Mopan Maya-Spanish-English Dictionary by Charles A Hofling

2859e2b02f49219.jpg Author Charles A Hofling
Isbn 9781607810292
File size 3.1MB
Year 2011
Pages 850
Language English
File format PDF
Category culture


Mopan Maya-Spanish-English Dictionary / Diccionario Maya Mopan-Español-Ingles Mopan Maya-Spanish-English Dictionary / Diccionario Maya Mopan-Español-Ingles Charles Andrew Hofling with the assistance of/con la asistencia de Narcizo Asij Ofelia Asis Cajbon Juan Luís Rodriguez Romelia Tzuncal Ba Nicolás P. Tzuncal Félix Fernando Tesucún Serbelio de Jesús Chiac Cohuoj Hilario Yaxcal Juan Idelfonso Coj Ical Inocensio Cajbon Sunkal María Veronica Pan Choc The University of Press Salt Lake City Copyright © 2011 by The University of Utah Press. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the U.S. Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. The Defiance House Man colophon is a registered trademark of the University of Utah Press. It is based upon a four-foot-tall, Ancient Puebloan pictograph (late PIII) near Glen Canyon, Utah. 15 14 13 12 11 1 2 3 4 5  Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hofling, Charles Andrew.   Mopan Maya - Spanish - English dictionary = : diccionario Maya Mopan Espanol - Ingles / Charles Andrew Hofling ; with the assistance of Narcizo Azij ... [et. al]        p. cm.   Text in Mopan Maya and Spanish and English.   Includes bibliographical references and indexes.   ISBN 978-1-60781-029-2 (cloth : alk. paper)   ISBN 978-1-60781-978-3 (ebook) 1.  Mopan dialect--Dictionaries--Spanish. 2.  Spanish languageDictionaries--Mopan. 3.  Maya language--Dictionaries--English. 4.  English language--Dictionaries--Maya. 5.  Mopan dialect--Grammar. I. Asij, Narcizo. II. Title. III. Title: Diccionario Maya Mopan - Espanol - Ingles.   PM3941.H64 2011   497’.427321--dc22                                                             2011004806 Printed and bound by Sheridan Books, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan. Contents/Indice Acknowledgments/Agradecimientos  ix Introduction  1 History of the Mopan Dictionary   1 Elicitation Tools  2 User's Guide  3 1. Orthography and Pronunciation   3 1.1. Alphabetic Order   3 1.2. Phonetic Description and Pronunciation   3 1.2.1. Features of Articulation   3 Consonants  3 1.2.2. Pronunciation Guide   3 Phonetic Values of Alphabet   3 1.2.3. Orthographic Equivalencies   4 1.2.4. Phonological Processes (Pronunciation Changes)  5 Stress  5 /l/  5 Glottal Stop /'/   5 /j/  5 Nasal Consonants   5 /b'/  5 Vowel Length   5 Vowel Harmony and Disharmony   6 Reduplication  6 Spanish Loans   6 2. Database Format   6 3. General Features of Dictionary Entries   7 3.1. Entry Form   7 3.2. Part of Speech   7 3.3. Homophones  7 3.4. Polyvalent Roots   7 3.5. Borrowings  7 3.6. Spanish Gloss   8 3.7. English Gloss   8 3.8. Examples  8 3.9. Notes  8 3.10. Starred Forms   8 3.11. Cross References    8 3.11.1. Variant Forms   8 3.11.2. Cross References to Roots and Other Related Entries  8 3.11.3. Flora and Fauna Cross References   9 3.11.4. Synonyms  9 3.12. Indexes  9 Lexicon in Grammatical Context   9 4. Grammatical Sketch with Emphasis on Features of Lexical Entries  9 4.0. Detailed Contents   9 4.1. Person Markers and Pronouns   10 4.1.1. Person Markers (Dependent Pronouns)   10 Set A Person Markers   10 Set B Person Markers   11 Set A and Set B Person Markers with Transitive Verbs  11 4.1.2. Independent and Demonstrative Pronouns  12 Independent Pronouns   12 Indirect Object Pronouns   12 Independent Possessive Pronouns    12 Demonstrative Pronouns   12 4.2. Verbs and Verb Phrases   12 4.2.1. Aspect, Mood, and Status    12 Verb Root Classes   13 Transitive Verbs   13 Intransitive Verbs   13 4.2.3. Verbal Derivation and Voice   14 Voice for Transitive Roots   14 Active Transitive   14 Reflexive Verbs.   14 Intransitive Voices   14 Mediopassive  14 Antipassive  14 Passive (1)   15 Agentless Passive (pas2)   15 Deriving Verbs from Non-verbal Roots   15 Positional Verbs   15 Inchoative (Versive) Verbs   16 Active Verbs   16 Affective verbs   16 Deriving Transitive Verbs   17 Voice Alternations for Derived Verbs   18 Antipassive and Active Intransitive Verbs  18 Passive (1)    19 Agentless Passive   19 vi 4.2.4. Verb Compounds   19 Object Incorporation   20 Adverb Incorporation   20 Two Verb Stem and Other Verb Compounds  20 4.2.5. Verb Phrases   20 Intransitive Verb and Subject   20 Transitive Verb and Direct Object   20 Verb and Prepositional Phrase   20 4.3. Adjectives, Adverbs, and Participles   21 4.3.1. Adjectives  21 Adjective Roots   21 Reduplication  21 Partial Reduplication   21 Complete Reduplication   21 Derived Adjectives    21 Adjectives Derived with -VC (adj1)   21 Adjectives Derived from Affective Roots with -kij (adj2)  22 Adjectives derived from Affective roots with -m-en (adj3)  22 Other Adjectival Derivations (adj4)   22 4.3.2. Participles  22 General Participle with -a'an (prt1)  22 Passive Participle with -b'il (prt2)  22 Positional Participle with -ka'al (prt3)  23 Affective Participle with -Vnak (prt4)  23 4.3.3. Adverbs  23 4.3.4. Adjective and Adverb Compounds   23 Color Compounds   23 4.3.5. Adjective and Adverbial Phrases (adjp, advp)  23 4.3.6. Stative (Equational) Phrases (stp)   23 4.4. Nouns and Noun Phrases   23 4.4.1. Noun Roots   23 4.4.2. Nouns with Noun Roots   24 Plain Nouns (n1)   24 Active Verbal Noun Roots (avn1)   24 Onomatopoeic Noun Roots   24 Noun Roots with Noun Classifiers (n2)  24 With aj- (n2a)  24 With ix- (n2b)  24 Nouns with Classifiers Marking Sex (n2c)  25 With aj- or ix- (n2d)  25 Numeral Classifiers   25 Proper Nouns (pn)    25 4.4.3. Derived Nouns   25 Agentive Nouns (agn)   25 Adjectival Nouns (adjn)   26 Instrumental nouns (instn)   26 Derived Active Verbal Nouns   26 Nouns Derived with -il (n3)    26 Inalienable Possession with -el (n4)  26 Nouns Derived with -VC (n5)   27 Nouns Derived with -al (n6)  27 Nouns with Other Derivational Suffixes (n7)  27 Relational Nouns (rn)   27 4.4.4. Compound Nouns and Noun Phrases   27 Compound Nouns   27 N1 Compounds (ncpd1)    27 N2 Compounds (ncpd2)   27 N3 Compounds (ncpd3).   28 Numeral Classifier Compounds (nclcpd)  28 Agentive Noun Compounds (agncpd)   28 Active Verbal Noun Compounds (avncpd)  28 Adjective Noun Compounds (adjncpd)   28 4.4.5. Noun Phrases   28 Modifier - Noun (np, np2)   28 Possessed - Possessor (psdnp).   28 4.4.6. Prepositional Phrases   29 4.5. Numerals (num)    29 4.6. Particles  29 4.7. Expletives (E) and Exclamations (excl)   29 5. Root Type Paradigms   29 5.1. Adjective Roots   29 5.1.1. CVC Root    29 5.2. Affective Roots   30 5.2.1. CVC Root    30 5.3. Active Verbal Noun Roots   30 5.3.1. CVVC Root   30 5.4. Intransitive Roots   30 5.4.1. CVC Root   30 5.5. Positional Roots   30 5.5.1. CVC Root   30 5.6. Transitive Roots   30 5.6.1. CVC Root   30 6. Indexes  31 6.1. Mayan Root Index   31 6.2. Spanish-Mopan Index   31 6.3. English-Mopan Index   31 Introduccion  33 Historia del proyecto del Diccionario Mopan   33 vii Instrumentos de elicitación   34 Guia de Uso   35 1. Ortografía y pronunciación   35 1.1. Orden alfabético   35 1.2. Descripción fonética y pronunciación   35 1.2.1. Rasgos de articulación   35 1.2.2. Guía de pronunciación   35 Valores fonéticos del alfabeto   35 1.2.3. Equivalencias Ortográficas   36 1.2.4. Procesos fonológicos (cambios de pronunciación)  37 Acento  37 /l/  37 Oclusivo Glotal /'/   37 /j/  37 Consonantes nasales   37 /b'/  37 Vocal larga   38 Armonía e inarmonía de vocales   38 Reduplicación  38 Préstamos del español   38 2. Formato de la base de datos    38 3. Rasgos generales de las entradas en el diccionario  39 3.1. Conformación de las entradas   39 3.2. Parte de la oración   39 3.3. Homónimos  39 3.4. Raíces polivalentes   39 3.5. Préstamos  40 3.6. Glosa en español   40 3.7. Glosa en inglés   40 3.8. Ejemplos  40 3.9. Notas  40 3.10. Formas con asterisco (no usadas)   40 3.11. Referencias    40 3.11.1. Variantes  41 3.11.2. Referencias a raíces y otras entradas relacionadas  41 3.11.3. Referencias a flora y fauna   41 3.11.4. Sinónimos  41 3.12. Indices  41 Lexicon en Su Contexto Gramatical   41 4. Bosquejo grammatical con énfasis sobre rasgos de entradas lexicas  41 4.0. Indice detallado   41 4.1. Marcadores de persona y pronombres   43 4.1.1. Marcadores de persona (pronombres dependientes)  43 Marcadores de persona del Juego A   43 Marcadores de persona del Juego B   43 Marcadores de persona de Juegos A y B con verbos transitivos  44 4.1.2. Pronombres independientes y demostrativos  44 Pronombres independientes   44 Pronombres de Objetos Indirectos   44 Pronombres posesivos independientes   45 Pronombres demostrativos   45 4.2. Verbos y frases verbales   45 4.2.1. Aspecto, modo y estatus    45 4.2.2. Clases de raíces verbales   46 Verbos transitivos   46 Verbos intransitivos   46 4.2.3.Derivación verbal y voz    46 Voz para raíces transitivas   46 Transitivo Activo   46 Verbos Reflexivos   46 Voces Intransitivas   47 Mediopasivo (medio)   47 Antipasivo    47 Pasivo (1)   47 Pasivo sin agente (pas2)   48 Derivación de verbos de raíces no verbales  48 Verbos posicionales   48 Verbos incoativos (versivos)   48 Verbos activos   48 Verbos afectivos   49 Derivación de verbos transitivos   49 Alternaciones de voz para verbos derivados  50 Verbos antipasivos e intransitivos activos   50 Pasivo (1)    51 Pasivo sin agente   52 4.2.4. Verbos compuestos   52 Incorporación de objeto   52 Incorporación adverbial   52 Compuestos de dos bases verbales y otros compuestos verbales  53 4.2.5. Frases verbales   53 Verbo intransitivo y sujeto   53 Verbo transitivo y objeto directo    53 Verbo y frase preposicional   53 4.3. Adjetivos, adverbios y participios   53 4.3.1. Adjetivos  53 Raíces adjetivas   53 Reduplicación  54 viii Reduplicación parcial   54 Reduplicación completa   544.3.1.2. Adjetivos derivados    54 Adjetivos derivados con -VC (adj1)   54 Adjectivos derivados de raíces afectivas con -kij (adj2)  54 Adjetivos derivados de raíces afectivas con -m-en (adj3)  54 Otras derivaciones adjetivales (adj4)   54 4.3.2. Participios  55 Participio general con -a'an (prt1)  55 Participio pasivo con -b'il (prt2)  55 Participio posicional con -ka'al (prt3)  55 Participio afectivo con -Vnak (prt4)  55 4.3.3. Adverbios  55 4.3.4. Adjetivos y Adverbios Compuestos   55 Compuestos de Color   55 4.3.5. Frases adjetivas y adverbiales (adjp, advp)   56 4.3.6. Frases estativas (ecuacionales) (stp)   56 4.4. Nombres y frases nominales   56 4.4.1. Raíces nominales    56 4.4.2. Nombres de raíces nominales   56 Nombres simples (n1)   56 Raíces de nombres verbales activos (avn1)  56 Raíces de nombres verbales activos onomatopéyicos  56 Raíces nominales con clasificadores nominales (n2)  56 Con aj- (n2a)  57 Con ix- (n2b)  57 Nombres con clasificadores indicando sexo (n2c)  57 Con aj- o ix- (n2d)  57 Clasificadores numerales   57 Nombres propios (pn)    58 4.4.3. Nombres derivados   58 Nombres agentivos (agn)   58 Nombres adjetivales (adjn)   58 Nombres instrumentales (instn)   58 Nombres verbales activos derivados    58 Nombres derivados con -il (n3)  58 Posesión inalienable con -el (n4)  59 Nombres derivados con -VC (n5)   59 Nombres derivados con -al (n6)  59 Nombres derivados con otros sufijos (n7)  59 Nombres relacionales (rn)   59 4.4.4. Nombres compuestos y frases nominales   59 Nombres Compuestos   59 Compuestos N1 (ncpd1)   59 Compuestos N2 (ncpd2)   59 Compuestos N3 (ncpd3).   60 Compuestos de clasificadores numerales (nclcpd)  60 Nombres compuestos agentivos (agncpd)   60 Compuestos de nombres verbales activos (avncpd)  60 Nombres compuestos adjetivales (adjncpd)   61 4.4.5. Frases Nominales   61 Modificador-nombre (np, np2)   61 Poseído-poseedor (psdnp).   61 4.4.6. Frases preposicionales   61 4.5. Numerales (num)    61 4.6. Partículas  61 4.7. Expletivos y exclamaciones   61 5. Paradigmas según el tipo de raíz   62 5.1. Raíces adjetivales   62 5.1.1. Raíz CVC   62 5.2. Raíces afectivas   62 5.2. Raíces afectivas   62 5.2.1. Raíz CVC   62 5.3. Raíces de nombres verbales activos   62 5.3.1. Raíz CVVC  62 5.4. Raíces intransitivas   62 5.4.1. Raíz CVC  62 5.5. Raíces posicionales   62 5.5.1. Raíz CVC  62 5.6. Raíz transitiva   63 5.6.1. Raíz CVC   63 6. Indices  63 6.1. Indice de raíces mayas   63 6.2. Indice español-Mopan   63 6.3. Indice inglés-Mopan   63 References/Bibliografia  64 Abbreviations/Abreviaturas  65 Mopan-Spanish-English Dictionary/Diccionario Mopan-Español-Iungles  75 Indexes/Indices   Mayan Root Index/Indice de Raíces Mayas   487 Spanish-Mopan Index/Indice Español-Mopan   501 English-Mopan Index/Indice Mopan-Español- Inglés  585 Acknowledgments/Agradecimientos I am grateful to many people and institutions for support of this project, which had its beginnings in 1998 with support of a Southern Illinois Special Research Grant and was completed during a sabbatical leave in 2009. During the last four years (2005-2009) this research has been supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF-BCS-0445231) and I am very grateful to NSF and the linguistics program director Joan Maling for this assistance. Former Dean of the College of Liberal Arts, Shirley Clay Scott, also provided financial assistance for this project. I appreciate help in data entry by graduate assistants Jorge Montenegro, Cristina Rospigliosi, and Juan Rodriguez, who also assisted me in the field. I am grateful to the editorial staff of the University of Utah Press, Rebecca L. Rauch in particular, and to John S. Robertson and an anonymous reviewer for their comments. In Guatemala I am grateful to my Mopan consultants: Narcizo Asij, Ofelia Asis Cajbon, Romelia Tzuncal Ba, Nicolás P. Tzuncal, Serbelio de Jesús Chiac Cohuoj, Hilario Yaxcal, Juan Idelfonso Coj Ical, Inocensio Cajbon Sunkal, María Veronica Pan Choc, and my long-time research assistant, Félix Fernando Tesucún. I also appreciate assistance from the Mopan branch of the Academia de Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala and from the Proyecto Lingüístico Francisco Marroquín in Antigua. Finally, I thank Lynne and Helen for their support of this work and for putting up with my absences to conduct fieldwork. Estoy agradecido con muchas personas e i­nstituciones por su apoyo a este proyecto, el cual comenzó en el año 1998 con la ayuda de una beca de mi universidad, Southern Illinois University en Carbondale y fue cumplido durante un sabático de descanso en el año 2009. Durante los años 2005 a 2009 el proyecto ha sido financiado por una beca de la Fundación Nacional de Ciencias (NSFBCS-0445231) y estoy muy agredecido con la Fundación y con la directora del programa de lingüística, Joan Maling. La decana precedente del Colegio de Artes Liberales, Shirley Clay Scott, ayudó el proyecto financieramente también. Agradezco a mis asistentes graduados por su ayuda con la entrada de los datos, Jorge Montenegro, Cristina Rospigliosi, y Juan Rodriguez, quien me asistió en el trabajo de campo también. Agradezco al directivo editoral de la Prense de la Universidad de Utah, Rebecca L. Rauch en particular, y a John S. Robertson y un crítico anónimo por sus comentarios. Les agradezco a mis consultantes Mopanes en Guatemala: Narcizo Asij, Ofelia Asis Cajbon, Romelia Tzuncal Ba, Nicolás P. Tzuncal, Serbelio de Jesús Chiac Cohuoj, Hilario Yaxcal, Juan Idelfonso Coj Ical, Inocensio Cajbon Sunkal, María Veronica Pan Choc y mi asistente de investigaciones, Félix Fernando Tesucún. También les agradezco a colegas de la Acadcemia de Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala en San Luís, Petén, y a los del Proyecto Lingüístico Francisco Marroquín en Antigua. Finalmente les agradesco a Lynne y Helen por su apoyo del proyecto y su paciencia durante mis ausencias de la casa. ix Introduction History of the Mopan Dictionary Mopan Maya is a member of the Yucatekan branch of the Mayan language family, along with Itzaj Maya, Northern and Southern Lakantun, and Yukateko (Yucatec) proper. The Yucatekan branch of the Mayan language family probably began to diversify at least one thousand years ago (Kaufman 1976; Hofling 2006a, 2006b). A diagram of this diversification is presented in figure 1. As shown in the figure, Mopan is the first branch of the tree, indicating that is more distantly related to the other Yucatekan languages and it is of critical importance for the reconstruction of Proto-Yukatekan. lies. This shift in lifeways has had an effect on knowledge of flora and fauna and of related vocabulary, and more generally on the viability of the language. However, Mopan remains a first language for many and the ALMG has been successful in instilling pride in the Mopan language in the Guatemalan Mopan cultural center, San Luís, Peten. I have been engaged in research into the linguistic and cultural history of the Yucatekan languages and my primary initial interest in Mopan was for its importance in this regard. As part of this research I am creating an etymological dictionary of Yukatekan, for which Mopan plays a critical role. There is a substantial amount of data, published and unpublished, on the Mopan lexicon. One important source is the bilingual Mopan-Spanish dictionary of approximately 3500 entries published by Mathew and Rosemary Ullrich in 1976 based on extensive work on the language from 1960 to 1971 (1976: The Yukatekan Language Family Mopan speakers are the southernmost Yukatekan group, currently occupying southern Petén, Guatemala, and the Maya Mountains region of Belize. In Guatemala, Mopan speakers number between three and four thousand, according to the statistics gathered by the Mopan branch of the Academia de Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala (ALMG pers. comm. 2008). The population in Belize is larger, perhaps six to eight thousand (Grimes 2000). Mopan is under considerable stress. Virtually the entire population is bilingual and language shift to Spanish has been substantial in Guatemala. The Petén has suffered massive deforestation in the last several decades and traditional agriculture is no longer feasible for most fami1 2 3). During the 1970s the Proyecto Lingüistico Francisco Marroquín (PLFM) also collected lexical data on Mopan using an elicitation list of approximately 4500 items. The PLFM kindly provided me free access to these data. More recently Schumann (1997) published a description of Mopan that includes a vocabulary of over 1200 items, and the Mopan branch of the Academia de Lenguas Maya de Guatemala published an important word list in 2003. In the same year the Guatemalan linguists of the group Oxlajuuj Keej Maya' Ajtz'iib' published a comparative vocabulary of over 1500 items of Guatemalan Mayan Languages, including Mopan. To begin creating the Mopan lexical database I created digital files of all available sources using Toolbox (SIL International 2006) with the help of graduate research assistants. From 2006 to 2008, I conducted three two-month field seasons in San Luís, Petén, Guatemala, the center of the Mopan population in Guatemala. Elicitation Tools During the first season I checked the data from previous research with Mopan speakers, adding new entries as they arose. The result was a lexical database of approximately 7000 items. In the process of elicitation it became apparent that significant change had occurred in the thirty to forty or more years since the Ullrichs and PLFM collected their data. It was also apparent that there was considerable variation among modern speakers. San Luís is divided into nine barrios (Betel, Centro, Paraíso, Vista Hermosa, Florida, Estadio, Tikajal, Cruze Chinchilá, Ixyuc) and each is said to have its own dialect. Residents of five of these barrios assisted with the dictionary and dialect dif- ferences seem to be minor. Mopan speakers in Belize also have dialect differences. I have not been able to conduct a dialect survey and the data presented here largely represent the Centro dialect of San Luís. Because of the potential use of the dictionary for examining language change, I have been careful to provide sources of entries. I and my language consultants have found all sources problematic, but for different reasons. Phonological and translation errors were fairly common in most sources. The entries and examples in the dictionary have been checked and, when needed, amended by me and my consultants and should not be assumed to be copies of the original sources. During the second field season I used dictionaries from other Yukatekan languages as elicitation cues, in line with my aim to gather data relevant to a Yukatekan etymological dictionary. I used the same technique with Itzaj speakers in 2005 with success. It also proved successful with Mopan speakers and the database grew to over 12,000 entries. At this point it became clear that the Mopan lexical database was a valuable resource on its own, regardless of its relevance to an etymological dictionary. Therefore I decided to conduct an additional field season to check and expand the Mopan lexical data in 2008. That fieldwork proved invaluable. It allowed me to understand Mopan lexical morphology at much greater depth and gave me confidence that the data are largely accurate. The dictionary grew to about 14,700 entries. There must always be a proviso in interpreting these data. As there is considerable variation in evaluations of the acceptability of lexical items, I have frequently made the note that certain items are not accepted by all speakers. I have done this because documented sources and some current speakers indicate that they are actual lexical items. It is possible that some of these questionable items are in fact errors. User's Guide 1.1. Alphabetic Order a, ä, aa, ää, b', ch, ch' d', e, ee, f, g, i, ii, j, k, k', l, m, n, o, oo, p, p', r, s, t, t', tz, tz', u, uu, w, x, y, '. The organization of this dictionary reflects my intent to make the information accessible to as broad an audience as possible, including Mopans in Guatemala and Belize, and others interested in the language including foreign and Guatemalan linguists and anthropologists, as well as readers whose interests may lie in Mayan epigraphy. Often, dictionaries are designed primarily for specialists in a language or speakers of a language. Neither of these models was considered appropriate here, because Mopan has a small number of speakers but is of interest to many people besides Mayan linguists. Linguists of Mayan languages often make root dictionaries in which all words deriving from a particular root appear below that root entry. This is an efficient and logical way to organize a dictionary for readers who can determine the relevant roots of words. It is not the easiest way to organize information for people who do not know a lot about the language or for people who do not know a lot about using dictionaries. For a more general audience, using simple alphabetical order is the most straightforward principle of organization. As will be described below, entries in this dictionary appear in their natural alphabetical order. A cross-referencing system provides additional information about word roots and their derivations. The design of this dictionary closely follows the Itzaj dictionaries produced by Hofling and Tesucún (Hofling 1997, Hofling and Tesucún 2000), which should facilitate comparison of the two languages. Sections of this introduction are nearly identical to sections in the Itzaj dictionaries when they apply equally well to Mopan. 1.2. Phonetic Description and Pronunciation 1.2.1. Features of Articulation Consonants Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal Stops Voiceless p t k ' glottal p' t' k' voiced b' d' (g)2 Affricates voiceless tz ch glottal tz' ch' Fricatives voiceless (f) s x j Liquid l Vibrants r Nasals m n Semivowels w y Vowels Front Central Back High i ii u uu ä ää Mid e ee o oo Low a aa 1.2.2. Pronunciation Guide Phonetic Values of Alphabet Sounds foreign to many English speakers include the vowel ä and the glottalized consonants, indicated by an apostrophe. The vowel ä is similar to, but higher than, the schwa in English words, such as the underlined vowels in the sofa. The other vowels have values similar to Spanish vowels, but vowel length is also distinctive. The glottal stop (') is produced by closing and opening the glottis, as in the catch in English uh uh. Other glottalized 1. Orthography and Pronunciation Entries appear in the orthography and the alphabetic order approved by the Academy of Mayan Languages of Guatemala (ALMG) with two minor modifications: some initial glottal stops are recorded and a long high central vowel (ää) has been added.1 1. The general convention for glottal-initial entries ('V entries) is to omit writing the initial glottal stop. However, some initial glottal stops are firm, that is, they do not undergo sound changes associated with plain glottal-intitial words (cf. § The symbol ' is written for firm glottal-initial -Vowel sequences, but does not affect an entry's position in alphabetic order. 2. Parentheses indicate sounds that appear in Spanish loan words. 3 4 consonants are produced by closing the glottis and allowing pressure to build before release. In the cases of b', and d', the air flows inward on release (is imploded). In the cases of the other glottalized consonants (ch', k', p', t', tz') the air flows outward (is ejected). A guide to the pronunciation of each letter of the alphabet is indicated below. a low central vowel, like the English a in father or Spanish a in gato. ä mid high central vowel, somewhat higher than the schwas in the sofa. aa long low central vowel. ää long mid high central vowel, somewhat higher than the schwas in the sofa. b' glottalized bilabial stop, like English b, but imploded. ch palatal affricate, like English ch in church or the Spanish ch in chile. ch' glottalized palatal affricate. d' glottalized dental stop, like English or Spanish d with tip of tongue against upper front teeth and imploded. e mid front vowel, ranges from English e in met to Spanish e in dedo. ee long mid front vowel. f labio-dental fricative like English or Spanish f. g voiced velar stop like English g in good or Spanish g in gato. I high front vowel, ranges from English i as in pin to Spanish i as in pino. ii long high front vowel. j glottal fricative, like English h in house or Spanish g in gente. k voiceless velar stop, like English k in keep or Spanish c in copa. k' glottalized voiceless velar stop. l lateral liquid, like English l in look or Spanish l in libro. m bilabial nasal stop, like English m in many or Spanish m in mano. n dental nasal stop, like English or Spanish n with tip of tongue against upper front teeth. o mid back vowel like English o in bold or Spanish o in coco. oo long mid back vowel. p voiceless bilabial stop, like English p in pen or Spanish p in poco. p' glottalized voiceless bilabial stop. r alveolar vibrant flap, like tt in English kitty or Spanish r in pero. s alveolar sibilant, like English s in some, or Spanish s in son. t voiceless dental stop, like English or Spanish t with tip of tongue against upper front teeth. t' glottalized voiceless dental stop. tz voiceless alveolar affricate, like English ts in cats. tz' glottalized voiceless alveolar affricate. u high back vowel, like English oo in moon or Spanish u in nudo. uu long high back vowel. w labio-velar glide, like English w in wood or Spanish hu in huevo. x voiceless palatal fricative, like English sh in shell, or Spanish x in Uxmal. y palatal glide, like English y in yell, or Spanish y in yerba. ' glottal stop, like the catch in English uh uh. 1.2.3. Orthographic Equivalencies3 ALMG Broad Phonetic Colonial (Yukatek) a [a] a ä [ɨ] (a) aa [a:] a, aa ää [ɨ ɨ] b' [b'] b ch [č] ch ch' [č'] cħ d' [d'] e [e], [Є] ee [e:] e, ee f [f] g [g] i [i], [I] i ii [i:] i, ii j [h] h, j k [k] c k' [k'] k l [l] l m [m] m n [n] n o [o] o oo [o:] o, oo p [p] p p' [p'] pp, p r [r] r 3. A more extensive concordance of Mayan alphabets appears in Dienhart (1989). 5 s [s] z, ç, s t [t] t t' [t'] th, tħ tz [ȼ] tz tz' [ȼ'] Ɔ, dz u [u] u, v uu [u:] u, uu w [w] u, v x [š] x y [y] y ' [Ɂ] (VV)4 1.2.4. Phonological Processes (Pronunciation Changes) A brief informal sketch of some of the more important phonological processes is presented here. For additional information see Schumann (1997) and ALMG (2001, 2004). Specific phonological rules are noted in dictionary entries when required or relevant. The linguistic abbreviations used appear in the list of Dictionary Abbreviations. In Mopan examples occurring in dictionary entries, letters that are not pronounced are enclosed in parentheses. Stress Lexical stress falls on the first syllable of the root and on alternate syllables. Syllables with long vowels (CVVC) or glottalized vowels (CV'[V]C) are always stressed. Phrase-final echo vowels (-V) are not stressed. /l/ In other Yukatekan languages, /l/ is frequently deleted in word-final position or before consonants. This is much less common in Mopan, but does occur. For example, the numeral classifier /p'eel/ often drops the final /l/ and /b'o'oltik/, ‘pay’, may shorten to [b'o'tik]. Glottal Stop /'/ Roots of the shape CV'(V)C may appear as CV'VC without suffixes, but as CV'C when suffixes are added. For example the root TZO'OTZ (1), ‘hair’ appears as tzo'otz when there are no suffixes but as tzo'tzel when the suffix -el is added; the root KA'AN (1) ‘sky’ appears as ka'an (1) without suffixes, but as ka'nal ‘above’ when the suffix -al is added. Glottal stops may also disappear in word-final position. For example, k'ab'a' ‘name’ may appear as 4. Long vowels in colonial orthography often correspond to VɁV sequences. There was no separate symbol for the glottal stop. [k'ab'a]; ti' (2a) ‘to’, may appear as [ti]. All borrowings from Spanish of vowel-initial words are reinterpreted as beginning with a firm glottal stop, e.g., Spanish amigo becomes Mopan 'amiigoj (cf. § /j/ /j/ frequently disappears at the ends of words and before consonants. /j/ is enclosed in parentheses (j) in the dictionary entry examples to indicate that an underlying /j/ is not pronounced or is optionally pronounced wordfinally. For example, yuumb'a(j) ‘swing’ may appear as [yuumb'a]; ti'i(j) ‘for’ may appear as [ti'i]; and the third person marker -ij 3SG.B usually appears as [-i]. Proto-Yucatekan had two fricatives, the velar [X] and the glottal [h], which have largely, but incompletely merged (Orie and Bricker 2000). It may be that reflexes of the glottal fricative disappear in word-final position, but reflexes of the velar fricative do not. All Spanish words that end in vowels have been reinterpreted as ending in a “soft” [h]. Nasal Consonants The nasal consonants /m/ and /n/ may assimilate to the position of a following consonant. They also velarize in final position or before another nasal consonant. This means that /m/ may be pronounced [n] before an alveolar consonant such as /s/ or /t/ (e.g., /kimsik/ > [kinsik], ‘kill’) and /n/ may appear as [m] when it precedes a bilabial consonant such as /p/, /p'/, /b'/, or /m/. (e.g., /inb'etik/ > [imb'etik]), but it is not very common. Both /m/ and /n/ may be pronounced [ŋ] (ng) before a velar consonant, /k/ or /k'/, before another nasal consonant, or at the end of a word (e.g., /inkik/ > [iŋkik], ‘my older sister’; / inna'/ > [iŋna'], ‘my mother’. /b'/ The phoneme /b'/ may reduce to a gottal stop in final position, e.g., matzab' ~ matza', ‘eyelash’; k'ämoob' ~ k'ämoo', ‘k'ämoob' palm’. Vowel Length Vowel length is distinctive in Mopan, as in other Yukatekan languages. Changing vowel length may change a word's meaning. For example, kok means ‘gravel’, but kook means ‘deaf’; mis means ‘cat’, but miis means ‘broom’; and kuch means ‘load’, but kuuch means ‘place’. It is therefore important to consistently distinguish between long and short vowels. Vowels may also be paralinguistically lengthened to mark emphasis. They may also shorten in casual speech e.g., the inanimate numeral classifier -p'eel ~ -p'ee ~ -p'e. 6 Vowel Harmony and Disharmony An important set of grammatical affixes reflect vowel harmony, which is when the vowel of an affix echoes the nearest vowel of the stem to which it attaches. Many of these are Vowel-Consonant suffixes and the abbreviation -VC is used to indicate a vowel-harmonic suffix. For example, a -Vl suffix attaches to verb roots yielding such forms as b'ax-äl, ‘play’, em-el, ‘descend’, tiich-il, ‘sprout’, okol, ‘enter’, and uk'-ul, ‘drink’. The harmonic topic marking suffix -V, which indicates definite, given information, is extremely common in phrase-final position. Another common causative suffix, -kUn, which derives transitive verbs from adjective or positional stems, is disharmonic, meaning that the vowel changes to be unlike the vowel of the stem. In this case, if the preceding vowel is u or o, the suffix optionally has the form -kin, otherwise it has the form -kun. For example, b'ak-kun-tik, ‘make thin’, and b'is-kun-tik, ‘perforate’, but b'ok-kin-tik, ‘make smell’, and b'o'oy-kin-tik, ‘make a shadow’. Reduplication Reduplication, the repetition of part or all of a word to derive a new word, is a fairly common process in Mopan for adjectives and verbs but is not fully predictable. Adjectives may have plain forms, partially reduplicated forms, and fully reduplicated forms. For example, the adjective root CHÄK (1) has the plain form, chäk (1a), ‘red’, and the fully reduplicated form chäk-chäk, ‘very red’, but not a partially reduplicated form; MUN (1) has the plain form mun (1a), ‘unripe’, and the partially reduplicated form mumun, ‘very unripe’. Verbs also reduplicate to indicate repeated action. For example, la'achtik, ‘scratch’, and la'la'achtik, ‘scratch repeatedly’; lomik, ‘stab’, and lolomtik, ‘stab repeatedly’. Spanish Loans Spanish loan words regularly undergo phonological modifications to conform to the Mopan phonological system. A j is added to Spanish words ending in a vowel, non-final vowels which are stressed in Spanish are lengthened in Mopan, and words which begin with a vowel in Spanish have a firm glottal stop in Mopan. The j is of the soft type and disappears in word-final position e.g., 'aasto(j) (1a) n1. hasta. until. If the final syllable of a Spanish word is stressed and ends in n or r, its Mopan counterpart optionally lengthens the vowel. For example, Spanish limón, ‘lime’, becomes limoon; Spanish mayor, ‘major’ becomes mayoor. 2. Database Format The database was constructed using Toolbox, a software program developed by the Summer Institute of Linguistics International (SIL 2006). Each dictionary entry is derived from one record in the database. The full template for each entry is given below, followed by a brief explanation of each field. Fields that do not appear in the printed version are marked by an asterisk. When items were recorded by previous researchers, it is noted in the source (src) field. Examples are given in chronological order: UU (Ulrich and Ulrich 1976[196071]), PLFM (1971), S (Schumann 1997), ALMG, (2000), OKMA (2003), and source citatations refer to examples above the citation. Examples below the last citation were elicited in fieldwork from 2006 to 2008. In the following entry the first two examples are from Ulrich and Ulrich, the third is from ALMG and the last was elicited in the field. b'ula'an prt1. dentro de (algo), lleno de agua, estado de inmersión. inside (of something), full of water, immersed. B'ul-a'an ti ja' a p'uul-u. Está lleno de agua el cántaro. The pitcher is full of water. B'ul-a'an a luch ich ja'. El guacal está dentro del agua. The gourd is submerged in the water. UU. B'ul-a'an ich ja' a-winik-i El hombre está sumergido en el agua The man is sunk into the water. ALMG. Bul-a'an t-uy-it ja'. Está sumergido en el fondo del agua. It is submerged at the bottom of the water. The previous forms and examples were frequently revised and the indication of the original source does not mean that items are identical. There are also frequent notes of modifications on the original source, which are given in square brackets in the source field. \le \ps \bor \es \eng \src \exm \exs \exe \src keyword entry part of speech borrowing; donor in parenthesis Spanish gloss English gloss reference to source of entry, eg., UU (Ulrich and Ulrich 1976 [1960-71]), PLFM (1971), S (Schumann 1997), ALMG, (2003), OKMA (2003) Mopan example Spanish translation of example English translation of example reference to source of example, eg., UU 7 (Ulrich and Ulrich 1976 [1960-71]), PLFM (1971), S (Schumann 1997), ALMG, (2003), OKMA (2003) \not note valid for both Spanish and English \nota Spanish note \note English note \rt root \var variant form \cf see, compare with \syn synonym \cog* cognate with an item in another Yukatekan language \date* date last modified 3. General Features of Dictionary Entries 3.1. Entry Form Entries appear in alphabetical order in bold type. All known morphemes, the basic units of meaning that form words, appear as entries except harmonic suffixes (cf. § Root5 entries are capitalized, other entries are in lower case. For example, the root for ‘red’ appears as CHÄK (1), the root for ‘hogplum’ appears as AB'ÄL (1), but a form for ‘red hogplum’ is the noun phrase chäk ab'äl. Different entries with the same spellings are distinguished by numbers and letters (cf. §3.3). Compounds (words that are composed of two or more roots) are indicated by hyphens on the entry line. For example, the compound chäk-nej, ‘red-tailed sardine’ has the roots CHÄK (1) ‘red’ and NEJ (1), the root for ‘tail’. Bound morphemes (morphemes that must be attached to other morphemes) are also indicated with hyphens. For example, JUN- (1), is the bound root for the number ‘one’ and must always be attached to another morpheme, and -o'on is a suffix indicating first person plural, ‘we’ or ‘us’. 3.2. Part of Speech Every entry is followed by its part of speech using the abbreviations listed in Dictionary Abbreviations. Part-ofspeech categories for roots begin with capitals. For example, the adjectival root for ‘white’ appears as SÄK (1) A; the nominal root for ‘gopher’ appears as B'AJ (1) N; the intransitive root for ‘sleep’ appears as WÄY (1) I. Other part-of-speech categories are in lower case except for 5. Roots are the core elements of words. Affixes are other elements of words that may be added to roots or stems (cf. §4). A good number of entries that are probably complex historically are listed as roots if there is no definite synchronic evidence of an internal morpheme boundary. certain derivational and inflectional morphemes6 used for interlinear glossing. For example, the class 1 noun for ‘gopher’ appears as b'aj (1a) n1; the intransitive verb for ‘sleep’ appears as wäyäl riv. 3.3. Homophones Homophonous entries, different entries that sound alike (and have the same spelling), are distinguished from one another by numbers. Different roots and homophonous words derived from separate roots receive different numbers. For example, after the root entry KA' (1) N. appears the entry ka' (1a) n1a. grinding stone, mill stone; followed by KA' (2) Num. two; ka' (2a) num. two; and ka' (2b) REPET. again. The different numbers indicate that two different roots are represented (a noun root and a numeral) while the letters indicate different forms of the same root. In this case, the numeral meaning ‘two’ and the repetitive adverb meaning ‘again’ are both derived from the same root KA' (2). 3.4. Polyvalent Roots Polyvalent roots are roots that belong to more than one root class, which is indicated by their ability to enter into more than one paradigm type (cf. §5). For example, many roots appear in paradigms of affective roots (Af), transitive verb roots (T) and/or positional roots (P). This is indicated by listing the relevant root types in the root entry. For example, CH'OB' (1), ‘dent’, is a root that enters into affective, positional, and transitive root paradigms and so its part of speech is listed as Af, P, T. In cases when different values of a root have different forms, they are listed separately and cross-referenced to one another. For example, the part of speech for KOTZ' (1), a root for ‘wrap in a leaf’ is listed as (N,) P, T and cross referenced to KOOTZ' (1) N, (P, T), indicating that the vowel is long in the noun paradigms, but short in the paradigms for positional and transitive roots (cf. §5 for discussion of root types and their paradigms). 3.5. Borrowings When known, the donor language and form of a bor6. Derivational morphemes are affixes that change word class or part of speech or otherwise create new words. For example, -il (1) POS. is a derivational suffix that can change adjectives into abstract nouns. Inflectional morphemes do not change word class, but add grammatical meaning such as aspect, person or number. For example, in- 1SG.A. is an inflectional prefix that indicates a first person singular possessor in nouns or a subject on verbs. See §4 for more detailed information on morphology. 8 rowing are given in parentheses after the part of speech in the root entry. For example, the root for ‘box’, a Spanish borrowing, appears as KAJOON (1) N. (Sp cajón); and an English borrowing for ‘rope’ appears as ROP (1) N. (En rope). 3.6. Spanish Gloss All entries are given Spanish glosses in italics after the part of speech.7 The Spanish is Guatemalan Spanish, and more particularly Petén Spanish, but localisms do not appear as sole glosses if more general terms are known to the author. For example, the word for ‘leaf’ appears as le' (2a) n1a. hoja, the word for ‘child’ appears as tz'ub' (1a) n1a. niño, and the word for ‘also’ appears as xan (1a) adv. también. Multiple Spanish glosses are separated by commas, as in ki' (1a) adjr. bueno, si, bien. 3.7. English Gloss The English gloss immediately follows the Spanish gloss. Adding to the examples given in §3.6 we have le' (1a) n1a. hoja. leaf, tz'ub' (1a) n1a. niño. child, and xan (1a) adv. también. also. Multiple English glosses are separated by commas as in ki' (1a) adjr. bueno, sí, bien. good, OK. 3.8. Examples Examples of dictionary entries in phrases or sentences are frequently given. The Mopan phrase or sentence is followed by Spanish and then English translations. The component parts of Mopan words (morphemes) are indicated by hyphens and equals signs. Equals signs indicate parts of a compound word, hyphens indicate other morpheme boundaries. With this information, a reader can look up any word or morpheme that appears in an ­example. Examples are taken from previously gathered lexical materials and texts, where the source is indicated, and from recent fieldwork. Textual examples indicate source date, page, and line number. It should be noted that all examples have been checked as to their well-formedness and corrected if found wanting. For this reason, there may be differences between examples as they appear in the dictionary and in their original sources. 3.9. Notes Notes include grammatical and cultural information about the entries. Grammatical information might in7. When the gloss of a root is ambiguous, an indication of the relevant semantic domain is given in parentheses. clude special guides to pronunciation, related forms, or grammatical irregularities. Many compound nouns have alternate forms and it might be noted which is preferred or more common. For example, the entry ixjujul n2dii. cotton tree; is categorized as a noun that may include either the masculine noun classifier (aj-) or the feminine noun classifier (ix-). A grammatical note states that the feminine classifier (ix-), is preferred. Notes may include cultural information about uses or beliefs concerning an entry and may also indicate that a given item is not known by all speakers. 3.10. Starred Forms Forms that might be expected on the basis of word class but that do not occur or are ungrammatical may be starred. Starred forms are listed under the root and/or other relevant part-of-speech categories. For example, under the form ajläm, plasterer, it is noted that the possible alternate form ajlam, does not occur (*ajlam). 3.11. Cross References Because the overarching principle of organization of entries in this dictionary is alphabetical order rather than morphological status or structure, an extensive crossreferencing system is used so that information about morphology is accessible to the reader. Cross references include information on roots, variant forms, related forms, and synonyms. 3.11.1. Variant Forms Primary entries are cross-referenced to entries of their variant forms with var. Variant entries are cross-referenced to primary entries with cf. In general, variant entries are reduced forms of primary entries. Complete cross-referencing to other forms is given only in the primary entry. For example, the adjective mejen (1a) adjr. pequeño. small; has the variant form meen, which is indicated below the pricipal entry with var. meen. Under the variant meen there is a cross-reference to the principal entry: cf. mejen (1a). 3.11.2. Cross References to Roots and Other Related Entries In root entries cross references are given to all of the entries involving the relevant root that do not appear immediately below the root entry. Cross references are listed after cf. in alphabetical order. Contiguous series of relevant entries are indicated with ff. after the first entry in the series. For example, in the entry for the transitive 9 root CH'EJ (2) Af, T. peck. the following cross-references appear: cf. ajch'ej, ch'ech'ejkij, ch'eje' ff., ch'eejel, ch'eejtik. This list includes all of the examples of entries involving the root CH'EJ that do not appear immediately below it, including a series of entries beginning with ch'eje'. Related entries that appear immediately below the root, such a ch'ej (2a), ch'eja'an, and ch'ejb'aanäl are not cross-referenced. All simple entries (entries that are not compounds or phrases) that appear away from their root entries are cross-referenced to their root entries and/or to a relevant entry appearing immediately below the root with one kind of exception. Returning to words involving the root CH'EJ (2), the entry, ajch'ej agn. picador. pecker, includes the cross reference: rt. CH'EJ (2). The exceptions are nouns beginning with the noun classifier aj- or ix- that unambiguously allow the reader to infer the root. For example, ajjaap agn. comelón. gulper, is not cross-referenced to the root because there is only one root of the shape JAAP. More details on which entries other than roots are cross-referenced are given in §4. The roots contained in compounds and phrases are also indicated in a given entry whenever this information is not immediately recoverable from the key entry itself. Roots are not cross-referenced when the components of a complex entry unambiguously suggest their roots. For example, the entry, ajb'ut'-ja' agncpd (agn & n1). llenador de agua. water filler, does not cross-reference the root JA' (1) A, N. agua. water, because it is the only root of that form. It does cross-reference the root B'UT' (2) Af, T. llenar. fill, because there are two roots of that form. With the exception of entries including the noun classifiers aj- and ix-, roots are indicated whenever the constituent forms have affixes. 3.11.3. Flora and Fauna Cross References Many terms for flora and fauna occur with the masculine noun classifiers aj- and the feminine noun classifier ix- (cf. § The dictionary lists these forms both with and without classifiers. Entries without classifiers are cross referenced to the entries with the classifiers. For example, the entry, ch'ul-te', amapola. amapola tree, has cross-references to the forms with classifiers; cf: ajch'ulte', ixch'ul-te'. 3.11.4. Synonyms Synonyms are the last possible field for an entry and are cross-referenced reciprocally. In the example aj'ab'älche' ncpd2a (n1 & n1). jocote silvestre. wild hogplum, it is noted that it has synonyms by: syns. ab'äl ek'en, ajk'än ab'äl; and these entries have reciprocal cross-references 3.12. Indexes Three indexes follow the body of the dictionary: a Mayan Root Index, a Spanish-Mopan Index, and an English-Mopan Index. The Mayan root index contains native Mayan roots as opposed to Spanish borrowings, and should be of particular interest to epigraphers. These indexes are intended simply as tools to refer the reader to the relevant Mopan entry, where more extensive information appears. Lexicon in Grammatical Context 4. Grammatical Sketch with Emphasis on Features of Lexical Entries 4.0. Detailed Contents 4.1. Person Markers and Pronouns 4.1.1. Person Markers (Dependent Pronouns) Set A Person Markers Set B Person Markers Set A and Set B Person Markers with Transitive Verbs 4.1.2. Independent and Demonstrative Pronouns Independent Pronouns Indirect Object Pronouns Independent Possessive Pronouns Demonstrative Pronouns 4.2. Verbs and Verb Phrases 4.2.1. Aspect, Mood, and Status 4.2.2. Verb Root Classes Transitive Verbs Intransitive Verbs 4.2.3. Verbal Derivation and Voice Voice for Transitive Roots Active Transitive Reflexive Verbs Intransitive Voices Medio-passive Antipassive Passive (1) Agentless Passive (2) Deriving Verbs from Non-verbal Roots Positional Verbs Inchoative (Versive) Verbs Active verbs Affective Verbs Deriving Transitive Verbs Voice Alternations for Derived Roots

Author Charles A Hofling Isbn 9781607810292 File size 3.1MB Year 2011 Pages 850 Language English File format PDF Category Culture Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare Charles Andrew Hofling Smithsonian-Utah Publications in American Indian Languages Lyle Campbell and Ives Goddard Linguistics This is highly valuable dictionary of the Mopan (Mayan) language. In addition to its many entries, it also provides an introductory grammatical description, as well as general dictionary features such as parts of speech, examples, cross-references, variant forms, homophones, and indexes. The book also contains special sections on orthography and pronunciation unique to this important Mayan language, as well as translations into English and Spanish. The dictionary has the merits well known from other dictionaries of indigenous languages of the Americas, preserving knowledge systems as they are encoded in vocabulary and providing valuable information for numerous fields, including Mayanists, Mesoamericanists, American Indian scholars, anthropologists, historians, linguists, students of Mayan hieroglyphic writing, and members of modern Mayan communities, among others. This is the second book in the new Smithsonian-Utah Publications in American Indian Languages (SUPAIL) series, a joint venture of the University of Utah Press and the Smithsonian Institution.     Download (3.1MB) New Perspectives on Language Variety in the South The Cherokee Struggle to Maintain Identity in the 17th and 18th Centuries A Dictionary of Ch’orti’ Mayan-Spanish-English Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing Volume 1 Dictionary of Spanish Slang and Colloquial Expressions, 2 edition Load more posts

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