7 Figure 1-2.11 . .. Methemoglobinemia . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1-8 Figure 1-2.11 ... Carbon Monoxide Poisoning ... ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1-8 Figure 1-2.1K . .. 0 2 - Binding Curve (OBC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9 Figure 1-2.2 . ... Hepatic Portal System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11 Figure 1-2.3A ... Anaerobic Glycolysis: Diffusion of Na+ and Hp Into Cell ... ... 1-12 Figure 1-2.38 . .. Re-entry of CA 2 + Into Mitochondria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 1-13 Figure 1-2.3C ... Ubiquitination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- 14 Figure 1-2.30 . .. Mallory Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15 Figure 1-2.3E ... Electron Transport Chain: BCL2 Gene and Cytochrome c ... ... 1-16 Figure 1-2.3F . .. NADH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 1-17 Figure 1 - 2.3G . .. Heterophagy and Autophagy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- 18 Figure 1-2.3H . .. Megagranule Formation in CHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19 Figure 1-3.0 . ... Role of Free Radicals in Cell Death ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1-20 Figure 1-3.3 . ... Neutralization of Free Radicals ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 1-21 Figure 1-4.1 . ... Lipofuscin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-23 Figure 1-4.2A ... Fat Accumulation in Liver Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-23 Figure 1-4.28 . .. Role of CCI 4 in Fat Accumulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 1-24 Figure 1-4.3 .... Bilirubin Accumulation in Liver Tissue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 1-24 Figure 1-4.4 . ... Hemosiderin Deposits: Prussian Blue Stain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25 Figure 1-4.5 . ... Dystrophic Calcification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25 Figure 1-5.1A ... Prostate Hyperplasia .. ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . 1-26 Figure 1-5.18 . .. Hyperplasia: Graves Disease Goiter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . 1-26 © DcVry/Bcckcr Educational Development Corp. All rights reserved. xi - Pathology Figures Figure 1-5.2 .... Hypertrophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . 1-27 Figure 1-5.3 .... Cerebral Atrophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-28 Figure 1-5.4 .... Glandular Metaplasia in Barrett Esophagus . . . . . . . . . ..... . 1-29 Figure 1-6.1A . . . Coagulative Necrosis: Dry Gangrene Caused by Diabetes ... .. 1-30 Figure 1-6.18 ... Coagulative Necrosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-30 Figure 1-6.1C ... Myocardial Infarction .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ..... 1-31 Figure 1-6.2 .... Liquefactive Necrosis: Cystic Cavity in the Brain .... ....... 1-31 Figure 1-6.3A ... Caseous Necrosis: Macroscopic Morphology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-32 Figure 1-6.38 .. . Caseous Necrosis : Microscopic Morphology . . . . . . . . . ..... . 1-32 Figure 1-6.5 .... Enzymatic Fat Necrosis of Pancreas With Saponification ...... 1-33 Figure 1-7.3A ... Pathways of Apoptosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-35 Figure 1 - 7.38 ... Apoptotic Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- 36 Chapter 2 The Inflammatory Reaction Figure 2-1.2A ... Mast Cell. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 Figure 2-1.28 .. . Basophil ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 Figure 2 - 1.2C ... Neutrophil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 Figure 2-1.20 ... Monocyte .. ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 Figure 2-1.2E . . . Macrophage .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . 2-2 Figure 2-1.2F ... Lymphocyte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 Figure 2-1.2G .. . Plasma Cell ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . 2-3 Figure 2-1.2H .. . Eosinophil ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . 2-3 Figure 2 - 2.1 .... Steps of Leukocyte Extravasation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6 Figure 2-2.2 .... Mechanisms of Intracellular Killing . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . 2- 7 Figure 2-2.3A ... Arachidonic Acid Cascade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8 Figure 2-2.38 ... Complement Split Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- 10 Figure 2-2.3C . . . Clotting Cascade .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . 2-11 Figure 2-2.4A ... Intracellular Killing in CGD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ...... 2-13 Figure 2 - 2.48 ... Phagocyte in CHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- 13 Chapter 3 Tissue Repair and Wound Healing Figure 3 - 2.1 .... Cell Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 Figure 3-2.2 .... Growth and Regeneration Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 3-2 Figure 3-3.1 .... Healing by Primary Intention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 Figure 3-3.2 .... Healing by Secondary Intention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 Figure 3-4.0 .... Extracellular Matrix: Collagen . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ....... 3-6 @ Dt:Vr'y/Bcckcr Educational Development Corp, AJI rights reserved. xii - Pathology Figures Chapter 4 Hemodynamics Figure 4-1.1 . ... Thrombotic Hemostasis ...... ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 4-1 Figure 4 - 1.2 . ... Antithrombotic Activities of Endothelial Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4- 2 Figure 4-2.1A ... Thrombogenesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3 Figure 4-2.18 . .. Platelet Adhesion . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 4-4 Figure 4-2.1C . .. Primary Hemostasis . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 4-5 Figure 4-2.10 ... Aggregation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 5 Figure 4-2.1E ... Primary Hemostasis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6 Figure 4-2.1F . .. Coagulation Cascade ...... ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 4-6 Figure 4-2.1G . .. Extrinsic and I ntrins1ic Pathways ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 4-7 Figure 4-4.2 . ... Arterial Thrombus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4- 12 Figure 4-5.1 . ... Saddle Embolus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13 Figure 4-6.1 .... Red Infarction . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 4-14 Figure 4-7.1 . ... Hyperemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 4· 15 Figure 4-7.2A ... Congestion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15 Figure 4-7.28 . .. Centrilobular Necrosis Resulting From Congestive Heart Failure .. 4-16 Figure 4-8.1 . ... Fick Equation . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 4-17 Figure 4-8.3 . ... Septic Shock . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 4-18 Chapter 5 Neoplasia Figure 5-1.3A ... Tubular Adenoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 Figure 5-1.38 . .. Teratoma . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . 5-2 Figure 5-1.3C . .. Hamartoma . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... .. 5-3 Figure 5-2.0 . ... Carcinogenesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 Figure 5-2.2A ... Chromosomal Translocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 Figure 5-2.28 . .. Mechanism of RAS Carcinogenesis ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 5-7 Figure 5-2.2C . .. Oncogenesis . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ... 5-9 Figure 5-2.3A ... Pathogenesis of Retinoblastoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10 Figure 5-2.38 . .. Pathogenesis of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11 Figure 5-2.8A ... Metastasis . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... .. 5-13 Figure 5-2.88 . .. Radiograph of Metastasis .... ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5-14 Figure 5-4.4 .... Clinical Basis for Staging Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 16 © DcVry/Bcckcr Educational Development Corp. All rights reserved. xiii - Pathology Figures Chapter 6 Red Blood Cell Pathology Figure 6-1.3A ... Reticulocyte .. ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ........ 6-2 Figure 6-1.38 .. . Inaccurate Estimate· of Reticulocytosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2 Figure 6-1.3C ... Erythropoiesis: Hair-on-End Appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3 Figure 6-2.1A ... Types of Anemia .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ......... 6-4 Figure 6-2.18 .. . Normal Iron Labs ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ......... 6-5 Figure 6-3.1A ... Iron Deficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6 Figure 6-3.18 .. . Koilonychia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6 Figure 6-3.1C ... Red Blood Cell Distriibution Width (RDW) ........ ..... .... 6-6 Figure 6-3.10 ... Glossitis Seen With Iron-Deficiency Anemia ...... ..... .... 6-7 Figure 6 - 3.1E ... Anemia of Chronic Disease: Laboratory Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7 Figure 6-3.1F .. . Porphyria Pathway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8 Figure 6-3.1G .. . Heme Synthesis, Porphyrias, and Lead Poisoning ... ...... ... 6-9 Figure 6-3.1H .. . Ringed Sideroblasts ... ................ ...... ...... 6· 10 Figure 6 - 3.11 ... Basophilic Stippling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6- 10 Figure 6-3.1J .. . Iron Overload: Sideroblastic Anemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10 Figure 6-3.2A ... Hydrops Fetalis ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ....... 6-11 Figure 6-3.28 .. . a-Thalassemia Trait .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ...... 6-12 Figure 6-3.2C ... Splicing Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6- 12 Figure 6-3.20 ... Peripheral Blood Smear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13 Figure 6-3.2E . . . Normal HbE ... ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ....... 6-13 Figure 6-3.2F .. . a-Thalassemia Trait .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ...... 6-13 Figure 6 - 3.2G .. . HbE of ~ -Tha l assemia Minor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6- 14 Figure 6-4.2 .... Biochemical Pathways of Folate and Vitamin B12 . . . . . . . . . . . 6-16 Figure 6-4.3 .... Megaloblast ... ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ....... 6-17 Figure 6-4.4 .... Schilling Test ... ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ...... 6-18 Figure 6-5.1 .... Normocytic Anemias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6- 19 Figure 6-5.2A ... Corrected Reticulocyte Count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-20 Figure 6-5.28 .. . Normal Bone Marrow .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ...... 6-21 Figure 6-5.2C ... Fibrosed Bone Marrow Secondary to Breast Cancer Metastasis . 6-21 Figure 6 - 5.3A ... Extravascular Hemolysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6- 21 Figure 6-5.38 ... Reticuloctye Count of >3% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-22 Figure 6-5.3C ... Spherocytes .. ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ....... 6-22 @ Dt:Vr'y/Bcckcr Educational Development Corp, AJI rights reserved. xiv - Pathology Figures Figure 6-5.30 . .. Sickling of Red Blood Cell ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 6-23 Figure 6-5.3E ... Howell-Jolly Bodies .. ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... .. 6-24 Figure 6-5.3F . .. Sickle Cell Trait vs. Sickle Cell Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-25 Figure 6-5.3G . .. Heinz Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-26 Figure 6-5.3H . .. Role of Pyruvate Kinase in Glycolysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 6-26 Figure 6-5.31 . .. Aortic Stenosis . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 6-27 Figure 6-5.3J ... WAIHA: Role of Penicillin and a -Methyldopa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-27 Figure 6-5.3K . .. CAlHA: Role of Quinidine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-28 Figure 6-7.4 . ... Polycythemia . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 6-31 Figure 6-7.5 .... Polycythemia Vera Bone Marrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 6-32 Chapter 7 White Blood Cell Pathology Figure 7-1.0 . ... Blood Cell Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 Figure 7-2.1A ... White Blood Cells . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 7-2 Figure 7-3.1A ... Leukoerythroblastic .. ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ... 7-3 Figure 7-3.18 . .. Atypical Lymphocytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4 Figure 7-4.0 . ... Classification of Leukemias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6 Figure 7-4.1A ... Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . 7-7 Figure 7-4.18 . .. Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 7-9 Figure 7-4.2A ... Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7- 10 Figure 7-4.28 . .. The Philadelphia Chromosome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11 Figure 7-4.2C . .. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 7-12 Figure 7-4.20 . .. Hairy Cell Leukemia . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13 Chapter 8 Lymphoid Pathology Figure 8-2.1A ... Normal Lymph Node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1 Figure 8-2.18 . .. Birbeck Granules . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 8-1 Figure 8-2.4 . ... Hodgkin Lymphoma . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8-4 Figure 8-2.5A ... Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma/Follicular Lymphoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8- 6 Figure 8-2.58 ... Non- Hodgkin Lymphoma/Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma ...... 8-6 Figure 8-2.5C . .. Non- Hodgkin Lymphoma/Burkitt Lymphoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7 Figure 8-2.50 . .. Non- Hodgkin Lymphoma/Burkitt Lymphoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7 Figure 8 - 5.1A ... Multiple Myeloma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8- 11 Figure 8-5.18 . .. Special Staining of CD138 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12 © DcVry/Bcckcr Educational Development Corp. All rights reserved. XV - Pathology Figures Chapter 9 Immunohematology Figure 9-1.5 .... Parents' Blood Types ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... .... 9-1 Figure 9-2.2 .... Determining ABO Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2 Figure 9-3.1 .... C, D, E Antigens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3 Figure 9-6.1 .... ABO HDN ....... ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ..... 9-7 Figure 9-6.2 .... Kernicterus ... ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ........ 9-8 Chapter 10 Cardiovascular Disorders Figure 10-1.1A . . . Left-Sided Heart Failure, Microscopic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2 Figure 10-1.18. . . Left-Sided Heart Failure Forward Failure . . . . . . . . . ..... ... 10-3 Figure 10-1.1C . . . Left-Sided Heart Failure .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ... 10-3 Figure 10-1.10 .. Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure (PCWP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4 Figure 10-1.1E .. . Cardiovascular Function Curves: CHF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5 Figure 10-1.2A. . . Jugular Vein Pulse .. ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ... 10-6 Figure 10-1.28. . . Right-Sided Heart Failure .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ... 10-7 Figure 10-1.2C . .. Right Atrial Tracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7 Figure 10-2.2A . . Ischemic Heart Disease: Stable Angina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8 Figure 10-2.28 . . Ischemic Heart Disease: Variant (Prinzmetal) Angina ... ..... 10-9 Figure 10-2.2C .. Ischemic Heart Disease: Myocardial Infarction ...... ..... 10-10 Figure 10-2.20 .. Ischemic Heart Disease: Myocardial Infarction . . . . . . . . . . . 10- 10 Figure 10-2.2E .. . Ischemic Heart Disease: Myocardial Infarction . . . . . . . . . . . 10-11 Figure 10-2.2F . . . Coronary Arteries ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... .... 10-11 Figure 10-2.2G .. Ischemic Heart Disease: Myocardial Infarction Morphology- Day 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10- 12 Figure 10-2.2H .. Ischemic Heart Disease: Myocardial Infarction Morphology-Day 7 ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ... 10-12 Figure 10- 2 .21 . . CK-M B Required to [)x Reinfarction Because Troponins Are Increased Over a Week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10- 13 Figure 10-2.2J .. Ischemic Heart Disease: Myocardial Infarction . . . . . . . . . . . 10-13 Figure 10-2.2K .. Fibrinous Pericarditis Ventricular Aneurysm . . . . . . . . . ..... 10-14 Figure 10-3. 1 ... Dilated Cardiomyopathy ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... .. 10-15 Figure 10-3.2 ... Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10- 16 Figure 10-4.1A .. Aortic Stenosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-17 @ Dt:Vr'y/Bcckcr Educational Development Corp, AJI rights reserved. xvi - Pathology Figures Figure 10-4.18 .. Aortic Regurgitation . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-18 Figure 10-4.1C .. Mitral Stenosis . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 10-19 Figure 10-4.10 .. Mitral Regurgitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10- 19 Figure 10-4.1E .. Mitral Valve Prolapse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-20 Figure 10-5.0A .. Review: Layers of Cardiac Wall .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 10-21 Figure 10-5.08 .. Endocarditis . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 10-21 Figure 10-5.1 . .. Janeway Lesion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-22 Figure 10-5.3A .. Rheumatic Fever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-23 Figure 10-5.38 .. Rheumatic Fever (Histology) ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 10-24 Figure 10-6.0 . .. Fetal Circulation . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 10-25 Figure 10-6.2A .. Tetralogy of Fallot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-27 Figure 10-6.28 .. Transposition of the Great Arteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-28 Figure 10-6.2C .. Truncus Arteriosus . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-28 Figure 10· 6.20 .. Tricuspid Atresia . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 10-29 Figure 10-6.2E .. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR) ....... 10-29 Figure 10-6.2F . .. Atrial Septal Defect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-30 Figure 10-6.2G .. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 10-31 Figure 10-6.2H .. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 10-31 Figure 10-6.3A .. Coarctation of the Aorta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-32 Figure 10-6.38 .. Collateral Circulation in Coarctation of the Aorta . . . . . . . . . . 10-32 Figure 10-7.1 . .. Myocarditis . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 10-33 Figure 10-7.2A .. Acute Pericarditis: EKG ... ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 10-34 Figure 10-7.28 .. Pericardia! Tamponage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-35 Chapter 11 Cardiovascular Pathology Figure 11-1.2 . .. Malignant Nephrosclerosis ... ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 11-2 Figure 11-2.1A .. Hyaline Arteriolosclerosis ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 11-3 Figure 11-2.18 .. Hyperplastic Arteriolosclerosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11- 3 Figure 11-2.2A... Atherosclerosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4 Figure 11-2.28 . .. Atherosclerosis . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 11-5 Figure 11-2.2C . .. Atherosclerosis (Histology) .. ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 11-5 Figure 11-3.0 . .. Lipid Metabolism and Hyperlipoproteinemias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 -6 © DcVry/Bcckcr Educational Development Corp. All rights reserved. xvii - Pathology Figures Figure 11-3. 1 ... Hyperlipoproteinemia ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ..... 11 -7 Figure 11-3.2 ... Xanthelasma ... ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ...... 11-7 Figure 11-3.3 ... Type III Hyperlipoproteinemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8 Figure 11-3.4 ... Types III and IV Hyperlipoproteinemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8 Figure 11-4. 1 ... Aneurysms .... ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ...... 11 -9 Figure 11-4.2 ... Cystic Medial Necrosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ...... 11-10 Figure 11-5.1A .. Spider Telangiectasi.a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11- 11 Figure 11-5.18 . . Hereditary Telangiectasia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-11 Figure 11-5.2 ... Capillary Hemangioma .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ..... 11-12 Figure 11-5.3 ... Sturge-Weber Syndmme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... .... 11-12 Figure 11- 6 . 1 ... Kaposi Sarcoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11- 13 Figure 11-7.2 ... Takayasu Arteritis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-16 Figure 11-7.3A . . Kawasaki Disease .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... 11-17 Figure 11-7.38 . . Polyarteritis Nodosa ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ..... 11- 17 Figure 11- 7 .4 ... Wegener Granulomatosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 - 18 Figure 11-7.5A . . Henoch-Schonlein Purpura . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-19 Figure 11-7.58 . . Behc;et Disease ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ...... 11-19 Figure 11-7.6A . . Buerger Disease .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ........ 11-20 Figure 11-7.68 .. Raynaud Phenomenon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 -20 Chapter 12 Pulmonary Pathology Figure 12-1.0A . . Lower Airways ... ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ..... 12-1 Figure 12-1.08 . . Conducting Zone and Respiratory Zone . . . . . . . . . ...... .. 12-1 Figure 12-2.2 ... Spirometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2 Figure 12-3. 1 ... Alveolar Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4 Figure 12-4.1A . . Centrilobular Emphysema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ........ 12-5 Figure 12-4.18 . . Panacinar Emphysema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... 12-6 Figure 12-4.1C .. Chest X-Ray of Emphysema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6 Figure 12-4.2 ... Chronic Bronchitis vs. Emphysema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-7 Figure 12-4.4 ... Dilated Bronchi and Bronchioles in Bronchiectasis .. ..... ... 12-8 Figure 12-5.1A . . Anthrocotic Depositions .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... .... 12-9 Figure 12-5.18 .. Silicotic Nodule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12- 10 @ Dt:Vr'y/Bcckcr Educational Development Corp, AJI rights reserved. xviii - Pathology Figures Figure 12-5.1C . .. Ferruginous Bodies .... ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 12-10 Figure 12-5.10 .. Mesothelioma . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 12-10 Figure 12- 5.2 . .. Interstitial Granuloma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12- 11 Figure 12-6.0 . .. Hemosiderin-Laden Alveolar Macrophage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-13 Figure 12-6.2A .. Sites of Aspiration of Foreign Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 12-14 Figure 12-6.28 .. Lobar Pneumonia With Consolidation .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-14 Figure 12-6.2C .. Bronchopneumonia With Patchy Consolidation . . . . . . . . . . . . 12- 14 Figure 12-6.20 .. Typical Pneumonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-15 Figure 12-6.3A .. Primary Ghon Complex ... ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 12-18 Figure 12-6.38 .. Caseous ("Cheese-Like") Necrosi ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 12-18 Figure 12-7.0 ... Chest X-Ray With Multiple Lung Nodules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12- 19 Figure 12-7.1A .. Bronchogenic Carcinoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-19 Figure 12-7.18 .. Chest X-Ray With Small or Squamous Bronchogenic Carcinoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-20 Figure 12-7.1C . .. Adenocarcinoma Located Peripherally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-20 Figure 12-7.4 . .. Tension Pneumothorax and Tracheal Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . 12-21 Figure 12-7.5 . .. Mesothelioma . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 12-22 Chapter 13 Renal Pathology Figure 13-1.2 ... Renal Anatomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13- 1 Figure 13-1.3 ... Renal Arteries and Veins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2 Figure 13-2.1 . .. Renal Functional Anatomy ... ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 13-3 Figure 13-2.3A .. Basic Renal Processes ... ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 13-5 Figure 13-2.38 .. Bowman Capsule and Glomerular Anatomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 -5 Figure 13-2.4A .. Fenestrated Capillary Tufts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6 Figure 13-2.48 .. Renal Filtration Barriers .. ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 13-7 Figure 13-2.5A .. Renal Handling of BUN/Cr ... ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 13-8 Figure 13-2.58 .. Prerenal Azotemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 -9 Figure 13-2.5C .. Renal Azotemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9 Figure 13-2.50 .. Postrenal Azotemia .... ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 13-10 Figure 13-3.1 . .. Developmental Landmarks of the Renal System . . . . . . . . . . 13-11 Figure 13-3.4A .. Polycystic Kidney Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13- 13 © DcVry/Bcckcr Educational Development Corp. All rights reserved. xix

Author Isbn File size 96MB Year 2013 Pages Language English File format PDF Category Biology Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare Pathology, USMLE Step 1 – Volume 2: Systemic Pathology     Download (96MB) Pathology, USMLE STEP 1, Volume 1: Basic Pathology Plant Pathology: Techniques And Protocols, 2 Edition (methods In Molecular Biology, Book 1302) Becker USMLE Step 1 Immunology, Microbiology Plant Secondary Metabolites, Volume One Frontiers on Recent Developments in Plant Science Volume 1 Load more posts

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