Mapping Foreign Correspondence In Europe by Georgios Terzis


9780415719001-259x361.jpg Author Georgios Terzis
Isbn 9780415719001
File size 1.2 MB
Year 2014
Pages 363
Language English
File format PDF
Category politics and sociology


 

Mapping Foreign Correspondence in Europe The book studies the current trends of foreign correspondence in Europe. The European Union’s expansion has had abundant effects on news coverage, and some of the European capitals have become home to the biggest international press corps in the world. So who are these “professional strangers” stationed in Europe, and how do they try to make their stories, which are clearly important in today’s interconnected world, interesting for viewers and readers? This book represents the first pan-European study of foreign correspondents and their reporting. It includes chapters from 27 countries, and it aims to study them and the direction, flow, and pattern of their coverage, as well as answer questions regarding the impact of new technologies on the quantity, frequency, and speed of their coverage. Do more sophisticated communications tools yield better international news coverage of Europe? Or does the audience’s increasing apathy and the downsizing of the foreign bureaus offset these advances? And how do the seemingly unstoppable media trends of convergence, commercialization, concentration, and globalization affect the way Europe and individual European countries are reported? Georgios Terzis, PhD, is an Associate Professor and a Senior Associate Researcher at Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Vesalius College & Institute for European Studies), and a Senior Expert at the Global Governance Institute. His research focuses on media and security governance, European media governance, and the development of pan-European media. He is the Founding Chair of the Journalism Studies Section of the European Communication Research and Education Association. He worked as Brussels correspondent for Greek Media and as a course leader for the European Journalism Centre, training journalists from 25 countries on EU affairs. Routledge Studies in European Communication Research and Education Edited by Nico Carpentier, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium and Charles University, Czech Republic, François Heinderyckx, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium and Claudia Alvares, Lusofona University, Portugal Series Advisory Board: Denis McQuail, Robert Picard and Jan Servaes http://www.ecrea.eu Published in association with the European Communication Research and Education Association (ECREA), books in the series make a major contribution to the theory, research, practice, and/or policy literature. They are European in scope and represent a diversity of perspectives. Book proposals are refereed. 1 Audience Transformations Shifting Audience Positions in Late Modernity Edited by Nico Carpentier, Kim Christian Schrøder and Lawrie Hallett 2 Audience Research Methodologies Between Innovation and Consolidation Edited by Geoffroy Patriarche, Helena Bilandzic, Jakob Linaa Jensen and Jelena Jurišić 3 Multiplayer The Social Aspects of Digital Gaming Edited by Thorsten Quandt and Sonja Kröger 4 Mapping Foreign Correspondence in Europe Edited by Georgios Terzis 5 Revitalising Audience Research Innovations in European Audience Research Edited by Frauke Zeller, Cristina Ponte and Brian O'Neill Mapping Foreign Correspondence in Europe Edited by Georgios Terzis First published 2015 by Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017 and by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 2015 Taylor & Francis The right of the editor to be identified as the author of the editorial material, and of the authors for their individual chapters, has been asserted in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Mapping foreign correspondence in Europe / edited by Georgios Terzis. pages cm. — (Routledge studies in European communication research and education) Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Foreign news. 2. Foreign correspondents—Europe. 3. Europe— Press coverage. 4. Europe—Foreign public opinion. I. Terzis, Georgios, editor. PN4784.F6M25 2014 070.4ʹ332—dc23 2014021902 ISBN: 978-0-415-71900-1 (hbk) ISBN: 978-1-315-86296-5 (ebk) Typeset in Sabon by Apex CoVantage, LLC To Dimitri Terzi for holding the book and Anthoula Xanthopoulou for holding the light This page intentionally left blank Contents Editor’s Preface Acknowledgements Prologue: Foreign Correspondence 50 Years Later xi xv xvii JOHAN GALTUNG Introduction: Foreign Correspondents in Perspective 1 STYLIANOS PAPATHANASSOPOULOS AND ILIANA GIANNOULI 1 Foreign Correspondents in Austria Vienna: a Central and Eastern Europe-base in Transition 7 ROMAN HUMMEL, JOHANNA DORER, SARAH A. GANTER, GERIT GÖTZENBRUCKER AND DIMITRI PRANDNER 2 Foreign Correspondents in Belgium Brussels Correspondents’ Struggle to Make the Important Interesting 18 GEORGIOS TERZIS AND GARETH HARDING 3 Foreign Correspondents in Bulgaria News from the Eastern Frontier of the European Union 35 LULIVERA KRUSTEVA 4 Foreign Correspondents in Cyprus Tacking between Tradition and Change 44 VAIA DOUDAKI AND DIMITRA L. MILIONI 5 Foreign Correspondents in the Czech Republic Coping with Social Transition and Financial Crisis ALICE NĚMCOVÁ TEJKALOVÁ AND FILIP LÁB 57 viii 6 Contents Foreign Correspondents in Denmark All Quiet on the Northern News Front? 66 MORTEN SKOVSGAARD AND ARJEN VAN DALEN 7 Foreign Correspondents in Estonia Representatives of the Nordic-Baltic Region 79 RAGNE KÕUTS AND MARJU HIMMA-KADAKAS 8 Foreign Correspondents in Finland News from the Fringe of Europe 86 RAIMO SALOKANGAS 9 Foreign Correspondents in France From Prestige Status to Changing Practices and Complex Perspectives 93 JÉRÉMIE NICEY AND ANTONELLA AGOSTINO 10 Reporting Teutonia: Foreign Correspondents in Germany Doing Well Despite Pessimistic Outlook 105 OLIVER HAHN, THOMAS HANITZSCH AND MICHAEL BRÜGGEMANN SUPPORTED BY ISABELLE BRODEßER, JULIA EDER AND STEFAN KRUSCHWITZ 11 Foreign Correspondents in Greece Facing the ‘Communication Deficit’ 118 STYLIANOS PAPATHANASSOPOULOS AND ILIANA GIANNOULI 12 Foreign Correspondents in Hungary Local, Glocal, Global Agendas 128 JOLÁN RÓKA 13 Foreign Correspondents in Ireland Close Neighbours, Global Agenda 139 JOHN O’SULLIVAN 14 Foreign Correspondents in Latvia Can a Small Country Have Big News? 151 INTA BRIKŠE 15 Foreign Correspondents in Lithuania Between Glorious Past and Miserable Future 162 GINTARAS ALEKNONIS 16 Foreign Correspondents in Malta Peculiarities of a Small Nation State JOSEPH BORG 171 Contents 17 Foreign Correspondents in the Netherlands Anything That Would Be of Interest for Our Readers ix 180 BERNADETTE C. M. KESTER AND MIRJAM GOUDSWAARD 18 Foreign Correspondents in Norway Covering a Small, Rich Country near the Arctic 192 SIGURD ALLERN 19 Foreign Correspondents in Portugal News from Portugal: Thanks to the Debt Crisis 203 CARLA BAPTISTA AND CLÁUDIA HENRIQUES 20 Foreign Correspondents in Serbia What Happens When a War Ends? 213 VERICA RUPAR AND SONJA SEIZOVA 21 Foreign Correspondents in Slovakia Economy, Minorities, and Sometimes Politics 225 ANDREJ ŠKOLKAY 22 Foreign Correspondents in Slovenia A Small Country Neglected by Foreign Media 235 MARKO MILOSAVLJEVIĆ AND GAŠPER ZAVRŠNIK 23 Foreign Correspondents in Spain Facing the Economic and Professional Crisis 243 RAMÓN SALAVERRÍA 24 Foreign Correspondents in Sweden Professional Challenges and Strategies of Domestication 252 JESSICA GUSTAFSSON AND ANDREAS WIDHOLM 25 Foreign Correspondents in Switzerland Hard News, No Chocolate 261 MICHAEL BRÜGGEMANN, GUIDO KEEL AND MARTINA VAN BERKEL 26 Foreign Correspondents in Turkey Between the Home and Host Agendas 271 EYLEM YANARDAĞOĞLU AND L. DOĞAN TILIÇ 27 Foreign Correspondents in the UK London: A City ‘Bathed in Light’ MICHAEL BROMLEY, HOWARD TUMBER AND JULIAN FRITSCH 281 x Contents Conclusions: The ‘Professional Strangers’ of Europe at the Dawn of the 21st Century 297 GEORGIOS TERZIS Epilogue 314 CEES J. HAMELINK Appendix Contributors Index 319 333 345 Editor’s Preface Two out of the four directors of the schools of journalism where I studied were ex-members of intelligence and foreign services and they were not hiding it. Ten out of my ten colleagues in Brussels who covered the story of Greece adopting the euro and I knew that the country was ‘cooking the books’ but we were all hiding this in our reports. We were also all hiding our stage fright in front of the cameras when we asked questions at NATO press conferences that were broadcast live worldwide by CNN and others during the Kosovo war. In the past 25 years that I have studied, practised, and taught foreign correspondence, some of my classmates, colleagues, and students went on to cover the wars in Bosnia and Libya and ‘collected’ several physical and psychological injuries; others went undercover wearing burkas to cover the situation of women in Iran; one went into hiding for many years after receiving death threats because of his reporting of the terrorist attack in Japan’s subway in 1995 and in 2014 won a Pulitzer Prize, while others became speech writers for high calibre politicians or even ambassadors themselves. These are some of the ‘flashy’ aspects of foreign correspondents’ lives that make it into the numerous movies that involve foreign correspondent (FC) characters. Foreign correspondence is also a major attraction for students who decide to launch into a career in journalism, in spite of the fact that very few will ever practise it. But despite its ‘celebrity’ professional status, FC academic research is one that attracts little attention. This book, in a small way, is trying to plug this gap. For more than 150 years, world news leadership has been exercised by Europe and the United States, but Europe has been the world news leader at least since 1990 (Tunstall, 2011). Despite its leadership, most of the research on foreign correspondents has been on those based in the United States (Hess, 1996, 2006; Gross & Kopper, 2011), while research in the way that Europe and individual European countries are covered by foreign correspondents, with some notable exceptions, is almost non-existent (Morrison & Tumber, 1985; Hannerz, 2004; Mazzoleni & Splendore, 2007; AIM FP 6 project, 2006–2007). xii Editor’s Preface Franks (2005, p. 1) explains how ‘globalisation, the interdependent nature of modern society and the precarious state of international relations post 9/11’ necessitates that everyone should be interested in foreign news coverage. So, who are these ‘professional strangers’ stationed in Europe, the world news leader, and how do they try to make their stories that are clearly important in today’s interconnected world interesting for audiences? This book is the first of its kind. It involves the mapping of foreign correspondents and their reporting in 27 European countries with a common survey questionnaire1 completed by nearly 1,000 foreign correspondents of the approximately 2,500 contacted, and hundreds of interviews with FCs based in all these countries.2 It aims to study FCs and the direction, flow, and pattern of their coverage, as well as the impact of new technologies on the quantity, frequency, and speed of their coverage.3 Throughout the book, analysis of the political, economic, and social importance of foreign reporting in each country is given. Europe has witnessed a silent revolution in the last 20 years as the EU has extended its powers and members to become the world’s biggest economic power, trade bloc, and aid donor. The effects of this on news coverage and media presence in Europe are abundant. As journalists follow power and money, the European capitals became home to some of the biggest international press corps in the world. The analysis then turns to the current make-up of the European foreign press corps: their numbers, backgrounds, the pressures they are under, and their national obsessions. It analyses different factors affecting their coverage, resources devoted to European foreign bureaus, the tensions between parachuted correspondents and old-timers, and public versus commercial media. This is followed by a detailed breakdown of the key international media players and media sectors. Analysis continues by looking at the different news sources of foreign correspondents, and where they overlap, complement, and contradict each other. The different national institutions and embassies as well as other smaller ‘official sources’ are analysed together with a number of unofficial ones, such as think tanks, NGOs, and lobbies. Throughout the volume, the main challenges of communicating from a European country or the EU headquarters in Brussels are candidly discussed through interviews with FCs. Which are the dominant news frames and why is ‘Europe’ such a hard sell? We look at the problems that are intrinsic – such as the lack of a European public sphere, the physical and political ‘distance’, and others that are related to media routines and practices, such as pack reporting, disciplinary structures and other institutional influences, power structures, and professional conventions. As the reader will find, the current state of foreign correspondence varies across these 27 states. The conclusion studies the current trends of foreign correspondence in Europe. Do more and more sophisticated communications tools help to get better international news coverage from Europe? Or does the audiences’ Editor’s Preface xiii increasing apathy and the downsizing of the foreign bureaus offset these advances? And how do the seemingly unstoppable media trends of convergence, commercialisation, concentration, and globalisation affect the way Europe and individual European countries are reported? Georgios Terzis Brussels, May 2014 NOTES 1. See the Appendix for a copy of the questionnaire. 2. Due to logistical limitations, three countries did not conduct the survey but interviewed FCs based on the same groups of questions. 3. The authors of each chapter decided independently whether to use the names of the FCs interviewed or to make them anonymous. REFERENCES AIM (2006-2007). Adequate Information Management in Europe Studies, Sixth EU Framework Programme – Priority 7. [Online] Available from: www.aim-project. net. FRANKS, S. (2005). Lacking a clear narrative: Foreign News Reporting after the Cold War. The Political Quarterly. 76 (1), pp. 91–101. GROSS, P. & KOPPER, G. (2011). Understanding Foreign Correspondence. New York: Peter Lang. HANNERZ, U. (2004). Foreign News: Exploring the World of Foreign Correspondents. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. HESS, S. (1996). International News & Foreign Correspondents. Washington: Brookings Institution Press. ———. (2006) Through Their Eyes: Foreign Correspondents in the United States. Washington: Brookings Institution Press. MAZZOLENI, G. & SPLENDORE, S. (2007). Italian Foreign Correspondents: Fashioning Representation of France. In Palmer, M. and Aubert, A. (eds). L’Actualite Internationale Vue Depuis La France. Paris: Universite Sorbonne Nouvelle. MORRISON D. E. & TUMBER, H. (1985). The foreign correspondent: date-line London. Media Culture and Society. 7(4), pp. 445–70. TUNSTALL, J. (2011). Europe as World News Leader. In Trappel, J., Meier, W., D’Haenens, L., Steemers, J. & Thomass, B. (eds). Media in Europe Today. Bristol: Intellect. This page intentionally left blank Acknowledgements I would like to thank the ECREA book series editorial team, especially François Heinderyckx for his attentive comments, and the 51 authors of the 31 chapters of this book for all their efforts, trust, and patience. I would also like to express my gratitude to my research assistant Marina Lynch for her uncompromising dedication and copious work throughout the review process, and my subeditor Kulbir Natt for his excellent work. This page intentionally left blank Prologue: Foreign Correspondence 50 Years Later Some 50 years ago I had been so greatly puzzled by two problems in connection with foreign news that I decided to do some research on reporting in Cuba, Cyprus and Congo. The research was first published in January 1963.1 The first problem was empirical: how do events become national or international news? Of the enormities of events happening around the world—from any point of observation by professional journalists, foreign correspondents, or not—how come some are elevated to the level of news? What is news anyhow? The second problem was more normative: why is there a predilection for negative news? Why, but then also why not? You are driving on a road, and there is a flash on the radio: ‘there is a boulder blocking the road around the next sharp turn” matters more than “the road ahead is curvy but smooth.’ The positive and the negative, the good and the bad, are not symmetric attributes. I had done some journalism myself for the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation—in the US South, Cuba, India, Africa—but as reporting, stories, narratives, not as events carved out from their space-time context. As a social scientist, I wanted to see events, news or not, as conditioned, not determined, by the context. Interviews with Fidel Castro and the Dalai Lama were inserted in contexts, including sounds. And I had met many journalists who could not care less about contexts and seemed to have no doubts about what was news. Four factors seem to be decisive for events to become news: • • • • the more the event concerns elite states, the more the event concerns elite people, the more the event is due to personal action, the more negative the event is in its consequences, the more likely it will become a news item. A trivial consequence is the addition hypothesis: the more of the four factors that the event satisfies, the more likely it is to become news. xviii Prologue: Foreign Correspondence 50 Years Later And then a less trivial consequence is the compensation hypothesis: a high level on some factors may compensate for a low level on others. The perfect event according to the addition hypothesis is indeed the assassination of US President John F. Kennedy. The veracity of the reporting is another matter; the hypothesis is about the event. How about the death of Mandela, an elite person but not in an elite country? Death is negative, but it was not due to action, as opposed to impersonal ’structure’, ‘culture,’ ‘process’ (including of the body). Death and elite add up to a +2 as an event, but it was not an action (suicide would have been), and the country was not elite. So the event had to be magnified as relevant for all of Africa and for the whole world, and it was Mandela alone, with little or nothing about the indispensable Tutu and de Klerk. This distortion went on for weeks. In other words, events have to be helped a little to become top news; unassisted, they may not make it. Negate the first two of the four ‘less trivial’ factors, and we get the vast masses of humanity living in what used to be called ‘Third World’ countries. How can they ever make news? By something super negative, like a major earthquake, typhoon, tsunami, or human-made, like military coups with much killing and major wars. Whereas the opposite, elite people in elite countries, can make news even when something positive happens, like the birth of a prince(ss). As a result, a systemic bias in the reporting about centre and periphery countries occurs that reinforces the structure and makes the world unprepared for something like BRICS. The structure of foreign news construction matters greatly. But how do we explain how it came about that way? The first two factors are simple: first, social class, both in the global structures and second, social class in the domestic structures, of top significance in the country often seen as the creator of journalism, foreign and at home. For the third factor, the focus is on personal action, maybe the subjectpredicate-object (SPO) structure of a correctly formulated Indo-European sentence. A corpse by the wayside is an important event, but unlikely to become news with only P and O; no “who done it,” no S. News is also syntax driven, not just event driven. For the fourth factor, negativism, maybe the place to look is at the classical Aristotelian theory of drama? News should be dramatic, that is, already in the idea of something new, not olds, not there at the last edition of readlisten-view media. A discontinuity. But drama, we are told, comes in two varieties, tragedy and comedy; a drama either has a tragic ending or is entertaining. In news, the two can come together in the notion of “infotainment” because the information is usually negative. A third category seems to be needed, maybe not only in media but also in literature: muddling through with ups and downs but with something acceptable in the end. Transcending, going beyond. News should vary with language structures and narratives that break the (false) tragedy–comedy dichotomy. In Japanese, less so in Chinese, a Prologue: Foreign Correspondence 50 Years Later xix PO sentence is complete, the subject is dispensable. “A shot killed him” or “There is an opinion” does not call for who fired, who holds that opinion. Structure, culture, and process come more easily. And positive news comes more easily. China Daily today reports projects to improve housing conditions for the underprivileged, that the economy will be smooth and stable in 2014, that high-speed trains are on the fast track with 12,000 kilometres—more than half of the world—and more yin/ yang news. Periphery India also figures with train news: ‘at least 26 killed in train fire’. And the New York Times? Politics and economics, domestic and global: all negative. But arts, sports, fashion in the United States, they all get positive coverage. All of this may correspond to facts or not, but the point is what events were reported. ‘Propaganda’, many would say about the Chinese reporting, truthfully or not; ‘they are hiding the shadowy sides’. Maybe. But maybe an overload of negativism is also propaganda, and in that case for what? To watch out, do not take anything for granted; the road looks smooth, but is a boulder waiting for you? But most negative news is about factors beyond ordinary people’s control, whereas positive news may affect them positively. The former may instil pessimism, the latter optimism. Violence is reported, often unnecessarily detailed. But there is little or no reporting about underlying conflicts, let alone about solutions, leading to feelings of apathy that nothing can be done. Solution reporting could lead to optimism and learning; it is as if violence is untouchable, to be protected, like war, as a state prerogative. Propaganda for state-ism of the worst kind. But such is the collective subconscious of Western media journalism that it is not easily changed except, maybe, by practicing the opposite, not substituting Pollyanna for Cassandra news, but a mix of the positive and negative, the good and bad, yin/yang, throwing in important olds with the news. In this very impressive study, a world record in the study of foreign correspondence in 27 European countries, some significant trends emerge. They are not about the collective subconscious, the deep culture of foreign news just explored, but about crucial factors affecting that culture. We may talk about reporting deep structure. As a point of departure: what kind of ideal reporting structure would we like to have, not necessarily visible to the naked eye, nor planned but present as an empirical fact? What would we like to know? What happens around the world, relevant to them and to us, in countries high and low, to people high and low, due to action, process, and permanence, adding the good-positive to the bad-negative. Degree of relevance is what matters, not those four criteria. For that we do not need foreign correspondents. We need a page or so in our paper, some time on radio-TV reporting the headlines around the world, giving us an image of what matters to them and, as importantly, of similarities and differences in the choices. Media referring to themselves as a global

Author Georgios Terzis Isbn 9780415719001 File size 1.2 MB Year 2014 Pages 363 Language English File format PDF Category Politics and Sociology Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare The book studies the current trends of foreign correspondence in Europe. The EU’s expansion has had abundant effects on news coverage and some of the European capitals have become home to the biggest international press corps in world. So, who are these “professional strangers” stationed in Europe and how do they try to make their stories, that are clearly important in today’s interconnected world, interesting for viewers and readers? This book represents the first Pan-European study of foreign correspondents and their reporting. It includes chapters from 27 countries, and it aims to study them and the direction, flow and pattern of their coverage, as well as answer questions regarding the impact of new technologies on the quantity, frequency and speed of their coverage. Do more sophisticated communications tools yield better international news coverage of Europe? Or does the audience’s increasing apathy and the downsizing of the foreign bureaus offset these advances? And how do the seemingly unstoppable media trends of convergence, commercialization, concentration, and globalization affect the way Europe and individual European countries are reported?     Download (1.2 MB) Eu Foreign Investment Law The Emergence Of Eu Contract Law: Exploring Europeanization European Identity: What The Media Say (intune Series) The Future Of Europe: Towards A Two-speed Eu? Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies 2008-2009 Load more posts

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