Knots and Splices, 2nd edition by Colin Jarman


87583856ba3176b-261x361.jpg Author Colin Jarman
Isbn 9780713677485
File size 3MB
Year 2012
Pages 64
Language English
File format PDF
Category sport



 

KNOTS & SPLICES BK5.0 1/21/06 11:02 Page 1 CYRUS L DAY knots & splices SECOND EDITION REVISED AND PHOTOGRAPHED BY COLIN JARMAN ADLARD COLES NAUTICAL LONDON Published by Adlard Coles Nautical an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc 50 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3DP www.adlardcoles.com Copyright first edition © Cyrus L Day 1953 Copyright second edition © Cyrus L Day and Colin Jarman 2006 Copyright second edition photos © Colin Jarman 2006 First published 1953 Reprinted 1954, 1957, 1960, 1962, 1970, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1985, 1987, 1988, 1991, 1996, 1998 Revised 2001 Reprinted 2004 Second edition 2006 Reprinted 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011 and 2012 Print ISBN 978-0-7136-7748-5 e-pub ISBN: 978-1-4081-5625-4 e-PDF ISBN: 978-1-4081-4629-3 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means – graphic, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping or information storage and retrieval systems – without the prior permission in writing of the publishers. A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Note: while all reasonable care has been taken in the publication of this book, the publisher takes no responsibility for the use of the methods or products described in the book. All ropes’ ends shown in this book are finished with tape rather than a whipping in order to make them clearly visible within the pictures and to help readers follow the patterns of the knots. KNOTS & SPLICES BK5.0 1/21/06 11:02 Page 3 CONTENTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Foreword to the 2nd Edition Glossary 4 5 Basic knots Bends Loops Hitches and similar knots Belaying or cleating Whipping Seizing End or stopper knots Turk’s Head To weight a heaving line A selection of useful knots Splicing 8 10 17 26 37 38 40 43 46 48 49 58 Index 64 KNOTS & SPLICES BK5.0 1/21/06 11:02 Page 4 FOREWORD TO THE 2ND EDITION Knots & Splices has been in print for over 50 years, which must stand as quite a record for a book of this type. A copy was given to me as a Christmas present around 1957 and it sparked an interest in knots and rope work that has lasted to this day. The knots and splices I learned from Cyrus Day have stood me in good stead over a lifetime of boating, and it was with huge excitement that I took on the project of updating this book for the 21st century. I hope that he would have approved of what I’ve done to his book; I hope it will inspire others as his did me and that it will continue in print for another 50 years! Colin Jarman DEDICATION To Cyrus L Day who awoke my interest in knots and ropework. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author would like to thank Bainbridge International for supplying Robline Rope to use in the photographs. NOTE All ropes’ ends shown in this book are finished with tape rather than a whipping in order to make them clearly visible within the pictures and help readers to follow the pattern of the knots. KNOTS & SPLICES BK5.0 1/21/06 11:02 Page 5 GLOSSARY BELAY To make a line fast on a cleat, pin, pair of bitts or the like. BEND (Noun) A knot used to tie the ends of two free lines together. (Verb) To make fast or to tie, as in ‘to bend two lines together’. BIGHT (1) The middle of a line, (2) a loop or curve in a line. BITT A vertical timber or metal post set in the deck for securing hawsers and other lines. BLOCK A roller or sheave that rotates on a pin or ball race held between two metal or plastic cheeks. The sheave either spins on a simple pin (like a wheel on an axle) or on a set of ball bearings (known as a ball race) around a pin. CLEAT (Noun) A shaped piece of wood, metal or plastic with two arms or horns on which to belay a line. (Verb) To belay a line to a cleat. HAWSER A heavy rope used for towing. HEAT SEAL To heat the ends of synthetic rope by means of a heated cutter or naked flame to melt and fuse the strands to prevent fraying. HITCH A knot used to secure a line to a spar, ring, post or the like. KNOT In general, (1) any fastening, including bends and hitches, made by interweaving cordage. Specifically, (2) a method of joining the ends of a single line together or of forming (3) a noose, (4) a fixed loop or (5) a stopper in the end of a rope. 5 KNOTS & SPLICES BK5.0 1/21/06 11:02 Page 6 LAY (Noun) The direction in which the strands of a rope are twisted or plaited together. (Verb) To twist the strands of a rope together. (To unlay is to separate the strands.) LINE A rope used for a particular purpose. MARL To bind or secure with a series of Marling Hitches (see page 56). MARLINE SPIKE A pointed implement for opening the lay of a rope when splicing. MOORING WARP A line specifically for securing vessels to a quay, dock, pontoon or slip. NOOSE A knot with a loop that slides and tightens under load. RATLINES Horizontal lines fastened between shrouds to form a ladder by which to climb aloft. REEF POINTS Lengths of rope fixed in a sail at regular intervals along a reef band and used in reefing (shortening sail). RIDING TURN Commonly, when one turn of a sheet rides over another on the barrel of the sheet winch and jams. RODE Anchor cable. May be chain or chain and rope. ROPE Cordage of more than 5-6mm diameter. It may be laid up as a three-strand twist, plaited as a multiplait of eight strands, formed with a laid or braided core inside a braided sheath and several other structures. SEIZING A lashing for holding two spars, two ropes or two parts of the same rope tightly together. SERVE To bind, much like seizing, but around a single rope. SHEAVE The grooved roller in a block. 6 KNOTS & SPLICES BK5.0 SHEET 1/21/06 11:02 Page 7 A rope used to control the angle of the sail to the wind. SLING A strop or loop for hoisting and lowering a person or a load. STANDING PART The main part of a rope or line, as distinct from a bight, a loop or an end. STOP To lash or seize temporarily using light line or cord. STOPPER KNOT A knot to prevent a rope or line from running out through an eye or a block. STRAND A bundle of fibres or yarns from which a rope is made. STROP A sling or loop for raising and lowering objects. THIMBLE A grooved piece of metal or plastic, generally pear shaped, round which a rope eye may be spliced. TWINE Thin cord or line often used for whippings or seizings. UNLAY Separate the strands of a rope. WHIPPING A binding on the end of a rope to prevent it fraying. WORKING END The end of a rope or line with which a knot is tied. 7 KNOTS & SPLICES BK5.0 1/21/06 11:02 Page 8 1 BASIC KNOTS 1 3 2 4 1 OVERHAND KNOT 3 SLIPPED HALF HITCH The Overhand Knot or Thumb Knot is the simplest of all knots. It’s widely used and forms an integral part of many other knots, including 2, 5, 26, 27, 29 and 45 as examples. The Overhand Knot can be used as a temporary stopper knot (see Glossary) in the end of a line and is often tied in the end of string, twine and other small stuff to prevent the end unlaying and fraying. Such use is, however, considered unseamanlike. (See 50 and 51 for alternatives.) The Slipped Half Hitch provides a quick-release facility where otherwise the ordinary half hitch would be used. ‘Slipping’ a knot in this way must be used with care to maintain the security of the knot, but is valuable. (See examples such as 7 and 8). 2 HALF HITCH The Half Hitch is rarely used on its own, but forms a basic component in many knots, including 30, 34, 39 and 40. 8 4 FIGURE OF EIGHT KNOT The Figure of Eight Knot is a better stopper knot than 1, because it is bulkier and remains much easier to undo. It is the seaman’s choice for a stopper knot. KNOTS & SPLICES BK5.0 1/21/06 11:02 Page 9 5 7 6 8 5 REEF KNOT 6 GRANNY KNOT The Reef Knot or Square Knot can be tied when there is tension on both parts. It is used to enclose or bind something – for example a bundle of sticks or a section of the sail when reefing. (Its first name comes from its use in reefing a sail; its second from its symmetrical shape.) The knot can slip if the two parts are of different dimensions or materials and can spill if one end is tugged sharply, especially if used with shiny, synthetic rope. For these reasons it should not be used as a bend to join two lines. The knot consists of two Overhand Knots (1) tied on top of each other with the second formed in the opposite direction to the first. This results in the ends lying neatly alongside the standing parts. Follow the pattern: left over right and tuck under, right over left and tuck under. The Granny Knot or Lubber’s Knot will either slip undone or jam tight. It should never be used and is recognized by the ends standing out rather than lying beside the standing parts. 7 SLIPPED REEF KNOT The Slipped Reef Knot or Draw Knot is just a Reef Knot (5) with one working end formed into a loop through the centre of the knot. It has the advantage of being easy to untie. 8 DOUBLE SLIPPED REEF KNOT The Double Slipped Reef Knot or Bow Knot is most commonly used for tying shoe laces, but is equally good for sail ties. The form is ‘square’ in the same way as a Reef Knot and it is easily undone by pulling on the ends. 9 KNOTS & SPLICES BK5.0 1/21/06 11:03 Page 10 2 BENDS 9a 9 SHEET BEND A B 9b D A B The Sheet Bend or Weaver’s Knot offers a quick and easy way to join two ropes together, and is particularly useful if the ropes are of differing sizes. It holds well in most ropes, but may be doubled (see 11) in particularly slippery ones. To form the sheet bend, cross end A over B (9a) then bring A down behind B and up again in one twisting movement to form a loop (C) in rope B, with A coming up through it (9b). Now pass end A behind the standing part (D) of rope B and tuck it down through loop C parallel to its own standing part (E) (9c). Work the knot tight and it should look as in 9d (front view) and 9e (back view). If the two lines being joined are of different diameters, make sure that the larger rope is rope B, so that most of the weaving is done by the thinner, more easily worked line A. C 9c 9d A C B 10 E 9e KNOTS & SPLICES BK5.0 1/21/06 11:03 Page 11 9f 9g B A Weavers produce the same knot by a rather different method. They cross A over B (9f) then pass a bight of B around its own working end (9g). They then pass end A up across the standing part of B (follow the arrow in 9g) and down through the loop in B (9h). The knot is then settled down and is just like that in 9d and 9e. It may be slightly confusing that although both the Reef Knot and the Sheet Bend are used to tie the ends of rope together, one is called a knot and the other a bend. The distinction is probably due to the different functions performed by them. Mariners use the Sheet Bend to ‘bend’ one free line onto another free line, while they B A 9h use the Reef Knot to ‘tie’ or ‘knot’ the two free ends of a single line round a bundle or some other object. Certainly the Reef Knot should never be used in place of a Sheet Bend. 11 KNOTS & SPLICES BK5.0 1/21/06 11:03 Page 12 10 12 11 13 10 LEFT-HANDED SHEET BEND 12 BECKET BEND It is possible for the Left-Handed Sheet Bend, in which the ends are on opposite sides to each other, to slip and so for that reason it is best avoided. The Becket Bend is exactly the same as a Sheet Bend (9), but is so named when one rope has an eye (becket) formed in its end. Like the Sheet Bend, the Becket Bend can be doubled for security (11). 11 DOUBLE SHEET BEND The Double Sheet Bend incorporates an extra binding turn and is generally stronger than the single form (9). It is particularly useful when bending a line to one of significantly larger diameter or one that is very stiff. 12 13 HEAVING LINE BEND The Heaving Line Bend is used to attach a light heaving line to a heavier hawser or mooring warp that cannot easily be thrown ashore by itself. The heaving line is sent ashore and used to pull the hawser across, attached by the Heaving Line Bend. KNOTS & SPLICES BK5.0 1/21/06 14a 11:03 Page 13 14b 14 CARRICK BEND The Carrick Bend is strong, secure and pleasing to form with its regular, symmetrically woven pattern. It normally remains quite easy to pick apart after use. When forming the bend, be sure to follow the regular over-and-under weaving pattern to end up with lines emerging opposite each other from all four corners (14a). Once formed, work the bend up tight and as it is settled it will capsize and form into a compact square with two clear loops 15 BOWLINE BEND (14b) that can later be prised apart (with a marline spike if necessary) to loosen and untie it. This characteristic of being easily undone makes the Carrick Bend particularly useful. The Carrick Bend can also be used to form a practical door mat. With the bend laid out flat (14a), the parts are doubled or tripled and the ends cut off and tucked in securely. Do not tighten the bend so far that it capsizes, but leave it as a flat pattern. 15 The Bowline Bend is a simple and extremely useful way of joining two lines of similar or dissimilar diameter. It takes up a fair bit of rope and remains quite bulky, but it’s secure, easily untied and reliable. It consists of two interlinking Bowlines (20) and is made even more secure if the ends are either secured to the loop with a seizing or with a Half Hitch (2). 13 KNOTS & SPLICES BK5.0 1/21/06 16 STRAP KNOT 11:03 Page 14 16 The Strap Knot is designed for joining either leather straps or flat webbing ones such as those used for strapping dinghies onto trailers. It’s not a knot to be used in rope as it will either jam or slip undone as soon as your back is turned. 17 WATER KNOT The Water Knot or Tape Knot is also referred to as a Doubled Overhand Knot, because it is formed by first tying an Overhand Knot (1) as in 17a and then weaving the second line or tape back through to double the knot in the opposite direction (17b-17d). The knot holds well in slippery synthetics and is used widely by climbers for joining webbing tapes. 17a 17b 17c 17d 14 KNOTS & SPLICES BK5.0 1/21/06 11:03 Page 15 18a 18b 18c 18d 18 HUNTER’S BEND The Hunter’s Bend, once known as the Rigger’s Bend, is another good knot to use when joining slippery ropes together. The ends are laid together in opposite directions and twisted to form two loops as in 18a. One end is then brought forward and tucked back through the loop (18b) before the other is taken back and brought up through the loop (18c). The whole knot is then settled together and worked up tight (18d). 15 KNOTS & SPLICES BK5.0 1/21/06 11:03 Page 16 19a 19b 19c 19d 19 FIGURE OF EIGHT BEND The Figure of Eight Bend is made up of two Figures of Eight (4) woven together in opposite directions. Begin by forming a figure of eight in one rope and pass the working end of the 16 other rope up through the first loop (19a). Follow round the parts (19b and 19c) until the original figure of eight is doubled. Finish by settling the knot (19d). KNOTS & SPLICES BK5.0 1/21/06 11:03 Page 17 3 LOOPS 20a 20b C A 20c B 20 BOWLINE The Bowline (rhymes with ‘stolen’) is the most useful way to form a fixed loop in the end of a rope or line. It is simple, quickly tied, strong and secure, and rarely slips or jams, even under heavy loading. The knot is formed (20a) by making a small, anti-clockwise loop (B), then passing the working end (A) up through it and continuing in an anti-clockwise direction behind the standing part (C) and back down through the small loop (B) so that the end lies parallel to the side of the main loop (20b). Many people prefer to form the small initial loop with the working end poking up through it in one step.They do this by placing the end across on top of the standing part, holding the two together with their right hand, and twisting with the fingers going downwards and up through the large loop. It’s a knack, once learned, that allows the bowline to be tied with one hand. 20c shows a Left-Handed or German Bowline with the end on the outside of the main loop. This variant is no stronger than the normal Bowline, but can, in some circumstances, be a little more secure. It is most likely to be used when attaching sheets to the clew of a headsail. The argument in its favour is that when the sail flogs, the end of the sheet is less likely to be pushed back making the knot come undone. However, if this is a concern, a normal Bowline can be used with the end dogged to the side of the loop with a Half Hitch. 17 KNOTS & SPLICES BK5.0 1/21/06 11:03 Page 18 21 TOGGLE A round or long Toggle is a simple way of joining the ends of two light lines that may have to be separated at just a moment’s notice. The end without the Toggle needs an eye formed in it using a Bowline (20), an Eye Splice (75) or a Round Seizing (52). 21b 21a 22 BOWLINE ON THE BIGHT a small anti-clockwise loop (A) with the bight (B) poking up through it (22a). The bight (B) is then enlarged so that it can be spread out and dropped down over the main loop (C) (22b). The bight (B) is then passed up behind the main loop (C) to settle against the two standing parts of the line (22c). The Bowline on the Bight is tied in the middle of a line when a loop is needed, but both ends are inaccessible. The load should be applied equally to both standing loops. It makes a good sling or (uncomfortable) emergency bosun’s chair. It is formed initially just like a normal Bowline (20) to produce 22a B 22b 22c B A A C C C B 18 KNOTS & SPLICES BK5.0 1/21/06 11:03 Page 19 23 PORTUGUESE BOWLINE The Portuguese Bowline, like the Bowline on the Bight (22), provides a pair of loops, but in this case it is tied at the end of a line and the two loops can be adjusted for size. This is useful when using the Portuguese Bowline as a temporary bosun’s chair, because one loop can be sat in while the other is adjusted for size and drawn up to support the person’s back with the knot itself against his or her chest. To tie the Portuguese Bowline first form a small anti-clockwise loop, then pass the working end up through it. Form a second anti-clockwise loop and again pass the working end up through the small loop (23a). Finish by passing the working end behind the standing part, in an anti-clockwise direction, and down through the small loop (23b). The two loops can now be adjusted separately for size (23c). 23a 23b 23c 19

Author Colin Jarman Isbn 9780713677485 File size 3MB Year 2012 Pages 64 Language English File format PDF Category Sport Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare “Knots and Splices” is the bestselling truly pocket-sized book on rope and wire work, splices, and all types of knots, and has been continuously in print for almost 50 years. It has become the basic handbook showing how to tie the most useful and indispensable knots, bends and splices and has sold worldwide to sailors, campers, scouts, climbers, fishermen and outdoors people. Each straightforward explanation of how to achieve the knot or splice is accompanied by clear colour photographs of each stage, making learning easy. Thoroughly revised and updated by Colin Jarman, author of the highly successful “Knots in Use” for sailors, this book is essential for anyone interested in learning how to tie knots simply and quickly.     Download (3MB) Knots & Ropes for Climbers Climbing Anchors Field Guide The Morrow Guide to Knots Climbing Self Rescue: Improvising Solutions for Serious Situations Handbook of Knots and Splices Load more posts

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