Inorganic Chemistry For Dummies by Alvin W. Orbaek and Michael Matson


5457ddce9b3abcf-261x361.jpg Author Alvin W. Orbaek and Michael Matson
Isbn 9781118217948
File size 14.8 Mb
Year 2013
Pages 384
Language English
File format PDF
Category chemistry



 

Inorganic Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry by Michael L. Matson and Alvin W. Orbaek Inorganic Chemistry For Dummies® Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 111 River St. Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774 www.wiley.com Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey Published simultaneously in Canada No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at http://www.wiley. com/go/permissions. Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley logo, For Dummies, the Dummies Man logo, A Reference for the Rest of Us!, The Dummies Way, Dummies Daily, The Fun and Easy Way, Dummies.com, Making Everything Easier, and related trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THE PUBLISHER AND THE AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES OR PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS. THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR EVERY SITUATION. THIS WORK IS SOLD WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT THE PUBLISHER IS NOT ENGAGED IN RENDERING LEGAL, ACCOUNTING, OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES. IF PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANCE IS REQUIRED, THE SERVICES OF A COMPETENT PROFESSIONAL PERSON SHOULD BE SOUGHT. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR THE AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES ARISING HEREFROM. THE FACT THAT AN ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE IS REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK AS A CITATION AND/OR A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FURTHER INFORMATION DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE AUTHOR OR THE PUBLISHER ENDORSES THE INFORMATION THE ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE MAY PROVIDE OR RECOMMENDATIONS IT MAY MAKE. FURTHER, READERS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT INTERNET WEBSITES LISTED IN THIS WORK MAY HAVE CHANGED OR DISAPPEARED BETWEEN WHEN THIS WORK WAS WRITTEN AND WHEN IT IS READ. For general information on our other products and services, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 877-762-2974, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3993, or fax 317-572-4002. For technical support, please visit www.wiley.com/techsupport. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats and by print-on-demand. Some content that appears in standard print versions of this book may not be available in other formats. For more information about Wiley products, visit us at www.wiley.com. Library of Congress Control Number: 2013932110 ISBN 978-1-118-21794-8 (pbk); ISBN 978-1-118-22882-1 (ebk); ISBN 978-1-118-22891-3 (ebk); ISBN 978-1-118-22894-4 (ebk) Manufactured in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 About the Authors Michael L. Matson started studying chemistry at the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland. After leaving the Navy, Michael started a PhD program at Rice University, studying the use of carbon nanotubes for medical diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Specifically, Michael focused on internalizing radioactive metal ions within carbon nanotubes: Some radioactive metals could be pictured with special cameras for diagnosis, whereas others were so powerful they could kill cells for treatment. It was at Rice that Michael and Alvin met. Following Rice, Michael went to the University of Houston-Downtown to begin a tenure-track professorship. Happily married to a woman he first met in seventh grade, Michael has two young children, a yellow Labrador retriever named Flounder, is a volunteer firefighter and sommelier, and enjoys CrossFitting. Alvin W. Orbaek was introduced to chemistry at Rice University (Houston, Texas) by way of nanotechnology, where he studied single-walled carbon nanotubes, transition metal catalysts, and silver nanoparticles. He had previously received a degree in Experimental Physics from N.U.I. Galway (Ireland) and moved into the study of space science and technology at the International Space University (Strasbourg, France). He received a position on Galactic Suite, an orbiting space hotel. To date, he enjoys life by sailing, snowboarding, and DJing. He has been spinning vinyl records since the Atlantic Hotel used to rave, and the sun would set in Ibiza. He hopes to empower people through education and technology, to that effect he is currently completing a PhD in Chemistry at Rice University. Dedications Michael: To my wife, Samantha. Alvin: To Declan, Ann Gitte, Anton, Anna-livia, and Bedstemor. Authors’ Acknowledgments Michael: I’d like to acknowledge the immeasurable amounts of assistance from Matt Wagner, Susan Hobbs, Lindsay Lefevere, Alecia Spooner, and Joan Freedman. Alvin: Without John Wiley & Sons, there would be no book, and for that I am very grateful. Particularly because of the very positive and professional attitude by which they carry out their business; thanks for getting it done. It was a blessing to work with you. In particular, I would like to mention Alecia Spooner, Susan Hobbs (Suz), and Lindsay Lefevere, and thanks to the technical editors (Reynaldo Barreto and Bradley Fahlman) for their crucial input. I would also like to thank Matt Wagner for invaluable support and assistance. And to Mike Matson, thank you for the invitation to write this book. I have had many teachers, mentors, and advisors throughout the years, but there are five who deserve attention. Andrew Smith at Coleenbridge Steiner school, where I enjoyed learning a great deal. John Treacy, who made every science class the most riveting class each day. Pat Sweeney, whose habit of teaching would leave anyone engrossed in mathematics. To Ignasi Casanova for his mentorship and introduction to the nanos. And Andrew Barron, both my PhD advisor and mentor, to whom I owe a great deal of credit, due in no small part to his measure of tutelage. But all this stands upon a firm foundation that is based on the support of Dec, Gitte, Anton, and Anna; here’s to next Christmas — whenever. There are many other friends and family who have contributed to this work, too many to mention them all. But I’d especially like to thank my colleagues from the Irish house, who so graciously agreed to read through the text, namely Alan Taylor, Nigel Alley, and Stuart Corr. Also to Sophia Phounsavath and Brandon Cisneros for proofreading. Jorge Fallas for the Schrödinger equation. To Gordon Tomas for continued support of my writing. And to Gabrielle Novello, who fed me wholesome foods while I otherwise converted coffee and sleepless nights into this book. And to Valhalla for those nights when work was not working for me. And to PHlert, the best sailing program on this planet, or any other. Publisher’s Acknowledgments We’re proud of this book; please send us your comments at http://dummies.custhelp.com. For other comments, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 877-762-2974, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3993, or fax 317-572-4002. Some of the people who helped bring this book to market include the following: Acquisitions, Editorial, and Media Development Composition Services Project Editor: Susan Hobbs Acquisitions Editor: Lindsay Lefevere Copy Editor: Susan Hobbs Assistant Editor: David Lutton Editorial Program Coordinator: Joe Niesen Project Coordinator: Sheree Montgomery Layout and Graphics: Carrie A. Cesavice, Joyce Haughey, Brent Savage Proofreaders: Lindsay Amones, John Greenough, Jessica Kramer Indexer: BIM Indexing & Proofreading Services Technical Editors: Reynaldo Barreto, Bradley Fahlman Editorial Manager: Carmen Krikorian Editorial Assistant: Rachelle Amick Art Coordinator: Alicia B. South Cover Photo: © Laguna Design / Science Source Cartoons: Rich Tennant (www.the5thwave.com) Publishing and Editorial for Consumer Dummies Kathleen Nebenhaus, Vice President and Executive Publisher Publishing for Technology Dummies Andy Cummings, Vice President and Publisher Composition Services Debbie Stailey, Director of Composition Services Contents at a Glance Introduction................................................................. 1 Part I: Reviewing Some General Chemistry..................... 7 Chapter 1: Introducing Inorganic Chemistry.................................................................. 9 Chapter 2: Following the Leader: Atomic Structure and Periodic Trends................ 21 Chapter 3: The United States of Oxidation.................................................................... 39 Chapter 4: Gone Fission: Nuclear Chemistry................................................................ 53 Chapter 5: The ABCs: Acid-Base Chemistry.................................................................. 69 Part II: Rules of Attraction: Chemical Bonding............. 81 Chapter 6: No Mr. Bond, I Expect You to π: Covalent Bonding................................... 83 Chapter 7: Molecular Symmetry and Group Theory.................................................. 101 Chapter 8: Ionic and Metallic Bonding......................................................................... 121 Chapter 9: Clinging to Complex Ions: Coordination Complexes............................... 143 Part III: It’s Elemental: Dining at the Periodic Table.... 159 Chapter 10: What the H? Hydrogen!............................................................................. 161 Chapter 11: Earning Your Salt: The Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals...................... 171 Chapter 12: The Main Groups....................................................................................... 183 Chapter 13: Bridging Two Sides of the Periodic Table: The Transition Metals...... 207 Chapter 14: Finding What Lies Beneath: The Lanthanides and Actinides............... 221 Part IV: Special Topics.............................................. 233 Chapter 15: Not Quite Organic, Not Quite Inorganic: Organometallics................... 235 Chapter 16: Accelerating Change: Catalysts............................................................... 253 Chapter 17: Bioinorganic Chemistry: Finding Metals in Living Systems................. 267 Chapter 18: Living in a Materials World: Solid-State Chemistry............................... 287 Chapter 19: Nanotechnology......................................................................................... 305 Part V: The Part of Tens............................................ 313 Chapter 20: Ten Nobels.................................................................................................. 315 Chapter 21: Tools of the Trade: Ten Instrumental Techniques................................ 319 Chapter 22: Ten Experiments........................................................................................ 323 Chapter 23: Ten Inorganic Household Products........................................................ 329 Glossary.................................................................. 335 Index....................................................................... 343 Table of Contents Introduction.................................................................. 1 About This Book............................................................................................... 1 Conventions Used in This Book...................................................................... 2 What You Don’t Need to Read........................................................................ 2 Foolish Assumptions........................................................................................ 2 How This Book Is Organized........................................................................... 3 Part I: Reviewing Some General Chemistry......................................... 3 Part II: Rules of Attraction: Chemical Bonding.................................... 4 Part III: It’s Elemental: Dining at the Periodic Table........................... 4 Part IV: Special Topics........................................................................... 4 Part V: The Part of Tens......................................................................... 5 Icons Used in This Book.................................................................................. 5 Where to Go from Here.................................................................................... 6 Part I: Reviewing Some General Chemistry...................... 7 Chapter 1: Introducing Inorganic Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Building the Foundation.................................................................................. 9 Losing your electrons........................................................................... 10 Splitting atoms: Nuclear chemistry.................................................... 11 Changing pH.......................................................................................... 12 Getting a Grip on Chemical Bonding............................................................ 12 Traveling Across the Periodic Table............................................................ 13 Hyping up hydrogen............................................................................. 14 Moving through the main groups....................................................... 15 Transitioning from one side of the table to another........................ 15 Uncovering lanthanides and actinides............................................... 16 Diving Deeper: Special Topics...................................................................... 16 Bonding with carbon: Organometallics............................................. 17 Speeding things up: Catalysts............................................................. 17 Inside and out: Bio-inorganic and environmental chemistry.......... 17 Solid-state chemistry............................................................................ 18 Nanotechnology.................................................................................... 19 Listing 40 More............................................................................................... 19 xii Inorganic Chemistry For Dummies Chapter 2: Following the Leader: Atomic Structure and Periodic Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Up an’ Atom: Reviewing Atomic Terminology............................................ 22 Sizing up subatomic particles............................................................. 25 Knowing the nucleus............................................................................ 26 Going orbital.......................................................................................... 26 Distinguishing atomic number and mass number............................ 30 Identifying isotopes.............................................................................. 31 Grouping Elements in the Periodic Table.................................................... 32 Keeping up with periodic trends........................................................ 33 Measuring atomic size.......................................................................... 35 Rating the atomic radius...................................................................... 36 Eyeing ionization energy...................................................................... 36 Examining electron affinities............................................................... 38 Noting electronegativity...................................................................... 38 Chapter 3: The United States of Oxidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Entering the Oxidation-Reduction Zone...................................................... 39 Following oxidation state rules........................................................... 41 Scouting reduction potentials............................................................. 43 Walking through a Redox Reaction.............................................................. 46 Isolating Elements.......................................................................................... 48 Mechanically separating elements..................................................... 48 Using thermal decomposition............................................................. 50 Displacing one element with another................................................ 50 Heating things up: High-temperature chemical reactions............... 50 Relying on electrolytic reduction....................................................... 51 Chapter 4: Gone Fission: Nuclear Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Noting Nuclear Properties............................................................................. 53 Using the force...................................................................................... 54 The empirical strikes back ................................................................. 55 Documenting Atomic Decay: Radioactivity................................................. 58 Alpha radiation..................................................................................... 60 Beta radiation........................................................................................ 60 Gamma radiation.................................................................................. 62 The half-life principle .......................................................................... 62 Blind (radiocarbon) dating.................................................................. 63 Radioisotopes........................................................................................ 64 Catalyzing a Nuclear Reaction...................................................................... 65 Fission.................................................................................................... 66 Fusion..................................................................................................... 67 Table of Contents Chapter 5: The ABCs: Acid-Base Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Starting with the Basics: Acids and Bases................................................... 70 Developing the pH Scale...................................................................... 70 Calculating pH....................................................................................... 71 Calculating acid dissociation.............................................................. 72 Touring Key Theories: A Historical Perspective ....................................... 72 The early years...................................................................................... 72 Brønsted-Lowry theory........................................................................ 73 Accepting or donating: Lewis’s theory.............................................. 75 Comparing Lewis and Brønsted theories.................................................... 76 Pearson’s Hard and Soft Acids and Bases (HSAB)..................................... 77 Characterization of the hard bodies.................................................. 78 Who you callin’ soft?............................................................................ 78 Strapping on a Cape: Superacids.................................................................. 79 Part II: Rules of Attraction: Chemical Bonding.............. 81 Chapter 6: No Mr. Bond, I Expect You to π: Covalent Bonding . . . . . . 83 Connecting the Dots: Lewis Structures....................................................... 83 Counting electrons............................................................................... 84 Placing electrons................................................................................... 86 Price tags in black ties? Formal charges............................................ 87 Returning to the drawing board: Resonance structures................. 89 Keeping Your Distance: VSEPR..................................................................... 90 Ante Up One Electron: Valence-Bond Theory............................................. 92 Summing It All Up: Molecular Orbital Theory............................................. 94 Types of MOs......................................................................................... 94 Evens and odds: Gerade and ungerade symmetry........................... 95 Identical twins: Homonuclear diatomic molecules.......................... 96 Fraternal twins: Heteronuclear diatomic molecules........................ 99 Chapter 7: Molecular Symmetry and Group Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Identifying Molecules: Symmetry Elements and Operations.................. 101 Identity................................................................................................. 102 n-fold rotational axis.......................................................................... 103 Inversion center.................................................................................. 104 Mirror planes....................................................................................... 104 Improper rotation axis....................................................................... 105 It’s Not Polite to Point! Molecular Point Groups...................................... 107 xiii xiv Inorganic Chemistry For Dummies Being Such a Character Table..................................................................... 110 Dissecting a character table.............................................................. 110 Degrees of freedom............................................................................. 113 A glitch in the matrix: Matrix math.................................................. 114 Reducible reps.................................................................................... 117 Infrared and Raman active modes.................................................... 120 Chapter 8: Ionic and Metallic Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Blame It on Electrostatic Attraction: Forming Ionic Bonds.................... 121 Marrying a cation and an anion........................................................ 122 Measuring bond strength: Lattice energy........................................ 123 Coexisting with covalent bonds........................................................ 125 Conducting electricity in solution.................................................... 127 Admiring Ionic Crystals............................................................................... 128 Studying shapes: Lattice types......................................................... 128 Size matters (when it’s ionic)............................................................ 130 “I’m Melting!” Dissolving Ionic Compounds with Water: Solubility...... 131 Just add water: Hydrated ions.......................................................... 132 Counting soluble compounds........................................................... 134 What Is a Metal, Anyway?............................................................................ 134 Tracing the history of metallurgy..................................................... 135 Admiring the properties of solid metals.......................................... 135 Delocalizing electrons: Conductivity............................................... 137 Analyzing alloys.................................................................................. 137 Swimming in the Electron Sea: Metallic Bonding Theories..................... 139 Free-electron theory........................................................................... 140 Valence bond theory.......................................................................... 141 Band theory......................................................................................... 142 Chapter 9: Clinging to Complex Ions: Coordination Complexes . . . . 143 Counting bonds................................................................................... 144 Seeking stability.................................................................................. 144 Grouping geometries.......................................................................... 146 Identifying Isomers....................................................................................... 147 Connecting differently: Structural isomers..................................... 148 Arranged differently: Stereoisomers................................................ 148 Naming Coordination Complexes............................................................... 151 Sorting Out the Salts.................................................................................... 154 Creating Metal Complexes throughout the Periodic Table..................... 155 Alkali metals........................................................................................ 155 Alkali earth metals.............................................................................. 155 Transition metals................................................................................ 156 Lanthanides and actinides................................................................. 157 Metalloids............................................................................................ 157 Applying Coordination Complexes in the Real World............................. 158 Table of Contents Part III: It’s Elemental: Dining at the Periodic Table.... 159 Chapter 10: What the H? Hydrogen! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Visiting Hydrogen at Home: Its Place in the Periodic Table................... 161 Appreciating the Merits of Hydrogen........................................................ 164 Available in abundance...................................................................... 164 Molecular properties ......................................................................... 164 Nuclear spin......................................................................................... 165 Introducing Hydrogen Isotopes.................................................................. 165 Investing in Hydrogen Bonds...................................................................... 166 Forming a hydrogen ion..................................................................... 166 Creating hydrides............................................................................... 166 Applying Itself: Hydrogen’s Uses in Chemistry and Industry................. 168 Chapter 11: Earning Your Salt: The Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Salting the Earth: Group 1 Elements.......................................................... 172 Lithium the outlier.............................................................................. 173 Seafaring sodium................................................................................. 174 Maintaining your brain with potassium........................................... 175 Rubidium, cesium, francium, oh my................................................. 176 Reacting Less Violently: The Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals.................. 176 Being beryllium................................................................................... 178 Magnificent magnesium..................................................................... 178 Commonly calcium............................................................................. 179 Strontium, barium, radium................................................................ 180 Diagramming the Diagonal Relationship................................................... 181 Chapter 12: The Main Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Placing Main Group Elements on the Periodic Table.............................. 184 Lucky 13: The Boron Group........................................................................ 185 Not-so-boring boron........................................................................... 185 An abundance of aluminum............................................................... 187 Mendeleev’s Missing Link: Gallium................................................... 187 Increasing indium use........................................................................ 188 Toxic thallium .................................................................................... 189 The Diamond Club: The Carbon Group..................................................... 189 Captivating carbon............................................................................. 190 Coming in second: Silicon.................................................................. 191 Germane germanium.......................................................................... 192 Malleable tin cans............................................................................... 192 Plumbing lead...................................................................................... 193 Noting Pnictides of the Nitrogen Group.................................................... 193 Leading the pnictides: nitrogen........................................................ 194 Finding phosphorus everywhere...................................................... 195 Melding the metalloids: Arsenic and antimony.............................. 195 xv xvi Inorganic Chemistry For Dummies Keeping Up with the Chalcogens................................................................ 196 Oxygen all around............................................................................... 196 Sulfur.................................................................................................... 197 From the Earth to the moon ............................................................. 198 Marco — polonium!............................................................................ 199 (Re)Active Singles: The Group 17 Halogens.............................................. 199 Cleaning up with chlorine.................................................................. 201 Briny bromine..................................................................................... 201 Iodine.................................................................................................... 202 Rarely astatine ................................................................................... 203 Lights of New York: The Group 18 Noble Gases....................................... 203 Chapter 13: Bridging Two Sides of the Periodic Table: The Transition Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Getting to Know Transition Metals............................................................ 208 Sorting T-metals into series............................................................... 208 Separating T-metals from the main group....................................... 209 Partially Filling d-Orbitals............................................................................ 209 Calculating an effective nuclear charge........................................... 210 Forming more than one oxidation state.......................................... 210 Splitting the Difference: Crystal Field Theory and Transition Metal Complexes....................................................................................... 212 Dividing d-orbitals.............................................................................. 213 Absorbing light waves: Color............................................................ 215 Building attraction: Magnetism......................................................... 216 Electronic Structure and Bonding.............................................................. 218 Reacting with other elements........................................................... 218 Creating coordination complexes ................................................... 220 Adsorbing gas: T-metals in catalysis................................................ 220 Chapter 14: Finding What Lies Beneath: The Lanthanides and Actinides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Spending Quality Time with the Rare Earth Elements: Lanthanides...... 222 Electronic structure........................................................................... 222 Reactivity ............................................................................................ 223 Lanthanide contraction...................................................................... 224 Separating the lanthanide elements................................................. 225 Using lanthanides .............................................................................. 227 Feelin’ Radioactive: The Actinides............................................................. 227 Finding or making actinides.............................................................. 228 Examining electronic structure......................................................... 228 Comparing Reactivity: Actinide versus Lanthanide ................................ 230 Looking More Closely at Uranium.............................................................. 230 Table of Contents Part IV: Special Topics............................................... 233 Chapter 15: Not Quite Organic, Not Quite Inorganic: Organometallics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Building Organometallic Complexes.......................................................... 235 Adhering to Electron Rules......................................................................... 236 Counting to eight: The octet rule...................................................... 237 Calculating with the 18-electron rule............................................... 237 Settling for 16 electrons..................................................................... 239 Effectively using the EAN rule........................................................... 239 Bonding with Metals: Ligands..................................................................... 240 Including Carbon: Carbonyls...................................................................... 241 Providing the Best Examples...................................................................... 242 e-precise carbon................................................................................. 242 e-rich nitrogen..................................................................................... 243 e- deficient boron................................................................................ 243 Behaving Oddly: Organometallics of Groups 1, 2, and 12....................... 245 Sandwiched Together: Metallocenes......................................................... 246 Clustering Together: Metal-Metal Bonding............................................... 247 Creating Vacancies: Insertion and Elimination......................................... 248 Synthesizing Organometallics..................................................................... 249 Showing Similarities with Main Group Chemistry.................................... 251 Chapter 16: Accelerating Change: Catalysts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Speeding Things Up — The Job of a Catalyst .......................................... 253 Considering Types of Catalysts.................................................................. 256 Homogenous catalysts....................................................................... 256 Heterogeneous.................................................................................... 260 Organocatalysts.................................................................................. 263 Chapter 17: Bioinorganic Chemistry: Finding Metals in Living Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Focusing on Photosynthesis....................................................................... 268 Climbing Aboard the Oxygen Transport................................................... 270 Feeding a Nitrogen Fixation......................................................................... 271 Fixing nitrogen for use by organisms............................................... 272 Re-absorbing nitrogen........................................................................ 273 Being Human................................................................................................. 274 Making things happen: Enzymes ..................................................... 275 Curing disease: Medicines................................................................. 277 Causing problems: Toxicity............................................................... 278 xvii xviii Inorganic Chemistry For Dummies Answering When Nature Calls: Environmental Chemistry...................... 279 Eyeing key indicators......................................................................... 280 Rocking the heavy metals.................................................................. 282 Killing me softly: Pesticides............................................................... 283 Looking for and removing contaminants......................................... 284 Chapter 18: Living in a Materials World: Solid-State Chemistry . . . 287 Studying Solid Structures............................................................................ 287 Building crystals with unit cells........................................................ 288 Labeling lines and corners: Miller indices....................................... 290 Three Types of Crystal Structure............................................................... 291 Simple crystal structures................................................................... 291 Binary crystal structures................................................................... 292 Complex crystal structures............................................................... 293 Calculating Crystal Formation: The Born-Haber Cycle............................ 294 Bonding and Other Characteristics............................................................ 296 Characterizing size ............................................................................ 297 Dissolving in liquids: Solubility......................................................... 298 Encountering zero resistance: Superconductivity......................... 300 Information technology: Semiconductors....................................... 301 Synthesizing Solid Structures..................................................................... 302 Detecting Crystal Defects............................................................................ 303 Chapter 19: Nanotechnology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Defining nanotechnology ............................................................................ 305 History of nanotechnology................................................................ 306 The science of nanotechnology........................................................ 307 Top-down versus bottom-up............................................................. 307 Nanomaterials............................................................................................... 308 Size and shape control....................................................................... 308 Self-assembly and gray goo............................................................... 309 Applications for Nanotechnology............................................................... 310 Cancer therapy.................................................................................... 310 Catalysis............................................................................................... 311 Education............................................................................................. 312 Part V: The Part of Tens............................................. 313 Chapter 20: Ten Nobels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Locating Ligands: Alfred Werner................................................................ 315 Making Ammonia: Fritz Haber..................................................................... 316 Creating Transuranium Elements: McMillan and Seaborg...................... 316 Adding Electronegativity: Pauling.............................................................. 316 Preparing Plastics: Ziegler and Natta ........................................................ 317 Sandwiching Compounds: Fischer and Wilkinson................................... 317

Author Alvin W. Orbaek and Michael Matson Isbn 9781118217948 File size 14.8 Mb Year 2013 Pages 384 Language English File format PDF Category Chemistry Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare The easy way to get a grip on inorganic chemistry Inorganic chemistry can be an intimidating subject, but it doesn’t have to be! Whether you’re currently enrolled in an inorganic chemistry class or you have a background in chemistry and want to expand your knowledge, Inorganic Chemistry For Dummies is the approachable, hands-on guide you can trust for fast, easy learning. Inorganic Chemistry For Dummies features a thorough introduction to the study of the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds. In plain English, it explains the principles of inorganic chemistry and includes worked-out problems to enhance your understanding of the key theories and concepts of the field. Presents information in an effective and straightforward manner Covers topics you’ll encounter in a typical inorganic chemistry course Provides plain-English explanations of complicated concepts If you’re pursuing a career as a nurse, doctor, or engineer or a lifelong learner looking to make sense of this fascinating subject, Inorganic Chemistry For Dummies is the quick and painless way to master inorganic chemistry.     Download (14.8 Mb) Intermediate Organic Chemistry, 3rd Edition Tools of Chemistry Education Research Chemistry Workbook For Dummies, 2nd Edition Master The Ap Chemistry, 2nd Edition Chemistry: 1,001 Practice Problems For Dummies Load more posts

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