How to Read Chinese Poetry: A Guided Anthology by Zong-qi Cai


955853ed4d2bfbf-261x361.jpeg Author Zong-qi Cai
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Year 2008
Pages 456
Language Englisch
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❀ ❀ ❀ How to Read Chinese Poetry ❀ ❀ ❀ How to Read Chinese Poetry a guided anthology ❀ ❀ ❀ edited by zong-qi cai Columbia University Press New York Columbia University Press wishes to express its appreciation for assistance given by the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation for International Scholarly Exchange in the publication of this book. Columbia University Press wishes to express its appreciation for assistance given by the Pushkin Fund toward the cost of publishing this book. Columbia Universit y Press Publishers Since 1893 New York Chichester, West Sussex Copyright © 2008 Columbia University Press All rights reserved Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data How to read Chinese poetry : a guided anthology / edited by Zong-qi Cai. p. cm. Chinese and English. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-231-13940-3 (cloth : alk. paper) ISBN 978-0-231-13941-0 (paper : alk. paper) ISBN 978-0-231-51188-9 (electronic) 1. Chinese poetry—History and criticism.  2. Chinese poetry—Translations into English.  I. Cai, Zong-qi. II. Title. PL2308.H65  2007 895.1'1009—dc22 2007023263 ♾ Columbia University Press books are printed on permanent and durable acid-free paper. Printed in the United States of America c  10  9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1 p  10  9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1 Contents ❀ ❀ ❀ Thematic Contents  xi A Note on How to Use This Anthology  xxi Major Chinese Dynasties  xxiii List of Symbols  xxv Introduction: Major Aspects of Chinese Poetry Zong-qi Cai 1 Part 1 Pre-Qin Times 1. Tetrasyllabic Shi Poetry: The Book of Poetry (Shijing) william h. nienhauser jr. C1.1 The Grove at Zhu (Mao no. 144) C1.2 The Peach Tree Tender (Mao no. 6) C1.3 Mulberries in the Lowlands (Mao no. 228) C1. 4 I Beg of You, Zhong Zi (Mao no. 76) C1.5 The Banks of the Ru (Mao no. 10) C1.6 The Retiring Girl (Mao no. 42) C1. 7 The River Has Branches (Mao no. 22) C1.8 Little Stars (Mao no. 21) C1.9 Gathering the White Artemesia (Mao no. 13) C1.10 The Kudzu Vine Grows Longer (Mao no. 2) C1.11 Gathering the Duckweed (Mao no. 15) C1.12 Egrets in Flight (Mao no. 278) C1.13 Woven (Mao no. 237) 2. Sao Poetry: The Lyrics of Chu (Chuci ) Fusheng Wu C2.1 The Lord of the Xiang River (attrib. Qu Yuan) C2.2 The Lady of the Xiang River (attrib. Qu Yuan) C2.3 On Encountering Trouble (Qu Yuan) Part 2 13 15 16 17 18 20 22 23 25 26 27 29 30 30 36 38 40 41 The Han Dynasty 3. Fu Poetry: An Ancient-Style Rhapsody (Gufu) David R. Knechtges C3.1 Fu on the Imperial Park (Sima Xiangru) 59 61 vi contents 4. Shi Poetry: Music Bureau Poems (Yuefu) Jui-lung Su C4.1 Songs to Pacify the World, for Inside the Palace, No. 1 (anon.) C4.2 Songs to Pacify the World, for Inside the Palace, No. 3 (anon.) C4.3 Behold, the Grand Unity (anon.) C4. 4 We Fought South of the Walls (anon.) C4.5 Song of the East Gate (anon.) C4.6 There Is One I Love (anon.) C4. 7 Marvelous! A Ballad (anon.) C4.8 Mulberry Along the Lane (anon.) 5. Pentasyllabic Shi Poetry: The “Nineteen Old Poems” Zong-qi Cai C5.1 No. 1, On and On, Again On and On [You Go] (anon.) C5.2 No. 3, Green, Green Grows the Cypress on the Hilltop (anon.) C5.3 No. 13, I Ride My Carriage to the Upper East Gate (anon.) C5. 4 No. 6, I Cross the River to Pluck Hibiscus Flowers (anon.) C5.5 No. 16, Cold and Cold: The Year Approaches Its End (anon.) C5.6 No. 17, The First Winter Month: The Cold Air Comes (anon.)  C5. 7 No. 7, Bright Moon Shines in the Clear Night (anon.) Part 3 84 85 86 88 90 91 93 95 97 103 105 106 107 109 110 111 115 The Six Dynasties 6. Pentasyllabic Shi Poetry: Landscape and Farmstead Poems Wendy Swartz C6.1 Returning to Live on the Farm, No. 1 (Tao Qian) C6.2 On Drinking Wine, Twenty Poems, No. 5 (Tao Qian) C6.3 On Drinking Wine, Twenty Poems, No. 7 (Tao Qian) C6. 4 On Moving House, Two Poems, No. 2 (Tao Qian) C6.5 Climbing Yongjia’s Green Crag Mountain (Xie Lingyun) C6.6 What I Observed as I Crossed the Lake on My Way from Southern Mountain to Northern Mountain (Xie Lingyun) C6. 7 Climbing the Lakeside Tower (Xie Lingyun) 7. Pentasyllabic Shi Poetry: New Topics Xiaofei Tian C7.1 An Outing to the Eastern Field (Xie Tiao) C7.2 Jade Stairs Resentment (Xie Tiao) C7.3 Autumn Evening (Xiao Gang) C7. 4 Evening Sun in the Rear Hall (Xiao Gang) C7.5 On Clouds (Xiao Gang) C7.6 On a Fair Lady Viewing a Painting (Xiao Gang) C7. 7 On a Lone Duck (Xiao Gang) C7.8 Returning to the South of the City from the Encampment (Xiao Gang) 121 122 125 126 128 130 133 135 141 142 143 145 146 148 149 150 151 contents C7.9 A Cold Garden: On What I See (Yu Xin) C7.10 In Response to Director Liu Zhen (Yu Xin) Part 4 152 154 T h e Ta n g D y n a s t y 8. Recent-Style Shi Poetry: Pentasyllabic Regulated Verse (Wuyan Lüshi ) Zong-qi Cai C8.1 Spring Scene (Du Fu) C8.2 The Jiang and Han Rivers (Du Fu) C8.3 Climbing the Yueyang Tower with Xia Shi’er (Li Bai) C8. 4 Zhongnan Mountain (Wang Wei) 9. Recent-Style Shi Poetry: Heptasyllabic Regulated Verse (Qiyan Lüshi ) Robert Ashmore C9.1 The Qu River, No. 2 (Du Fu) C9.2 On the River, I Came upon Waters Surging Like the Ocean: For Now, I Give This Short Account (Du Fu) C9.3 Autumn Meditations, No. 8 (Du Fu) C9. 4 Dreaming Heaven (Li He) C9.5 The Milky Way: Syrinx-Playing (Li Shangyin) C9.6 Sui Palace (Li Shangyin) C9. 7 Untitled (Li Shangyin) C9.8 Brocade Zither (Li Shangyin) 10. Recent-Style Shi Poetry: Quatrains (  Jueju) Charles Egan C10.1 Ziye Song (anon.) C10.2 In Praise of Pear Blossoms on the Pond (Wang Rong) C10.3 Spring Lament (Jin Changxu) C10. 4 Miscellaneous Poems, No. 2 (Wang Wei) C10.5 Climbing Crane Tower (Wang Zhihuan) C10.6 The Deer Fence (Wang Wei) C10. 7 Calling-Bird Brook (Wang Wei) C10.8 Quiet Night Thoughts (Li Bai) C10.9 Amusing Myself (Li Bai) C10.10 Lament of the Jade Stairs (Li Bai) C10.11 Following the Army (Wang Changling) C10.12 Autumn Songs of the Hall of Abiding Faith (five poems) (Wang Changling) C10.13 Sending Off Meng Haoran to Guangling at Yellow Crane Tower (Li Bai) C10.14 Three Quatrains, No. 3 (Du Fu) C10.15 Red Cliff (Du Mu) C10.16 Dispelling Sorrow (Du Mu) C10.17 Chang’e (Li Shangyin) 161 162 174 176 177 181 182 184 186 188 189 191 193 195 199 202 202 204 205 206 207 209 210 211 212 213 214 216 216 217 218 219 vii viii contents 11. Ancient-Style Shi Poetry: Continuation and Changes Paula Varsano C11.1 Moved by Events I Encounter, No. 6 (Chen Zi’ang) C11.2 A Song on Ascending Youzhou Terrace (Chen Zi’ang) C11.3 A Lu Mountain Tune: Sent to Minister Lu Xuzhou (Li Bai) C11. 4 Planting Flowers on the Eastern Slope, No. 1 (Bai Juyi) Planting Flowers on the Eastern Slope, No. 2 (Bai Juyi) Part 5 226 227 230 232 238 239 The Five Dynasties and the Song Dynasty 12. Ci Poetry: Short Song Lyrics (Xiaoling) Maija Bell Samei C12.1 To the Tune “Crows Call at Night” (attrib. Li Yu) C12.2 To the Tune “Southern Tune,” No. 1 (anon.) C12.3 To the Tune “Southern Tune,” No. 2 (anon.) C12. 4 To the Tune “On the Water Clock at Night” (Wen Tingyun) C12.5 To the Tune “Buddha-Like Barbarian” (Wen Tingyun) C12.6 To the Tune “Audience at Golden Gate” (Wei Zhuang) C12. 7 To the Tune “Beautiful Lady Yu” (Li Yu) C12.8 To the Tune “Butterflies Lingering over Flowers” (attrib. Ouyang Xiu) C12.9 To the Tune “Sand in Silk-Washing Stream” (Yan Shu) 13. Ci Poetry: Long Song Lyrics (Manci ) Xinda Lian C13.1 To the Tune “Eight Beats of a Ganzhou Song” (Liu Yong) C13.2 To the Tune “Prelude to the River Tune” (Su Shi) C13.3 To the Tune “The Charm of Niannu”: Meditation on the Past at Red Cliff (Su Shi) C13. 4 To the Tune “One Beat Followed by Another, a Long Tune” (Li Qingzhao) C13.5 To the Tune “Congratulating the Bridegroom” (Xin Qiji) C13.6 To the Tune “Groping for Fish” (Xin Qiji) 14. Ci Poetry: Long Song Lyrics on Objects (Yongwu Ci ) Shuen-fu Lin C14.1 Secret Fragrance (Jiang Kui) C14.2 Dappled Shadows (Jiang Kui) C14.3 Prelude to the Oriole’s Song (Wu Wenying) 15. Shi Poetry: Ancient and Recent Styles Ronald Egan C15.1 Small Plum Tree in a Garden in the Hills, No. 1 (Lin Bu) C15.2 Lament for My Wife, Nos. 1, 2, 3 (Mei Yaochen) C15.3 Seeing Off Canliao (Su Shi) C15. 4 Written on Master Huyin’s Wall, No. 1 (Wang Anshi) 245 246 249 250 251 253 254 255 257 258 262 264 268 270 273 276 280 286 287 288 296 308 309 311 313 315 contents C15.5 C15.6 C15. 7 C15.8 C15.9 C15.10 As Dawn Approached on an Autumn Night, I Went Out My Bramble Gate and, Met by Chilly Air, Was Moved to Write This, No. 2 (Lu You) An Outing to Villages West of the Mountains (Lu You) Fields and Gardens Through the Four Seasons, Random Inspirations: Spring, No. 10 (Fan Chengda) Fields and Gardens Through the Four Seasons, Random Inspirations: Summer, No. 34 (Fan Chengda) Fields and Gardens Through the Four Seasons, Random Inspirations: Autumn, No. 44 (Fan Chengda) Fields and Gardens Through the Four Seasons, Random Inspirations: Summer, No. 35 (Fan Chengda) Part 6 317 320 322 322 323 324 The Yuan, Ming, and Qing Dynasties 16. Qu Poetry: Song Poems (Sanqu) of the Yuan Dynasty Xinda Lian C16.1 To the Tune “The Unbreakable String”: Fat Couple (Wang Heqing) C16.2 To the Tune “The Song of Shouyang” (Ma Zhiyuan) C16.3 To the Tune “Sky-Clear Sand”: Autumn Thoughts (Ma Zhiyuan) C16. 4 To the Tune “Sheep on Mountain Slope”: Meditation on the Past at Tong Pass (Zhang Yanghao) C16.5 To the Tune “Drunk in a Peaceful Time”: Idle Chats of the Woodcutter and the Fisherman (Qiao Ji) C16.6 To the Tune “Lüyaobian”: Of Myself (Qiao Ji) C16. 7 To the Tune “A Half ”: On Love (Guan Hanqing) C16.8 To the Tune “Clear River, a Prelude”: On Separation, No. 4 (Guan Yunshi) C16.9 To the Tune “Spring Song”: On Love (Bai Pu) C16.10 To the Tune “Heaven in a Drunkard’s Eye”: On the Big Butterfly (Wang Heqing) 329 17. Shi Poetry of the Ming and Qing Dynasties Grace S. Fong C17.1 Autumn Gaze (Li Mengyang) C17.2 Composed at Random: Sent to Master Fang (Yuan Hongdao) C17.3 Qinhuai: Miscellaneous Poems (Wang Shizhen) C17. 4 Traveling in the Mountains: Miscellaneous Poem (Yuan Mei) C17.5 Recording Disorder in the Year Jiashen (Li Yu) C17.6 Song of Suffering Calamity (Wang Duanshu) C17. 7 On the Full Moon: Written at Age Six (Gan Lirou) C17.8 Weeping for Elder Sister (Gan Lirou) C17.9 Hastening the Bride’s Toilet (Gan Lirou) 354 330 332 334 335 338 340 342 344 345 347 355 357 359 360 362 364 369 369 370 ix  contents C17.10 C17.11 C17.12 C17.13 C17.14 Night in the Boudoir (Gan Lirou) Expressing My Feelings (Gan Lirou) Recited at Random (Gan Lirou) On a Summer Day: Dwelling in the Mountains (Yan Liu) Recited While Sick (Mengyue) 18. A Synthesis: Rhythm, Syntax, and Vision of Chinese Poetry Zong-qi Cai C18.1 Sui Palace (Li Shangyin) C18.2 Crossing the Sea of Loneliness (Wen Tianxiang) C18.3 To the Tune “Sixteen-Character Song” (Cai Shen) C18. 4 To the Tune “Sky-Clear Sand”: Autumn Thoughts (Ma Zhiyuan) C18.5 To the Tune “Sky-Clear Sand”: Of This Occasion (Qiao Ji) Phonetic Transcriptions of Entering-Tone Characters  401 Abbreviations of Primary Texts  403 Acknowledgments  405 Contributors  407 Glossary-Index  411 371 372 373 374 375 379 388 391 394 395 396 T h e m at i c C o n t e n t s ❀ ❀ ❀ 1 . I n t e l l e c t u a l a n d C u lt u r a l M i l i e u 1.1 Confucianism 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.1.5 Confucian morality preached in Sima Xiangru’s “Fu on the Imperial Park” 71–73 The Confucian cosmic vision in Du Fu’s poetry 162–169, 174–175 Chen Zi’ang’s blending of Confucian ethics with 227 Daoist and Buddhist spirituality Bai Juyi’s promotion of the restoration of Confucian values through poetry 237–240 Ridicule of Confucian honors and titles in Qiao Ji’s “Of Myself ” 340–342 1.2 Daoism and Abstruse Learning (Xuanxue) 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.2.6 1.2.7 1.2.8 Laozi’s utopian vision in Tao Qian’s farmstead poems 123 Zhuangzi’s ideas on language and meaning in Tao Qian’s poems 125 Yijing hexagrams as the structural model of Xie Lingyun’s landscape poems 131–137 Yin-yang cosmology and the tonal patterns of regulated verse 173–174 Yin-yang cosmology in Wang Zhihuan’s “Climbing Crane Tower” 206 Alchemy as content and model in Li Bai’s “A Lu Mountain Tune: Sent to Minister Lu Xuzhou” 233–237 Gender and reclusion 373–375 Reclusion and transcendental roaming (see 2.9) 1.3 Buddhism 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 1.3.5 Buddhist perspectives in Xiao Gang’s poems on things  148–149, 150–151 Landscape and Buddhist vision in Wang Wei’s “Zhongnan Mountain” 177–179 Buddhist concepts and vision in Wang Wei’s quatrains 207–210 Buddhism and poetry discussed in Su Shi’s “Seeing Off 313–315 Canliao” Buddhist elements in women’s poetry 373–376 1.4 Music and Ritual Performances 1.4.1 Folk and court music in the Shijing 13–14 xii thematic contents 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 1.4.5 1.4.6 1.4.7 1.4.8 1.4.9 1.4.10 1.4.11 1.4.12 1.4.13 1.4.14 Shamanistic performances in the Chuci 38, 39, 49 The establishment of the Music Bureau in the Han 84 Music performance and irregular line lengths in Han 84, 90, 92 yuefu poetry 85, 89 Types of songs and music related to Han yuefu poetry 143–144 Yuefu songs performed at the Liang court Poems on music by Li He and their influence on Li Shangyin 189 200–202 Six Dynasties yuefu quatrain songs Heptasyllabic quatrains as Tang dynasty song lyrics 213 ci poetry 245 New music from Central Asia and the rise of 245–246 Musical tunes as part of a ci poem’s title Musical songs and Yuan drama conventions 329–330 330 Musical modes and tunes as part of a qu poem’s title Marriage rituals recorded in Gan Lirou’s “Hastening the 370–371 Bride’s Toilet”  2. Themes 2.1 Love and Courtship 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6 2.1.7 2.1.8 2.1.9 2.1.10 2.1.11 2.1.12 2.1.13 2.1.14 2.1.15 2.1.16 2.1.17 2.1.18 Historical contexts for love songs 15 Erotic love in the Shijing 15–16, 20–22 A lover compared to love’s tokens 22–23 37–38, 50 Courtship and shamanistic rituals in the Chuci In shamanistic rituals described in the Chuci 37–40, 45, 49, 52 As analogous to the ruler–minister relationship in the Chuci 40, 46, 50–51 As analogous to the quest for one’s ideals 50–51 Flirtation and repartee in the Han yuefu poem “Mulberry Along the Lane” 97–99 Yearning for the absent beloved 143–144 Reunion with the beloved after a temporary separation 151–152 The special use of conventions of romance in Li Shangyin’s poetry 193 A lover’s quarrel in a Ziye song of the Six Dynasties  202 Romantic imaginings in Du Mu’s “Red Cliff ” 217–218 Morning-after ennui in Wen Tingyun’s “To the Tune ‘Buddha-Like Barbarian’ ’’ 253–254 A bedside admission to playing coy in Guan Hanqing’s “On Love” 342–343 A girl’s bold confession of love in Guan Yunshi’s “On Separation” 344–345 A girl’s exhortation to carnal pleasure in Bai Pu’s “On Love” 345–346 An erotic parody of poems on things in Wang Heqing’s 347–348 “On the Big Butterfly” thematic contents 2.1.19 Sisterly love in Gan Lirou’s poems 2.1.20 Conjugal love in linked verse 2.1.21 Yearning for the absent beloved in Cai Shen’s “To the Tune ‘Sixteen-Character Song’” 369–370 371–372 394–395 2.2 The Beautiful Woman 2.2.1 2.2.2 Compared to flora As a symbol of moral virtues in Qu Yuan’s “On Encountering Trouble” 2.2.3 The combination of sensual beauty and moral rectitude in a Han yuefu poem 2.2.4 The illusion of beauty in Xiao Gang’s “On a Fair Lady Viewing a Painting” 2.2.5 Sensual beauty and the voyeur’s gaze in Wen Tingyun’s “To the Tune ‘On the Water Clock at Night’” 2.2.6 Delightful images of 16–18 42–43 97–98 149–150 251–252 396–397 2.3 The Abandoned Woman 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 2.3.6 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 2.3.11 2.3.12 2.3.13 2.3.14 2.3.15 Plaints of an abandoned female lover 13 Her lover compared to a wandering river 24 93–95 An outburst of anger by a Han yuefu persona The representation of a lonely woman in Xie Tiao’s “Jade 143–144 Stairs Resentment” Boudoir lament as a mode evoked in the romantic poetry of Li Shangyin 190–191, 193–195 The soldier’s lonely wife in Jin Changxu’s “Spring Lament” 204–205 The abandoned palace lady Ban Jieyu in Li Bai’s “Lament of the Jade Stairs” 212 The abandoned palace lady Ban Jieyu in Wang Changling’s 213–215 jueju “Autumn Songs of the Hall of Abiding Faith” A wandering man and an abandoned woman accusing each 249–251 other in the anonymous “To the Tune ‘Southern Tune’” Appropriation of the abandoned woman’s voice by early ci poets 251 Nature and the emotions of abandonment in Ouyang Xiu’s [attrib.] “To the Tune ‘Butterflies Lingering over Flowers’” 257–258 The interplay of imagined and realistic scenes in Ouyang Xiu’s [attrib.] “To the Tune ‘Butterflies Lingering over 257–258 Flowers’” An outpouring of sorrow depicted in Li Qingzhao’s “To the Tune ‘One Beat Followed by Another, a Long Tune’” 273–276 Springtime melancholia blended with historical reflections in Xin Qiji’s “To the Tune ‘Groping for Fish’” 281–284 Self-representation of a young widow 372–373 xiii xiv thematic contents 2.4 Eulogy and Admonition 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4.5 A young woman’s warning to her lover not to come too close 18–20 Praise of King Wen’s exploits 30–33 Qu Yuan’s admonition to King Huai 43, 44, 46 An epideictic depiction of an imperial park by Sima Xiangru 61–71 fu poem by Sima Admonition to Emperor Wu of the Han in a Xiangru 71–73 88–89 2.4.6 A hymn to the Grand Unity in the Han yuefu corpus 2.4.7 The evocation of Shanglin Park in Du Fu’s “Autumn 186–187 Meditations” 2.5 Hardship and Injustice 2.5.1 2.5.2 A return from traveling but to a different woman 23–24 Protest against social injustice in Qu Yuan’s “On Encountering Trouble” 44, 46 2.5.3 Hardship caused by one’s uprightness in an unjust world 46 90, 91, 98 2.5.4 Poems of social protest in the Han yuefu corpus 2.5.5 Social protest in Du Fu’s “Three Quatrains” 216–217 2.5.6 Social critique in Chen Zi’ang’s “Ganyu” 226 2.5.7 Social critique in Bai Juyi’s poems 237–240 2.5.8 Poetic witness to hardship and injustice 360–362 2.5.9 The parodic style in Li Yu’s “Recording Disorder” 362–364 2.5.10 Wang Duanshu’s narrative of her plight during the Manchu conquest 364–366 2.5.11 Gan Lirou’s narration of widowhood 372–373 2.5.12 Wen Tianxiang’s lamentation over the ruined country 391–392 2.6 The Wandering Man 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.6.4 2.6.5 2.6.6 2.6.7 2.6.8 2.6.9 Brooding over separation and aging in the “Nineteen Old Poems” 104–107 Human transience and carpe diem in the “Nineteen Old Poems” 106–109 The poet in exile in Du Fu’s “Autumn Meditations” 186–188 Meeting a neighbor on the road in Wang Wei’s 205–206 “Miscellaneous Poems” The homesick soldier in Wang Changling’s “Following the Army” 213 Reflections on solitude 230–231, 239 A wandering man and an abandoned woman accusing each other in the anonymous “To the Tune ‘Southern Tune’” 249–251 The monologue of a homesick wanderer in Liu Yong’s “To the Tune ‘Eight Beats of a Ganzhou Song’” 264–267 Moments of intense perception and reflection in Ma Zhiyuan’s “Autumn Thoughts” 334–335 thematic contents 2.6.10 A personal account of travel in Yuan Mei’s “Traveling in the Mountains: Miscellaneous Poem” 360 2.7 Landscape 2.7.1 2.7.2 2.7.3 2.7.4 2.7.5 2.7.6 2.7.7 2.7.8 2.7.9 2.7.10 2.7.11 2.7.12 2.7.13 A Yijing-based structure in Xie Lingyun’s landscape poems 131–137 Verisimilitude and other features of Xie Lingyun’s landscape 132 poems Landscape details in the poetry of Xie Tiao and Xiao Gang 142–143, 145–148 Mountains and rivers in Wang Zhihuan’s “Climbing Crane Tower” 206 207–210 Landscape as enlightenment in Wang Wei’s jueju poems Landscape as an analogue of emotion in Li Bai’s “Quiet 210 Night Thoughts” “Climbing high” and viewing the landscape 230–231, 236 Landscape and the celestial voyage in Li Bai’s “A Lu 232–237 Mountain Tune” Nature and social critique in Bai Juyi’s poems 238–250 252, 255, 258 The fusion of feeling and scene in early ci poetry Imagery of the frontier in Li Mengyang’s “Autumn Gaze” 355–357 Nature in everyday life 360, 374–375 Yan Liu’s imitation of Wang Wei’s nature poetry 374–375 2.8 Farming and Reclusion 2.8.1 2.8.2 2.8.3 2.8.4 2.8.5 Tao Qian’s personal accounts of rural life Xie Lingyun’s meditations on withdrawal and service Farmstead poems by Song poets Joys of a fisherman and a woodcutter in Qiao Ji’s “Idle Chats of the Woodcutter and the Fisherman” A recluse’s witty ridicule of Confucian honors and titles in Qiao Ji’s “Of Myself ” 121–129 134–136 320–325 338–340 340–342 2.9 Imagined Journey to the Celestial World 2.9.1 2.9.2 2.9.3 2.9.4 2.9.5 2.9.6 In shamanistic rituals 37–40, 45, 49, 52 Shamanistic flight of the daimon 37–40, 45, 49, 52 95–96 The world of the Daoist immortals in Han yuefu The celestial journey in Late Tang poetry 188–191 Motifs of immortals in Late Tang poetry 188–191 Longing for the goddess of the moon in Li Shangyin’s 219 “Chang’e” 2.9.7 Blended with landscape depiction in Li Bai’s poetry 235 2.9.8 Reflections on Daoist transcendence 235–237 2.9.9 Su Shi speaking in the voice of an immortal 269–270 2.10 The Depiction of Things 2.10.1 In shamanistic flight 38–39, 40–41, 48, 52 xv xvi thematic contents 2.10.2 Seeing things from a Buddhist perspective in Xiao Gang’s poems 148–149, 150–151 2.10.3 Poems on objects as a possible mode in Li Shangyin’s hermetic poems 190, 196 287, 291–296, 304 2.10.4 Song lyrics on objects (yongwu ci) 2.10.5 Plum blossoms depicted in Lin Bu’s “Small Plum 309–311 Tree in a Garden in the Hills, No. 1” 2.10.6 An erotic parody of “poems on things” in Wang Heqing’s “On the Big Butterfly” 347–348 2.10.7 A child’s poem about the moon 368–369 2.11 Remembrances 2.11.1 The capital city Jiankang in Yu Xin’s “In Response to Director Liu Zhen” 154–156 2.11.2 Memory of the Tang and Han in Du Fu’s “Autumn Meditations” 186–188 2.11.3 Historical fantasy in Late Tang poetry and narrative 191–193, 194–197 2.11.4 Remembering the Three Kingdoms in Du Mu’s “Red Cliff ” 217–218 2.11.5 Memory as regret in Du Mu’s “Dispelling Sorrow” 218–219 2.11.6 Nostalgia for the poetry of the ancients 226–227, 230–231 2.11.7 Lost empire in Li Yu’s “To the Tune ‘Beautiful Lady Yu’” 255–257 2.11.8 Remembrance of time past in Yan Shu’s “To the Tune ‘Sand in Silk-Washing Stream’” 258–259 2.11.9 A great battle and its heroic victor in Su Shi’s “Meditation on the Past at Red Cliff ” 270–273 2.11.10 Lost love in Wu Wenying’s “Prelude to the Oriole’s Song” 299–300 2.11.11 The beloved wife in Mei Yaochen’s “Lament for My Wife” 311–313 2.11.12 A lost country in Lu You’s “As Dawn Approached on an Autumn Night” 317–320 2.11.13 The rise and fall of past dynasties in Zhang Yanghao’s “Meditation on the Past at Tong Pass” 336–337 2.11.14 Nostalgia for the fallen Ming capital in Wang Shizhen’s “Miscellaneous Poems” 358–359 3. Prosody 3.1 Rhyme 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5 General features of Chinese poetic rhymes 6–7 Rhyming schemes of regulated verse 170–172, 182 Rhyming schemes of regulated quatrains 220 Rhyming patterns and poetic closure in regulated quatrains 221 245–247 Irregular-line rhymes of ci poetry thematic contents 3.2 Tonal Patterning 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6 3.2.7 3.2.8 Prototypes of tonal patterning in Xie Tiao’s works 141, 142 Four tonal patterns of regulated quatrains 169–171, 220 Four tonal patterns of pentasyllabic regulated verse 169–172 Four tonal patterns of heptasyllabic regulated verse 169–172, 182 Tonal patterns and poetic closure in regulated quatrains 221–222 The avoidance of tonal patterning in Tang ancient-style 226, 229–230 poems 247–248 Tonal patterning in ci poetry 331–332 Tonal patterning in qu poetry 3.3 Semantic Rhythm 3.3.1 The primary importance of semantic rhythm in Chinese poetry 7 3.3.2 Tetrameter as standard in early verse 14, 16–17, 24 103–104, 385–387 3.3.3 2 + 3 rhythm of pentasyllabic shi poetry 219–220, 221 3.3.4 Semantic rhythm in jueju verse 3.3.5 Variations in semantic rhythm in old-style poetry 235, 237 382 3.3.6 2 + 2 rhythm of tetrasyllabic shi poetry 382–385 3.3.7 3 + 2 rhythm of sao poetry 385 3.3.8 Typical rhythms of fu poetry 387–390 3.3.9 2 + 2 + 3 rhythm of heptasyllabic shi poetry 390–392 3.3.10 4 + 3 rhythm of heptasyllabic shi poetry 392–397 3.3.11 Variable rhythms of ci and qu poetry 4. Diction 4.1. Alliterative and Rhyming Binomes 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 As emotional expressions in the Shijing 13 As a means of enlivening description in Han fu 62–63, 67–68 poetry As a means of combining emotion and perception 231 Used to intensify emotional expression in Li Qingzhao’s “To the Tune ‘One Beat Followed 273–276, 395–396 by Another, a Long Tune’” Used to enhance perceptual and emotive impact in Qiao Ji’s “Of This Occasion” 396–397 4.2 Structuring and Animating Words 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Xing as a structural foundation for a poem Structural functions of the refrain word xi “Verse eyes” in the “Nineteen Old Poems” “Verse eyes” in Six Dynasties poetry The avoidance of “empty words” in regulated verse The abundance of “content words” in regulated verse 14, 20, 25 36–37 114–115 134 163–164 163–164 xvii xviii thematic contents 4.2.7 Puns in Six Dynasties yuefu quatrains 201 4.2.8 The avoidance of “empty words” in some late Six 202 Dynasties quatrains 245, 252–253, 256 4.2.9 The use of “empty words” in short ci poetry 4.2.10 Structural functions of “leading words” in Liu 264–268 Yong’s “To the Tune ‘Eight Beats of a Ganzhou Song’” 4.3 Allusion 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 4.3.6 4.3.7 4.3.8 4.3.9 4.3.10 4.3.11 4.3.12 4.3.13 4.3.14 4.3.15 Literary echoes in Yu Xin’s “In Response to Director Liu Zhen” 154–155 Compression and fragmentation of image in Late Tang poetry 185–186 Du Fu’s allusions to his own works in “Autumn Meditations” 186 Allusion and ambiguity in Late Tang regulated verse  186–197 Fantastic tales and apocryphal history in Late Tang poetry 191–193, 194–197 Chuci romances alluded to in Late Tang poetry 193–194 211–212, 213–215 In the lady Ban Jieyu story in Tang jueju verse For expressing romantic sensibility in Du Mu’s 217–218 “Red Cliff ” In Li Bai’s poems 233–235, 237 In Bai Juyi’s poems 239–240 Allusion and spatial design 294–295 Textual allusion for political allegory 294–296 Wu Wenying’s allusions to his own works 300–304 Allusions merged with description in Wang Anshi’s “Written on Master Huyin’s Wall” 315–317 In Li Mengyang’s “Autumn Gaze” 355–357 5 . S y n ta x 5.1 Parallel Couplet 5.1.1 5.1.2 An example by Xie Lingyun 136–137, 385–387 Increasingly intricate parallelism in late Six 142–143, 145–147 Dynasties poetry 5.1.3 “Borrowed parallelism” 183, 185 5.1.4 The dense style in the poetry of Du Fu and Late 186–188, 190–197 Tang poets jueju verse 203, 222 5.1.5 Descriptive parallelism in 222 5.1.6 Avoided in second couplets of jueju verse 5.1.7 Avoided in Tang ancient-style poems 236 5.1.8 In ancient-style poetry 236–237 246, 259 5.1.9 Avoided in early ci poetry 5.1.10 Syntactic and semantic parallelism in Yuan Hongdao’s 357–358 “Composed at Random” thematic contents 5.2 Subject + Predicate Construction 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5 As a spatiotemporal-logical principle of organization 7–9, 380–381 In Chinese compared with English 380–381 Fenollosa’s and Pound’s praise of Chinese subject + predicate construction 381 shi poems 386 Pseudo–subject + predicate construction in some Multiline subject + predicate construction in some ci 393–394 poems 5.3 Topic + Comment Construction 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.5 5.3.6 5.3.7 5.3.8 As an analogical-associational principle of organization Comparison of topic + comment constructions in pentasyllabic and heptasyllabic jueju verse Compared with subject + predicate construction Originative topic + comment construction in the Shijing Weakened topic + comment construction in sao poetry Variants of topic + comment construction in shi poetry Multiline topic + comment construction in some ci and qu poems Skewed topic + comment construction in some ci and qu poems 7–9 222–223 380–381 382 382–383 385–392 393–394 394–396 6. Structure 6.1 Spatiotemporal-Logical Structures 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.3 6.1.4 6.1.5 6.1.6 6.1.7 6.1.8 Fu as a spatiotemporal-logical principle of global structuring 7–9 Blended with analogical-associational structures 7–9 Subject + predicate construction 7–9, 380–381 8 The lyric use of the fu principle in ci poetry 75 The tripartite linear structure of Han fu poetry The transformation of the self-expressive mode 286 286–287, 294–295 The creation of spatial design in long ci poetry Narrating life phases 367–368 6.2 Analogical-Associational Structures 6.2.1 Blended with spatiotemporal-logical structures 7–9 6.2.2 Balanced bipartite combination of 7–9, 162–169, 199, 203–204 nature and emotion in shi poetry 13 6.2.3 Definition of fu, bi, xing 6.2.4 Bi-xing as an analogical-associational principle of local 112 structuring 6.2.5 Bi-xing as a global binary structure in the “Nineteen Old Poems” 112–113 6.2.6 A binary nature–emotion division within the fourfold thematic development in regulated verse 165–169 xix

Author Zong-qi Cai Isbn File size 2MB Year 2008 Pages 456 Language Englisch File format PDF Category Poetry Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare In this “guided” anthology, experts lead students through the major genres and eras of Chinese poetry from antiquity to the modern time. The volume is divided into 6 chronological sections and features more than 140 examples of the best shi, sao, fu, ci, and qu poems. A comprehensive introduction and extensive thematic table of contents highlight the thematic, formal, and prosodic features of Chinese poetry, and each chapter is written by a scholar who specializes in a particular period or genre. Poems are presented in Chinese and English and are accompanied by a tone-marked romanized version, an explanation of Chinese linguistic and poetic conventions, and recommended reading strategies. Sound recordings of the poems are available online free of charge. These unique features facilitate an intense engagement with Chinese poetical texts and help the reader derive aesthetic pleasure and insight from these works as one could from the original. Contributors: Robert Ashmore (Univ. of California, Berkeley); Zong-qi Cai; Charles Egan (San Francisco State); Ronald Egan (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara); Grace Fong (McGill); David R. Knechtges (Univ. of Washington); Xinda Lian (Denison); Shuen-fu Lin (Univ. of Michigan); William H. Nienhauser Jr. (Univ. of Wisconsin); Maija Bell Samei; Jui-lung Su (National Univ. of Singapore); Wendy Swartz (Columbia); Xiaofei Tian (Harvard); Paula Varsano (Univ. of California, Berkeley); Fusheng Wu (Univ. of Utah)     Download (2MB) Chinese Rhyme-Prose Home: A Collection of Poetry & Art Another South: Experimental Writing in the South Gravesend (New California Poetry) The Metabolism of Desire: The Poetry of Guido Cavalcanti (Mingling Voices) Load more posts

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