Language in the Visual Arts: The Interplay of Text and Imagery by Leslie Ross

1059b628d852509-261x361.jpg Author Leslie Ross
Isbn 9780786467952
File size 8.48MB
Year 2014
Pages 240
Language English
File format PDF
Category art


Language in the Visual Arts This page intentionally left blank Language in the Visual Arts The Interplay of Text and Imagery LESLIE ROSS McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers Jefferson, North Carolina LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGUING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Ross, Leslie, 1956– Language in the visual arts : the interplay of text and imagery / Leslie Ross. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-7864-6795-2 (softcover : acid free paper) ISBN 978-1-4766-1625-4 (ebook) 1. Writing and art. 2. Words in art. N72.W75R66 2014 701'.08—dc23 ♾ I. Title. 2014008165 BRITISH LIBRARY CATALOGUING DATA ARE AVAILABLE © 2014 Leslie Ross. All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Front cover image: The Hours of Jean Lallement, ca. 1524 (courtesy Walters Art Museum) Printed in the United States of America McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers Box 611, Jefferson, North Carolina 28640 Dedicated to my parents This page intentionally left blank Table of Contents Preface and Acknowledgments 1 Introduction. Visual Wordplay: A Thousand Words 5 ONE. Pictures in Words/Words in Pictures: Working Together 15 T WO. Word/Picture Puzzles 43 THREE. Picture/Word Puzzles 68 Between pages 92 and 93 is an 8-page color insert FOUR. Words as Images 93 FIVE. The Power of the Word 122 SIX. Monumental and Moving Words 151 Conclusion. The Bottom Line 177 Chapter Notes 185 Bibliography 205 Index 223 vii This page intentionally left blank Preface and Acknowledgments This book has been a long time in the making—I might be embarrassed to admit how long—although I hasten to add that I have happily pursued and completed a number of academic publishing and other creative projects during the several years since I first began to visualize this current text. Hopefully, the aging and maturing process has affected this work positively and this present volume represents a much finer version of the study I initially began some years ago. This study concerns text/image relationships in the history of art, admittedly an extremely wide-ranging topic but an extremely logical outgrowth of my longdeveloped and specialized interests in medieval art and manuscript illumination in particular, my long-standing interests in modern and contemporary art, and my great enthusiasm for all the many areas of art history that I have been privileged to teach and write about during my several decades as a faculty member at Dominican University of California. Far from shying away from any fields strictly “outside my academic specialty,” I feel that I have been very lucky indeed to have been able to develop course materials at Dominican that, in addition to those many courses involving traditional and necessary coverage of specific time periods or geographic ranges, have also included courses that represent materials and themes from wider, cross-cultural, and deliberately interdisciplinary perspectives. Without this background and enthusiastic openness to the larger world of art history and the humanities, I doubt very much that I would ever have visualized, let alone undertaken, this study. There is certainly no rule, after all, that dictates that a scholar of medieval illustrated hagiographic manuscripts cannot also delve enthusiastically and quite profitably into the realms of modern and postmodern languagebased art; indeed, there are many connections to be made and similarities and differences to be noted—much “more than meets the eye”—in all the periods in which artists have combined written texts and visual imagery, or have used words in art and words as forms of visual art. From ancient times to the contemporary period, text/image combinations have been creatively pursued and explored in many ways by visual artists and writers. This study is designed to highlight not only the diverse but also the similar ways in which text/image relationships have long served as fodder for creative explorations. 1 Preface and Acknowledgments There are many dangers to be easily and more than well anticipated in such a wide-ranging and thematically-based study as this present book. As stated also in the introduction to this text, my goals and intentions from the very beginning have never been to provide any sort of comprehensive survey of text/image relationships throughout the history of art, but rather to gather together and describe highly selected examples, arranged around specific themes, which represent particular forms or genres of word/picture combinations. Naturally, scholarly specialists in any of the many areas that I delve into in this book may find my coverage less than appropriately detailed. I am more than well aware of the many very significant gaps in this book. There are so many more artworks, artists, and examples that could well have been included that I simply do not mention at all, as well as so many other examples of highly fascinating text/image relationships that could or doubtless should have been afforded coverage or more detailed mention here. I offer my sincere apologies for these most egregious lacunae. Hopefully, the notes and extensive bibliographic references will serve as at least partial mitigation for these gaps in coverage in the text itself. In spite of these obvious and highly objectionable gaps in coverage, I trust and hope that among the many examples that are included in the study at least some colleagues will find some of this material eye-opening and “new” (or newly encountered) as well. During the several years that I have worked on this study, so many people have assisted and supported me in various capacities that the task of appropriately acknowledging them all is really a quite daunting challenge in itself. I have greatly appreciated my lengthy communications with and assistance from Robbi Siegel of Art Resource in New York, from which source I obtained many of the images included in this book. I thank her so much as well for her patient guidance in assisting me through the often highly complex navigations and negotiations involved with image-sourcing and permissions. I have also benefited greatly from my contacts with many other helpful people such as the staff members at ARS, VAGA, and the Bridgeman Art Library, as well as Sue Palmer at Sir John Soane’s Museum in London, whom I first met many years ago, Ruth Bowler at the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, and the staffs of the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, the British Library in London, the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York, the New York Public Library, and the Bodleian Library in Oxford for graciously facilitating several of my image requests. I sincerely thank Valeska Soares for allowing me to include an image of her work; Dr. Mamoun Sakkal for sending me an image of his work; Wanda Hansen for sending me digital images of William T. Wiley’s work; John Baldessari’s studio for allowing me to reproduce one of his works; Xu Bing’s studio for sending me excellent copies of the images I requested; Shelley Lee (the estate of Roy Lichtenstein) for her generous assistance; the studio of Claes Oldenburg and Cossje van Bruggen in New York for providing me with a wonderful image; the archivist at Regen Projects in Los Angeles for facilitating my 2 Preface and Acknowledgments requests for images from Glenn Ligon and Jack Pierson; Martha Rosler for granting me permission to reproduce one of her works after a highly fruitful and engaging discussion; the Gladstone Gallery in New York for the image by Shirin Neshat; Mary Boone Gallery in New York for the image by Barbara Kruger; the White Cube Gallery in London for the image by Gilbert & George; and the Gagosian Gallery in New York for Ed Ruscha’s images included here. I am deeply indebted as well to many others who have read, offered comments upon, and assisted me in various ways with this study. I have discussed portions of this text with several academic colleagues, including Dr. John Lowden of the Courtauld Institute in London whose comments, years ago, upon “shaped texts” in medieval Byzantine manuscripts were most helpful. Dr. Ilana Tahan of the British Library in London also took much enthusiastic care, some years back, in allowing me access to rare Hebrew manuscripts with micrographic writing and in discussing my research interests. The staff members at the Fisher Landau center in New York gladly offered me an appointment to view the collection a few years ago; many thanks to Dr. Peter Williams for facilitating this appointment. I owe great thanks to Dr. Marvin Sackner, too, for more recently assisting me with some image-obtaining details from his remarkable collection (The Sackner Archive of Concrete and Visual Poetry). I have also been so delighted with the research assistance offered by graduate students at Dominican University of California, including Victoria Sheridan, Robin Pryor, Karen McGuinn, Barbara Luttig-Haber, and most recently, Anne Tignanelli and Andrea Triolo—for proofreading and diligent assistance with photo-sourcing. I also want to convey my deep appreciation for my many students, undergraduate and graduate, who have taken my course “Language in the Visual Arts” at Dominican University of California during the past several years. Many of these students have found the course materials quite inspirational, resulting in several BA and MA theses of which I am very proud (as are their authors, and deservedly so). This book has indeed been a long time in the making, and I also want to thank many other friends who have so patiently listened to me over the years, who have offered their support and good wishes throughout this project, who have listened diligently to my accounts of book-work, and who have expressed their support. Most of all, I want to thank my dear parents—to whom I dedicate this book. 3 This page intentionally left blank INTRODUCTION Visual Wordplay: A Thousand Words “A picture,” according to the old saying, “is worth a thousand words.” “Show me a picture,” people say, when they want clear information and easy-to-understand directions. These sayings indicate that written language and visual imagery are generally understood to be two quite separate and distinct, albeit closely related, genres of human communication. The activities of writing and reading written words are different from the activities and processes involved with the creation and viewing of pictorial images. Reading texts and viewing images require different sets of skills and indeed involve different functions of the human brain.1 Before the advent and development of alphabetic writing systems, the earliest examples of human communication systems appear in pictorial forms. These largely consist of relatively simple graphic indications of common and recognizable natural phenomena such as plants, animals, human beings, the sun, moon, stars, and so forth. Written language might thus be said to ultimately derive from pictures.2 The necessity and desire to communicate increasingly more complex information gradually resulted in the development of various forms of nonpictographic writing systems that employ agreed-upon markings to indicate phonetic sounds. Alphabetic writing systems in particular use specific symbols/letters to represent the sounds of spoken languages. One must be conversant with the spoken language in order to interpret the written symbols. This requires training, a knowledge of the alphabet system used, and an ability to translate the symbols into words (whether spoken aloud or heard internally). Similarly, while the ability to recognize and identify pictorial imagery is also culturally conditioned and requires visual training as well, even so, a single visual representation of a person, or an animal, or a common object may suffice and substitute for many different vocabulary words in a variety of spoken and written languages. In that sense, images are often seen as having a greater impact, immediacy, and legibility for a wider audience than written words. Pictures may thus be “worth” many words indeed. Although the written and pictorial modes of human communication are distinctly different and function well independently of each other, this book is concerned with what happens when the two modes are directly and deliberately combined, 5 Introduction when actual written texts appear in visual imagery, or when visual imagery actually consists of written words. This book is not about written descriptions of works of art, artworks that are based on textual sources, or artworks that evoke literary themes, but rather with works of visual art that include or consist of written language. From the inscriptions liberally strewn in Renaissance paintings; to the words flowing through, around, and out of medieval art; to contemporary language-based art, written language in the guise of captions, inscriptions, declarations, signatures, indications of spoken dialogue, and so forth appear in the pictorial arts throughout history and in diverse cultures. The vast range of possibilities for word/picture combinations in the visual arts inspires and at the same time challenges strict categorization. The materials included in this book are, however, arranged in loose thematic groupings. Allowing for overlaps and fully admitting the possibilities of multiple intentions and variable “readings,” the categories proposed here are designed not so much to create boundaries or limitations but rather to stimulate appreciation for the diversity of word/picture combinations as they appear in the art forms of many historical and contemporary cultures. By no means does this book propose or intend to be a complete catalogue of examples. Such a task would not only be herculean in scope but would run the grave risk of attempting to condense (and thus dangerously oversimplify) a vast amount of previous and excellent scholarship by professional specialists in a great number of fields. Casting out a wide but by no means comprehensive net into this fascinating territory, one can see that throughout history written words have been combined with visual imagery in forms which range from the explanatory to the enigmatic, from the constructive to the contradictory, from the iconic to the irreverent, and even from the zealous to the zany. The thematic rather than strictly chronological organization of the materials in the following chapters is also designed to point out how the many various forms of word/picture combinations really cannot be placed in a linear, sequential development for “easy reading.” In fact, word/picture combinations developed in the ancient world and medieval period often bear remarkable similarities to later and present day examples. Although the creation and reception of texts and images differs vastly from the pre–Gutenberg medieval era to postmodern cyberspace communications, general types and formats of word/picture combinations are repeated through the centuries, not so much in an evolutionary progression but in a consistent exploration of related forms. The comparison and grouping of these similar formats cuts across the centuries and the different cultures considered in the book, emphasizing shared modes and purposes. A great deal of excellent scholarship has already been devoted to the development of appropriate descriptive terminology for the categorization of word/picture relationships in the history of art. Ranging from general studies to highly focused 6 Visual Wordplay concentrations in specialized areas, much of this scholarship has involved the development of classification systems—categories into which the many divergent forms of word/picture relationships may be placed. Some of these scholarly classification systems are highly detailed. For example, Dario Covi’s masterful and extremely useful studies cataloguing inscriptions in fifteenth-century Florentine painting detail several major categories or formats in which written words can be found in Renaissance painting.3 Covi’s classification categories include: artists’ signatures, titles, explanatory texts that aid in the identification of figures or subjects, and invocations, speeches, and exegetic inscriptions that aid in conveying the significance of the work of art or contribute to its interpretation. Within each of these larger categories, Covi also listed numerous subcategories. For example, inscriptions generally representing “speech” in paintings may be further subclassified into indications of dialogue taking place between the figures who are represented in the painting, or indications of speeches, declarations, or exhortations addressed to the viewer of the painting by a person or persons represented in the painting. Some inscriptions in paintings, again using Covi’s categories, serve to enhance the realistic appearance of an object or scene depicted the work. Such is the case, for example, when an inscription is placed on an object represented in the painting and the writing appears to be integral to the object depicted rather than “floating” on the picture’s surface. Other inscriptions do appear to “float” on the surface of the picture; these types of inscriptions (often names, titles, captions, labels, signatures, and speeches) serve primarily to contribute information about the painting but are not necessarily designed as elements that contribute to any sense of pictorial realism. This distinction between “internal” and “imposed” inscriptions formed the partial basis for the categorization systems developed by John Sparrow in his 1969 study, Visible Words.4 Concentrating primarily on Renaissance and Baroque art, Sparrow defined “internal” inscriptions as those that appear to be integral to the scene and that can be read as elements of realism. “Imposed” inscriptions, in contrast, do not appear to be integral to the scene. They may provide useful information, but they may also be perceived as “alien and intrusive” elements.5 Acknowledging, however, that the distinction between “internal” and “imposed” inscriptions “must not be pressed too hard,”6 Sparrow further categorized inscriptions into two additional types: “labels” and “messages.” “Labels” provide basic descriptive information (such as names, titles, and dates), whereas “messages” suggest deeper or more sophisticated meanings or references conveyed by the artist to the spectator. The information contained in “labels” is of a purely descriptive nature, whereas “message”-type inscriptions (such as quotes from scripture in religious works) provide added dimensions and deeper significance. Both “labels” and “messages,” can, of course, appear as either “internal” or “imposed” elements in works of art. Yet another categorization system for defining inscriptions in paintings was pro7 Introduction posed by Mieczyslaw Wallis in 1973.7 Describing all inscriptions in paintings as “semantic enclaves,”8 Wallis identified four major formats/functions of inscriptions in paintings, plus several subcategories within these larger distinctions. Initially beginning his analysis with medieval art, Wallis’s categories include (1) inscriptions that convey information (such as labels of names that identify figures or scenes); (2) inscriptions that indicate speech or dialogue (either between the figures in the painting, or statements addressed to the viewer from figures represented in the painting); (3) invocations (prayers addressed by spectators to holy figures in the painting); and (4) artist’s statements “not connected with the subject matter of the painting”9 (such as signatures). Using these fundamental four categories, Wallis expanded his discussion from medieval to twentieth century painting. He noted the decline, for example, of speech-type inscriptions in Renaissance and post–Renaissance art, and the apparent rise in popularity of undecipherable “pseudo-inscriptions” in twentieth-century art. Wallis’s discussion also touched briefly on the use of inscriptions in Chinese painting and in ancient Egyptian art. He concluded that “in various epochs and in various culture areas, semantic enclaves in the form of inscriptions in paintings performed different functions of varying importance for the interpretation and response to the work of art.”10 Apart from these general studies, much additional scholarship has been devoted to the study of particular types of inscriptions, such as artists’ signatures11; the form and placement of signatures by specific artists12; and the categorization of inscriptions and signatures found on specific media such as ancient Greek pottery, Roman mosaics and wall paintings,13 and Flemish Renaissance period tapestries14 and manuscripts.15 An interest in creating classification systems characterizes much of this focused scholarship as well. Artist’s signatures on paintings, for example, may be classified as being on the margin or frame of the pictorial space (separated), included in the pictorial space but not integrated in the composition (floating), or included in the pictorial space as an integral/realistic element (integrated).16 Painted or incised inscriptions on Greek pottery have been usefully classified into several different types as well: caption (names of figures represented and indications of speech), signatures (of potters and painters), mottoes, dedications, and owner’s names.17 The development of classification systems for describing text/image relationships has also proven extremely attractive to and useful for scholars of modern art. For example, the Word as Image exhibition held at the Milwaukee Art Museum in 1990 gathered together a vast number of works created by American artists between 1960 and 1990, all of whom featured or included words in some forms.18 The exhibition and accompanying catalogue impressively divided these divergent works, in many different media, into five major categories: (1) Words from the Environment (works that include signs, logos, and recognizable representations or fragments of everyday or popular culture); (2) Words as Sign and Structure (works that investigate the relationship of written and visual language systems and symbols); (3) Words as Juxta8 Visual Wordplay position and Association (works that evoke multiple associations and fluid readings); (4) Words as Narrative (works that include written language with a storytelling emphasis); and (5) Words as Socio-Political Commentary (works that use written language to challenge, criticize, or otherwise comment directly on current social or political issues). The skillful, prescient, and thought-provoking classification system developed for the Word as Image exhibition functions very well indeed for the diversity of materials and messages conveyed by later twentieth-century and contemporary artists who include written language in their works. Similarly, Dario Covi’s painstaking categorization of inscriptions in fifteenth-century Florentine paintings is impressively appropriate for the materials with which he was concerned. One would not find Covi’s categories as useful and applicable to twentieth-century art, nor were they, of course, ever intended to be applied to modern art. Most recently, John Dixon Hunt has proposed another impressive categorization system, describing four broad categories into which text/image relationships may be placed: explicitly, implicitly, additively, and collaboratively.19 Examples of explicitly related words and images are those where pictures and writing appear in the same visual field. Implicit relationships are those in which the visual images invoke or depend upon written sources but do not include any actual text. Additive (or supplementary) relationships are those in which, for example, titles or other explanatory information or commentary are placed near to or even on the artwork. Finally, collaborative relationships involve cases where the texts and images depend so closely upon each other that meaning is lost with the removal of either written or pictorial elements. However, a common dilemma facing all developers of systems to categorize text/image relationships is the fact that these can ultimately be rather “evanescent” distinctions, as John Sparrow noted.20 The authors of the Word as Image exhibition catalogue were faced on many occasions with works of art that could have been placed into several of their different “frequently overlapping, but clearly definable categories of intent.”21 Scholars who have attempted to use previously developed category systems to approach different media and periods in the history of art have been frequently frustrated by the inapplicability if not irrelevance of many of the terms. For example, there is no “accepted pictorial vocabulary” for describing the appearance of the text scrolls that appear so frequently in medieval art, wrote Alison Flett.22 In her impressive analysis of the functions and significance of text scrolls in several late medieval manuscripts, Flett found the classification systems of both Wallis and Sparrow to be useful to only a limited extent. Text scrolls can function as “labels” and as “messages” simultaneously, she demonstrated, and the “often multiple and overlapping functions of text and image in text scrolls” can place them into more than one or two categories at the same time.23 It is abundantly clear that word/picture relationships provide endless fascination 9 Introduction and virtually endless possibilities for analysis. This present book is designed to offer a contribution to this extremely rich topic by approaching the material thematically in a series of chapters that investigate the various ways in which words in artworks may function. Chapter One, “Pictures in Words/Words in Pictures: Working Together,” concentrates upon word/picture combinations in which texts and images are coordinated in mutually elucidating manners and in which written language and visual imagery are utilized in conjunction with one another to clarify or contribute information. The first section of this chapter, “Pictures in Words,” introduces a discussion of medieval manuscripts which display extremely creative and uniquely close associations between words and images. In the illustration and decoration of medieval manuscripts, words may be constructed of pictures, pictures may include words, letters may function as pictures, and pictures may be created of words. Especially in their apt coordination of letters and images, “historiated” initials in medieval manuscripts function both as text elements and as fields or containers for illustrations relevant to the text. They maintain their textual function as letters while also providing fields for visual imagery illustrating the text. The second section of this chapter, “Words in Pictures in Words,” offers a short discussion of labels and “speech scrolls” (indications of spoken dialogue) as found in medieval manuscripts, especially in connection with the illustrated letter form. In these cases, additional texts are included within enlarged letters that themselves also contain illustrated scenes. These added texts are designed to contribute more information about the images, whether in the form of identifying labels or speeches made by the figures illustrated. The final sections of this chapter, “Words in Pictures” and “Talking Art,” further concentrate on complementary text/image combinations from a diversity of periods when written texts are added to works of art primarily to contribute to the viewer/reader understanding of the visual images. These artful combinations of words and pictures may indeed “speak” to the audience directly and provide clear directions as to the subject matter and the meaning of the work of art. Contrasting with these relatively straightforward word/image combinations, Chapter Two: “Word/Picture Puzzles,” considers examples where texts and pictures create puzzles, challenges, and perhaps even offer counter-messages for the audience. In these cases, viewers must engage in a process of careful decipherment to extract the less-than-immediately-obvious layers of meaning in these textual and visual combinations. The first section of this chapter, “Mixed Messages,” concentrates on the pictorial device known as the cartellino, a little fictive piece of paper that usually bears artists’ signatures, dates, and other textual information, frequently found in Renaissance and later paintings. Cartellini can appear to be both on and in paintings. They challenge the viewer’s perception of the spatial relationships between their inscribed texts and the pictorial images they accompany. The second section of this chapter, “Hidden Texts,” focuses on the snippets of texts found in the works of the 10 Visual Wordplay nineteenth century American trompe l’oeil masters, such as Harnett, Peto, and Haberle, whose images often include illusionistic depictions of paper ephemera in various states of legibility. Although painstakingly rendered, the impression of clarity is frequently belied by the fragmentary nature of the texts displayed. Worn and torn labels, and folded and overlapping letters, business cards, and other scraps of paper create a sense of partially hidden information, or partially obscured clues as to the meanings of these works. This section also discusses the use of fragmentary texts in Cubist and later collage works and the manipulation of painted words and word fragments in the works of artists such as Stuart Davis. The word-laden paintings by Stuart Davis are often filled with optical puns and fragments of texts and frequently have clever alliterative titles. An understanding of Davis’s own theories about art and language as well as his interest in creating “Word-Shapes” are critical to the decipherment of these pieces. The second part of this chapter additionally considers examples of the creation of images superimposed on grids or patterns containing words. This form was popular in late antiquity and later notably employed by the ninth-century monastic author, Hrabanus Maurus. His intertextual image-poems are stunning correlations of verbal and visual information. The base texts retain their legibility while images and intertexts are woven through the compositions. Viewers/readers of these pieces engage in a process of discovery through increasingly deeper levels of understanding, gradually unearthing the hidden texts contained in these ingenious word/picture puzzles. The third chapter, “Picture/Word Puzzles,” contains two sections: “Crossed Purposes” and “Enigmas.” The first section focuses on the intellectual and visual challenges posed by the language-art contradictions of twentieth-century artists such as René Magritte. Magritte’s remarkable series of word pictures explores the ambiguous nature of written language and pictorial imagery, challenging the viewer with paradoxical combinations of images and written accompaniments, names, or labels. The disruption of traditional meanings and the vagueness and ambiguity of written and pictorial symbol systems are prevalent themes in his highly influential work. The second section of this chapter begins with an exploration of the intriguing displays of cryptic and enigmatic letters and phrases in some late medieval manuscripts. Scattered or geometrically configured letters appear in the margins of several late medieval prayer books and the exact symbolism and meanings of many of these have yet to be fully understood. These mysterious letter combinations may be secret codes or formulae. They remain absolutely fascinating and thought-provoking word/picture enigmas. This section also explores the artistic creation of “pseudoscripts”—forms that either attempt, with varying degrees of fidelity, to emulate foreign or ancient writing systems, or, forms that represent wholly invented artistic constructions. From the “pseudo-Arabic” writing commonly found in medieval and Renaissance art to the 11

Author Leslie Ross Isbn 9780786467952 File size 8.48MB Year 2014 Pages 240 Language English File format PDF Category Art Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare This book discusses text and image relationships in the history of art from ancient times to the contemporary period across a diversity of cultures and geographic areas. Focusing on the use of words in art and words as art forms, thematic chapters include “Pictures in Words/Words in Pictures,” “Word/Picture Puzzles,” “Picture/Word Puzzles,” “Words as Images,” “The Power of the Word,” and “Monumental and Moving Words.” Chapter subsections further explore cross-cultural themes. Examining text and image relationships from the obvious to the elusive, the puzzling to the profound, the minor to the major, the book demonstrates the diverse ways in which images and writing have been combined through the ages, and explores the interplay between visual and written communication in a wide range of thought-provoking examples. A color insert is included.     Download (8.48MB) Picture as Spectre in Diderot, Proust, and Deleuze Federico Fellini: Painting in Film, Painting on Film Guattari Reframed: Interpreting Key Thinkers For The Arts Imprints of Revolution: Visual Representations of Resistance Virilio And Visual Culture Load more posts

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