Italian Grammar You Really Need To Know: A Practical Course by Anna Proudfoot


985afe0a9281375-261x361.jpg Author Anna Proudfoot
Isbn 9781444179460
File size 3.8MB
Year 2010
Pages 416
Language English
File format PDF
Category culture



 

Italian Grammar You Really Need to Know Anna Proudfoot ESSENTIALITALIAN_GRAMMAR.indd 1 9/12/12 3:04 PM For UK order enquiries: please contact Bookpoint Ltd, 130 Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4SB. Telephone: +44 (0) 1235 827720. Fax: +44 (0) 1235 400454. Lines are open 09.00–17.00, Monday to Saturday, with a 24-hour message answering service. Details about our titles and how to order are available at www.teachyourself.com For USA order enquiries: please contact McGraw-Hill Customer Services, PO Box 545, Blacklick, OH 43004-0545, USA. Telephone: 1-800-722-4726. Fax: 1-614-755-5645. For Canada order enquiries: please contact McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd, 300 Water St, Whitby, Ontario L1N 9B6, Canada. Telephone: 905 430 5000. Fax: 905 430 5020. Long renowned as the authoritative source for self-guided learning – with more than 50 million copies sold worldwide – the Teach Yourself series includes over 500 titles in the fields of languages, crafts, hobbies, business, computing and education. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data: a catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: on file. First published in UK 2000 as Teach Yourself Italian Grammar by Hodder Education, part of Hachette UK, 338 Euston Road, London NW1 3BH. First published in US 2000 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. This edition published 2012. The Teach Yourself name is a registered trade mark of Hachette UK. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2010, 2012 Anna Proudfoot In UK: All rights reserved. Apart from any permitted use under UK copyright law, no part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information, storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or under licence from the Copyright Licensing Agency Limited. Further details of such licences (for reprographic reproduction) may be obtained from the Copyright Licensing Agency Limited, of Saffron House, 6–10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS. In US: All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Typeset by Cenveo Publisher Services. Printed in Great Britain for Hodder Education, an Hachette UK Company, 338 Euston Road, London NW1 3BH, by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR0 4YY. The publisher has used its best endeavours to ensure that the URLs for external websites referred to in this book are correct and active at the time of going to press. However, the publisher and the author have no responsibility for the websites and can make no guarantee that a site will remain live or that the content will remain relevant, decent or appropriate. Hachette UK’s policy is to use papers that are natural, renewable and recyclable products and made from wood grown in sustainable forests. The logging and manufacturing processes are expected to conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin. Impression number 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Year 2014 2013 2012 ESSENTIALITALIAN_GRAMMAR.indd 2 9/12/12 3:04 PM Contents Meet the author vii Introduction xiii How to use this book xiv 1 Asking for and giving personal information 1 Say who you are/what your name is • Say where you are from/what nationality you are • Say what region or city you are from • Say what your occupation and marital status is • Ask other people for similar information • Give similar information about other people Identifying people and things 15 2 Ask for something • Ask or say what something is • Ask or say who someone is • Indicate or point out something or someone 3 Asking about availability 30 Ask and say if something or someone exists • Ask and say if something is available • Say how much there is Talking about location 41 4 Ask where something or someone is • Say where something or someone is Stating choice and preference 60 5 Ask the cost of a thing or things • Express a preference • Specify which item you want • Use numbers • Ask how much or how many Talking about the present 73 6 Ask or talk about the present • Ask or talk about where someone lives or works • Ask or talk about when someone does something Talking about routine and habits 86 7 Talk or ask about regular actions and daily routine • Talk about something one does for oneself • Talk about how one does things • Say how frequently one does something Contents ESSENTIALITALIAN_GRAMMAR.indd 3 iii 9/12/12 3:04 PM 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Talking about possibility and asking permission 99 Ask permission to do something • Ask someone if he/she is able to do something for you • Say you can or can’t do something • Ask if something is allowed /possible Giving orders and instructions 109 Request, order or give instructions • Read written instructions • Tell someone not to do something Talking about possession 121 Ask to whom something belongs • Say to whom something belongs • Ask what other people have/own Talking about events and actions in the past 133 Talk about events and actions in the past • Talk about events in the past relating to the present • Talk about events still going on Describing the past 150 Describe how things were in the past • Talk about events or actions which happened regularly in the past • Talk about events or actions which were in the process of taking place when an event or incident occurred • Talk about events or actions which had already taken place when an action or event occurred • Talk about events or actions which were about to take place Talking about the future 164 Talk about future plans • Express probability • Express or ask about intention(s) Talking about wants and preferences 175 Express a wish or desire for something • Express a wish or desire to do something • Express a wish for someone else to do something • Express a preference Describing processes and procedures 187 Say how something is done • Say how something ought to be done • Give instructions in impersonal form • Describe your reactions to something Talking about likes and dislikes 198 Talk about your likes and dislikes • Talk about someone else’s likes and dislikes • Ask someone about their likes and dislikes • Contrast your and someone else’s likes and dislikes iv ESSENTIALITALIAN_GRAMMAR.indd 4 9/12/12 3:04 PM 17 Asking for and giving an opinion 208 Express a belief or an opinion • Ask someone else’s opinion • Express a rumour • Express a tentative view 18 Expressing obligation and need 222 Express an obligation • Talk about someone else’s obligations • Express one’s needs • Talk about someone else’s needs • Express a necessity • Say what is needed 19 Expressing emotions and uncertainty 235 Express emotions or feelings • Express doubt and uncertainty • Express possibility and probability • Express a wish and request for others 20 Expressing wishes or polite requests 250 Express a wish for yourself • Express a wish involving someone else • Make a polite request • Allow someone to do something • Get someone to do something • Order, suggest, invite, encourage someone to do something 21 Expressing regrets 265 Express regrets and wishes • Say you are sorry • Talk about an action which would have taken place (if …) • Express rumour or hearsay • Use reported speech 22 Expressing conditions 279 Express a condition that can be met or a statement of fact • Express a condition unlikely to be met • Express a condition that can no longer be met Taking it further 290 295 Key to the exercises Grammar appendix 322 1 Nouns with irregular plurals 322 1.1 Invariable plural forms 1.2 Irregular and other plural forms 2 Adjectives which take different forms 325 Comparison 327 3 3.1 Comparative adjectives 3.2 Relationship of equality: adjectives 3.3 Superlative adjectives 3.4 Comparative adverbs 3.5 Relationship of equality: adverbs 3.6 Superlative adverbs Contents  ESSENTIALITALIAN_GRAMMAR.indd 5 v 9/12/12 3:04 PM 4 Pronouns 4.1 Indirect object pronouns 4.2 Combined object pronouns 4.3 Position of pronouns 4.4 Ci 4.5 Ne 4.6 Direct object pronouns with passato prossimo 5 Indefinites 5.1 Alcun, ogni, ognuno, ciascuno, tale, altro 5.2 Qualunque, qualsiasi, chiunque 6 Quantity 7 Relative pronouns 8 Prepositions 9 Negatives 10 Interrogatives 10.1 Used in direct and indirect questions 10.2 Used in exclamations 11 Conjunctions 11.1 Coordinating conjunctions 11.2 Subordinating conjunctions 12 Linking parts of sentences 12.1 Gerund, infinitive or past infinitive? 12.2 Connecting verb and infinitive: introduction 12.3 Verbs linked directly to the infinitive 12.4 Verbs linked by di 12.5 Verbs linked by a 12.6 Verbs involving more than one person 12.7 Far fare, lasciar fare (getting something done) 13 Verbs extra 13.1 Passato remoto 13.2 Verbs and verb links 14 Verb tables 14.1 Regular verbs 14.2 Irregular verbs Glossary of grammatical terms Index 332 338 340 341 344 350 352 354 356 360 387 394 vi ESSENTIALITALIAN_GRAMMAR.indd 6 9/12/12 3:04 PM Meet the author Ciao! I’m Anna Proudfoot, the author of Italian Grammar You Really Need to Know. I’ve been teaching Italian to adult students for quite a long time, writing and using my own materials, and I hope that you’ll enjoy using my book to teach yourself Italian grammar. I was brought up in Scotland, where there was a large Italian community, and spent summers in Italy. I loved speaking Italian and I always wanted to help other people learn to speak it, too! After graduating in Italian from the University of London, I started to teach the language. My first posts were in London, Cambridge and Pasadena (California). Then I came to live in Oxford, where I was Head of Italian at Oxford Brookes University for several years. In 2006, I moved to the Open University to design and launch Andante, the beginners’ Italian course. Since Andante began in 2007, around 500 students all over the UK learn Italian from scratch each year, with face-to-face and online tutorial support. A further 300 or so students are currently studying on our intermediate Italian course ‘Vivace’, which ran in 2011 for the first time. Apart from Italian Grammar You Really Need to Know, I’ve written several other Italian grammar books and textbooks aimed at adults, and in 2007, I was honoured to receive from the Italian Government the award of Cavaliere della Stella della Solidarietà Italiana (Knight of the Star of Italian Solidarity) for my services to Italy and the Italian language. So if you are learning Italian and you want a firm basis of grammar to build on, then Italian Grammar You Really Need to Know is written for you. Meet the author ESSENTIALITALIAN_GRAMMAR.indd 7 vii 9/12/12 3:04 PM Introduction This fully revised edition is designed as a reference guide for all those studying Italian on their own or in a class, and particularly for those using textbooks written along communicative lines, who feel they need some grammar back-up. You do not need a specialized knowledge of grammar terms in order to use this book, because everything is explained in a non-technical way. There is also a short Glossary of grammatical terms. The book is suitable for all levels, from complete beginners to A-level and even beyond. It is designed for the independent user, but can also be used as back-up in a class situation. It is particularly helpful in that it explains grammar points in English, since many students find it hard to follow explanations in textbooks written entirely in Italian. The book is divided into units, each one covering a basic communicative function, such as ‘Asking for and giving personal information’, ‘Talking about location’, ‘Describing the past’. In each unit, you will find the constructions you need to carry out the particular language function covered, along with the essential vocabulary and important grammar points. You will also find language exercises which allow you to practise the points learned. For each unit, the contents pages list both the language functions and the grammar points covered, so that you can see at a glance what is included. If, on the other hand, you want to check specific grammar points, look up the Index at the back of the book. viii ESSENTIALITALIAN_GRAMMAR.indd 8 9/12/12 3:04 PM How to use this book Each of the units in this book is free-standing, so if you want to learn or revise all your Italian grammar, you can work through the units in any order you like. If there is a particular language function that you need to use, you can check the Contents pages to find out which unit deals with the function that interests you. Unit 16, for example, teaches you how to express your likes and dislikes; Unit 7 shows you how to talk about your daily routine. Start by looking at the first page of each unit, where you will find listed the language functions to be studied and, under Language points, the grammar constructions you are going to need in order to carry out those functions. The Introduction gives a few examples (with English translation) of these constructions, along with a very brief explanation. When you have looked at these examples, you are ready to study the Focus on grammar, in which all the grammar points are dealt with one by one. Detailed explanations are illustrated by examples. Once you feel confident about using the language points you have just learned, you can expand your knowledge by reading the section Language plus. The Language in action section at the end of each unit shows you how these language functions are used in the context of everyday life and gives you practical exercises to do on each point, with examples taken from both spoken language and written language. The Test yourself section at the end of each unit will allow you to measure your progress and check whether you are ready to go on to the next unit. Additional information on grammar points not covered directly in the units can be found in the Grammar Appendix. You will also find two sets of Verb tables: a table showing the regular verb forms and a table showing the most common irregular verbs. The Index lists specific grammar points, as well as key words in alphabetical order. How to use this book ESSENTIALITALIAN_GRAMMAR.indd 9 ix 9/12/12 3:04 PM This page intentionally left blank 1 Asking for and giving personal information In this unit, you will learn how to: • say who you are / what your name is • say where you are from / what nationality you are • say what region or city you are from • say what your occupation and marital status is • ask other people for similar information • give similar information about other people Language points • io, tu, lui, etc. (subject pronouns) • essere (present tense) • chiamarsi (present tense) • adjectives of nationality, region, city of origin • plurals of adjectives • profession, marital status, titles Introduction To give or ask for personal information, you need to know the subject pronouns io, tu, Lei, etc. (I, you, etc.), the verb chiamarsi (to be called), and the verb essere (to be). Look at these examples before going on: Mi chiamo Anna. Sono inglese. My name’s Anna. I’m English. Unit 1  Asking for and giving personal information ESSENTIALITALIAN_GRAMMAR.indd 1 1 9/12/12 3:04 PM Sono di Oxford. I’m from Oxford. Lei è italiana? Are you Italian? È di Roma? Are you from Rome? Lui si chiama George. He’s called George. È inglese. He’s English. E lei? And (what about) her? Lei si chiama Georgina. She’s called Georgina. È inglese. She’s English. Focus on grammar 1 Io, tu, lui, lei, Lei, noi, voi, loro The subject pronouns io, tu, lui, lei, Lei, etc. (English I, you, etc.) are not normally needed in Italian, because the ending of the verb indicates the person carrying out the action. It will sound much more natural if you just use the verb on its own, without the subject pronoun. The subject pronouns can, however, be used: a when you want to distinguish between he and she, which have the same verb form. Lui è inglese. Lei è italiana. He is English. She is Italian. b when you want to emphasize a difference or contrast. Io sono italiano. Lui è inglese. I am Italian. He is English. Noi siamo inglesi ma loro We are English, but they sono scozzesi. are Scottish. c after anche (also, too). We are Italian, from Rome. Noi siamo italiani, di Roma. Anche voi siete di Roma? Are you from Rome, too? 2 ESSENTIALITALIAN_GRAMMAR.indd 2 9/12/12 3:04 PM d to make a question sound less abrupt, particularly when using the polite form. Lei è italiana? Are you Italian? Here are all the subject pronouns: Singular io tu lui lei Lei Plural I you (informal) he she you (formal) noi voi loro we you they Loro you (formal) 2 Tu or Lei? Italian has two forms of address meaning you in the singular: tu (the informal form) used with friends, family, children and animals; and Lei (the formal form, normally written with upper case ‘L’), which is used in business situations, such as in a shop or a bank, with new acquaintances and with people older than you. It’s tricky knowing whether to use tu or Lei with Italian friends and acquaintances. If in doubt, use Lei unless invited to use tu. Young people tend to use tu with each other as soon as they meet. Lei uses the same form of the verb as lui (he) or lei (she). Lui è inglese? Lei è inglese? Lei è inglese? (he) (she) (you) There is also a formal form of address for more than one person (Loro) which a waiter or hotel receptionist may use when addressing more than one client. It uses the same form of verb as loro (they). Unit 1  Asking for and giving personal information ESSENTIALITALIAN_GRAMMAR.indd 3 3 9/12/12 3:04 PM Signore, (Loro) sono inglesi? But it is probably more common to use the more informal voi form: Signore, siete inglesi? 3 Essere The verb essere (to be) is used to give information about yourself, such as where you are from or what nationality you are. Italian verbs come into three main groups, with their infinitive forms ending -are, -ere, or -ire. Usually they follow a set pattern according to the group they ‘belong’ to, but essere (to be) does not follow such a pattern. Here are all the forms of the verb essere with the subject pronouns. Singular (io) (tu) (lui) (lei) (Lei) sono I am sei you are he is è è she is è you are (formal) Plural (noi) (voi) (loro) siamo we are siete you are sono they are (Loro)* sono you are (formal) *The Loro form (formal YOU plural) is shown here and in the chiamarsi table below. It is always the same as the loro (they) form, so is not shown separately in later units. 4 Chiamarsi To introduce yourself, say Mi chiamo … (lit.: I call myself). To say this, you need the reflexive verb chiamarsi (to call oneself), whose forms are shown below. It’s a normal verb (chiamare) 4 ESSENTIALITALIAN_GRAMMAR.indd 4 9/12/12 3:04 PM with a reflexive pronoun added (mi, ti, si). (See Unit 7 for a fuller explanation of reflexive verbs.) Singular (io) (tu) (lui) (lei) (Lei) mi chiamo ti chiami si chiama si chiama si chiama I am called you are called he is called she is called you are called (formal) ci chiamiamo vi chiamate si chiamano si chiamano we are called you are called they are called you are called (formal form) Plural (noi) (voi) (loro) (Loro) Come ti chiami? Come si chiama? In Italian you say Come ti chiami - How are you called? (and not What are you called?) For more verbs that end in -are (mangiare, parlare etc.), see Units 5 and 6. For more reflexive verbs (actions you do to or for yourself and which require reflexive pronouns), see Unit 7. 5 Nationality and other adjectives An adjective tells you about someone or something. Use an adjective with the verb essere to say what nationality someone is: Sara è italiana. Sara is Italian. In Italian, the adjective has to agree with the person (or object) it describes, in gender and number; i.e. it must have a masculine or Unit 1  Asking for and giving personal information ESSENTIALITALIAN_GRAMMAR.indd 5 5 9/12/12 3:04 PM feminine, singular or plural ending to match the person (people) or thing (things) it is describing. In Italian, objects – like people – are either masculine or feminine, singular or plural. For further notes on agreement, see Unit 2. There are two main types of adjective in Italian: a Those ending in -e (same for masculine or feminine) whose plural ends in -i: Henry è inglese. Henry is English. Henrietta è inglese. Henrietta is English. Henry e Henrietta sono inglesi. Henry and Henrietta are English. b Those ending in -o (masculine) or -a (feminine) whose plural is -i (masculine) or -e (feminine): Mario è italiano. Mario is Italian. Maria è italiana. Maria is Italian. Mario e Piero sono italiani. Mario and Piero are Italian (men). Maria e Teresa sono italiane. Maria and Teresa are Italian (women). Mario e Maria sono italiani. Mario and Maria are Italian  (one man, one woman). The last example shows how, when there is one male and one female subject together, the adjective becomes masculine for both of them. 6 Town or region Just as important as nationality is the region of Italy a person comes from. Italians are very loyal to their region, town, city or village. So the following questions and answers might be heard: 6 ESSENTIALITALIAN_GRAMMAR.indd 6 9/12/12 3:04 PM Di dove sei? Where are you from? Sono di Bari. E tu? I’m from Bari. And you? Io sono milanese (di Milano). I’m from Milan. Mia madre è pugliese però. My mother is from Puglia, however. 7 Greetings Greetings vary according to the time of day. Buongiorno (good morning) is appropriate up until 1 p.m. When offices and shops open again after lunch, you can safely say buonasera. With close friends and amongst younger people, ciao is used for both hello and goodbye. With acquaintances and in more formal situations, there is a range of greetings, depending on the time of day: buongiorno (good morning, good day), buonasera (good afternoon/good evening) and buona notte (goodnight, when going to bed). 8 Titles Titles are important in Italy as an acknowledgement of someone’s professional status. Specific titles are used for an engineer (ingegnere), lawyer (avvocato), accountant (ragioniere), lecturer or secondary school teacher (professore, professoressa), doctor or even just graduate (dottore, dottoressa). You can also use just signore or signora (signorina is used only for young girls), but it is very common, particularly in the south, for all men of any status to be addressed as dottore. Before a surname, the final e is dropped from titles such as dottore, ingegnere: Buongiorno, Avvocato. Buongiorno, Avvocato Bruni! Buona notte, Dottore. Buona notte, Dottor Esposito! Buongiorno, Dottoressa. Buongiorno, Dottoressa Tondello! Buonasera, Ingegnere. Buonasera, Ingegner Bianchi! Unit 1  Asking for and giving personal information ESSENTIALITALIAN_GRAMMAR.indd 7 7 9/12/12 3:04 PM Language plus 1 Profession or occupation You can extend a conversation by asking someone his or her profession or occupation: Lei è professore? Are you a teacher? No. Sono medico. E Lei? No. I’m a doctor. What about you? Io sono avvocato. I’m a lawyer. a The indefinite article un, uno, un’, una is usually omitted when saying what you do or asking someone about their occupation. (See Unit 2 for more on the indefinite article.) b The names of some professions have distinct forms for men and for women: Masculine Feminine maestro professore sarto dottore cuoco infermiere studente cameriere attore ragioniere scrittore direttore maestra professoressa sarta dottoressa cuoca infermiera studentessa cameriera attrice ragioniera scrittrice direttrice teacher lecturer, teacher tailor, (dressmaker) doctor, graduate cook nurse student waiter, (waitress) actor, (actress) accountant writer manager c The names of some professions and occupations have the same forms for both male and female: 8 ESSENTIALITALIAN_GRAMMAR.indd 8 9/12/12 3:04 PM -e cantante insegnante -ista dentista artista autista giornalista singer teacher dentist artist driver journalist turista pianista ciclista tourist pianist cyclist d For some professions, the masculine form is used for both male or female: Carlo è medico. Carla è medico. Giulia è avvocato. Use of the corresponding female forms – e.g. avvocatessa – is considered condescending. For more information on nouns and indefinite articles un, una etc., see Unit 2. 2 Marital status The verb essere is used also to give information about marital status: Giovanni is married. Giovanni è sposato. Maria è sposata. Maria is married. Giovanni e Maria sono sposati. Giovanni and Maria are married. Sono separata. I am separated. Alfredo is divorced. Alfredo è divorziato. Gabriella è fidanzata. Gabriella is engaged. Although the terms celibe (bachelor) and nubile (spinster) are used on official documents, it’s more common to say: Unit 1  Asking for and giving personal information ESSENTIALITALIAN_GRAMMAR.indd 9 9 9/12/12 3:04 PM

Author Anna Proudfoot Isbn 9781444179460 File size 3.8MB Year 2010 Pages 416 Language English File format PDF Category Culture Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare Do you want to bring clarity to your communication by: – getting to grips with the building blocks of Italian? – learning the right language for the right context? – speaking and writing with ease and style? In this course you’ll find comprehensive and clear explanations of key grammar patterns and structures reinforced and raised through authentic materials. You will learn how to construct grammar correctly and when and where to use it so you sound natural and appropriate. You’ll also get extensive practice through exercises and self-assessments. This book offers: – clear learning goals to guide your learning – comprehension questions to test your knowledge – language in context sections to demonstrate grammar usage in everyday-life situations – glossary of grammatical terms and verb tables for easy reference.     Download (3.8MB) Spanish Grammar You Really Need To Know Side by Side Chinese and English Grammar French Grammar You Really Need To Know Italian: Learn Italian In 21 DAYS! – A Practical Guide To Make Italian Look Easy! EVEN For Beginners Practice Makes Perfect French Verb Tenses, 2nd Edition Load more posts

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