How To Paint And Draw 2015 by Other

How-To-Paint-And-Draw-2015.jpg Author Other
Isbn 978-3598202117
File size 78 MB
Year 2015
Pages 72
Language English
File format PDF
Category drawing


TOM MAY editor, [email protected] JAMIE SCHILDHAUER art editor CONTRIBUTIONS Charlie Bowater, CRAWW, Kevin Crossley, Kim Jung Gi, Edward Howard, Erik Jones, Dave Kendall, Chris Legaspi, Yoann Lossel, Brynn Metheney, Terese Nielsen, Trans Nguyen, Adam Paquette, Cynthia Sheppard, Alex Stead, Fiona Stephenson, Paul Tysall CLAIRE HOWLETT imaginefx editor (on maternity leave) [email protected] BEREN NEALE imaginefx acting editor [email protected] DANIEL VINCENT imaginefx art editor CLIFF HOPE imaginefx operations editor DAN OLIVER group editor-in-chief RODNEY DIVE group art director ADVERTISING SASHA MCGREGOR advertising manager [email protected] +44 (0) 1225 687675 CHRIS MITCHELL account executive [email protected] +44 (0) 1225 687832 PRINT & PRODUCTION VIVIENNE CALVERT production controller MARK CONSTANCE production manager NOLA COKELY ad production manager NATHAN DREWETT ad production co-ordinator MICHELLE ROGERS operational purchasing manager LICENSING REGINA ERAK licensing and syndication director MATT ELLIS senior licensing manager FUTURE PUBLISHING LIMITED MATTHEW PIERCE head of content & marketing, photography, creative & design NIAL FERGUSON director of content & marketing ZILLAH BYNG-MADDICK chief executive Printed in the UK by William Gibbons & Sons Ltd Distributed by Seymour Distribution Ltd +44 (0) 20 7429 4000 2 East Poultry Avenue, London EC1 9PT ImagineFX is the registered trademark of Future Publishing Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Practical Painter is a special edition of ImagineFX magazine. Our aim is to help artists improve both their traditional and digital art skills. For more information please turn to page 43. We are committed to only using magazine paper which is derived from well managed, certified forestry and chlorine-free manufacture. Future Publishing and its paper suppliers have been interdependently certified in accordance with the rules of the FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) Are you ready to paint and draw? In this special edition from ImagineFX magazine, top artists share their techniques and advice on how to create great art, whether you’re using oils, acrylics, watercolours, gouache, pencils, ink or more. We start on p6 by refreshing the fundamentals of drawing and sketching, from the different ways to grip a pencil to how to draw and combine shapes. From there, we’ll lead you through more advanced tips and techniques, from shading to basic anatomy. Then on p54, our focus switches to painting, from setting up a dedicated art workspace to the secrets of different paints. Are you using the right brushes and paper for the kind of art you wish to create? Find out here. From p96, we delve deeper into art theory, taking a look at how to use perspective, the rule of the thirds and the Golden Ratio to bring your art to the next level. Then from p110, professsional artists take you through their projects and explain how they created them. You’ll learn some invaluable tips and secrets along the way. Enjoy! Tom May, Editor [email protected] How to Paint & Draw 3 128 CONTENTS PAINTING: CORE SKILLS DRAWING: CORE SKILLS 6 10 14 18 20 22 54 HOW TO SET UP AN ART WORKSPACE 60 HOW TO CHOOSE THE RIGHT PAINTBRUSH 64 HOW TO CHOOSE THE RIGHT PAPER 68 HOLDING YOUR BRUSH AND MAKING STROKES 72 HOW TO CORRECTLY MIX PAINTS 76 TIPS FOR COMBINING COLOURS 80 GET STARTED WITH WATERCOLOURS 84 GET STARTED WITH ACRYLICS 88 GET STARTED WITH OILS 92 GET STARTED WITH GOUACHE HOW TO HOLD A PENCIL CORRECTLY HOW TO DRAW BASIC SHAPES HOW TO COMBINE SHAPES CHOOSE THE RIGHT DRAWING TOOLS START DRAWING WITH INK START DRAWING WITH PASTELS DRAWING: NEXT STEPS 26 28 30 32 34 36 42 44 100 HOW TO DRAW IN COLOUR HOW TO DRAW AND SHADE IN 3D HOW TO ADD SOFT SHADOWS HOW TO DRAW HEADS HOW TO DRAW ANIMALS HOW TO DRAW WITH MIXED MEDIA PREPARE YOUR SKETCH FOR PRINTING SKETCHBOOK INSPIRATION ART THEORY 96 HOW TO MASTER PERSPECTIVE 100 HOW TO USE THE GOLDEN RATIO 104 HOW TO USE THE RULE OF THIRDS 84 PAINTING: PROJECTS 110 PAINT A VINTAGE PIN-UP PORTRAIT 116 HOW TO PAINT WITH ACYRLIC WASHES 122 HOW TO PAINT A STORYBOOK-STYLE PORTRAIT 128 HOW TO PAINT AN ABSTRACT-STYLE PORTRAIT 134 HOW TO PAINT A CLASSICALLYINSPIRED SCENE 140 HOW TO PAINT FACES 10 Drawing Core skills HOW TO HOLD A PENCIL CORRECTLY The first step to improving your drawing is to make sure you’re holding your pencil correctly. PAUL TYSALL explains the different methods and what each is used for. Y ou’re fairly sure you know how to hold a pencil, right? Well of course you do... but are you holding it correctly? The grip we use for day-to-day writing is very inefficient and will limit you in many drawing scenarios. Quite simply, drawing from the fingers and wrist alone (which is the narrow range promoted by the standard hand writing grip) doesn’t release the full potential of movement that drawing from the entire arm and shoulder affords us. When it comes to drawing, you need to retrain years of accumulated muscle memory that is dictating the way you make marks. Once you weed out these bad habits, your visual vocabulary will broaden with each drawing session. A better grasp will literally leads to a better grasp, because once you gain greater certainty and control over any given drawing medium the confidence to explore what can be done with it becomes more accessible. Which is why over the page we’ll take a brief look at mark making. Having your memory banks full of a wide range of new and interesting marks furthers your ability to express line, shade/ value and texture, the core principles of any drawing. Our aim here is to offer you tips Drawing from the fingers and wrist alone doesn’t release the full potential of movement so that you’ll have an ingrained understanding on how best to approach a drawing before you make the first mark. Be that a study of a model in a life drawing class or an imagined form in your sketchbook, we want you to feel confident with the drawing tool in your hand. Over the following pages we’ll discuss the benefits of changing the way you hold and control your chosen media so it becomes an extension of your body, demonstrating what certain art tools are capable of once you begin twisting and turning your way to becoming a more articulate (and articulated) artist. Paul Tysall is an illustrator, graphic designer and writer working in Bristol. See his work at 12 STEPS TO PENCIL PRECISION Learn to wield your drawing tool like a pro and start making marks. MATERIALS PAINTS Q Derwent Graphic 2B graphite pencil Q Derwent Charcoal pencil, Dark Q Swann-Morton scalpel Q AMI Clutch pencil, 4mm 4B graphite Q Cretacolor stump Q Bamboo reed brush & pen Q Winsor & Newton willow charcoal Q Winsor & Newton fixative (Continues right) 6 1 The two basic types of grip There are several ways to hold a pencil. Most are variants of two main grip types; Tripod and Overhand. Both can be used when holding different kinds of drawing media, but you may notice a tendency to grip tubular media (pencils and ink pens) with the Tripod grip and bulkier media with the Overhand. Both have their place but the Overhand method is generally considered a more adept approach. Before we explain why lets looks at the Tripod grip. How to Paint & Draw 2 The Tripod grip The Tripod grip is the grip we use when writing with a pen, so it’s also known as the Writing method. You grip using the thumb, index and middle finger. The barrel of the pencil should rest naturally in your hand’s web space. Avoid closing the web space, as this forces the barrel to rest on the knuckle of the Index finger and promotes strokes using finger gestures only. Avoid grasping at the tip of the pencil, too: this can limit line length(s) and lead to hairy, less fluid continuous lines. Drawing HOW TO SHARPEN YOUR PENCIL: PART 1 THE RIGHT DEVICE 3 When to use the Tripod grip 5 When to use the Overhand grip Although the range of movement of the Tripod grip is limited, it can be useful for detailing small sections of a big drawing. Try to move your grip as far up the barrel as you can to encourage articulation of the elbow and drawing from the shoulder. The Tripod grip is more appropriately used when working in a small sketchbook, A4 or smaller. Try not to rest your hand on the paper, as this can hinder wrist articulation. Overhand grip combined with a correctly sharpened pencil will increase the versatility and range of marks you can make by introducing the edge of the pencil. Eg, when drawing on a vertical surface (easel) holding the pencil vertically (and with the full edge touching the paper), pulling downwards creates a single line, but moving the edge horizontally left/right will lay down a thicker line of tone. 4 The Overhand grip 6 Getting more from the Overhand grip If you’ve never used the Overhand grip, it feels alien at first, but the benefits are worth the retraining. You first need to sharpen your pencil in a specific way (see How to Sharpen, right). Place your pencil down on a flat surface. Now with the thumb and all four fingers pick up the pencil. All fingers should grip the outer side of the barrel whilst the thumb grips the opposing side, retaining a light grip at all times. Move your index finger away from the outer edge of the pencil to the top of the barrel. This enhances your control of the pencil by acting as your pivot and pressure control. Rolling the wrist forwards means less edge is in contact with the surface, leading to a thinner, sharper line weight. Roll back the wrist and you apply more edge to the surface, broadening and also softening the line quality. You’re probably already accustomed to using a hand-held metal pencil sharpener when drawing. This is fine when working in a sketchbook but there are some downsides. The main one is the very small tip. Less tip equals fewer marks you can make, as you don’t have an exposed edge for shading and light tone. A smaller tip also requires constant resharpening, hindering productivity. How you approach sharpening depends on the way, and scale, that you draw. If you like to work small and use a hatching approach, the ‘needle’ point might be better suited to your approach. If you’re doing larger scale drawing, using the Overhand grip to achieve line and shaded tone, use a ‘bullet’ point. Over the page, we’ll show you how to do both… Q Daler Rowney Soft Putty Rubber Q Staedtler Mars plastic eraser Q Daler Rowney Kandahar ink, Black Indian Q Conté à Paris, Noir 2B 7 Overhand grip exercises Another way to shift line weight is to introduce minor shifts in wrist angle, as you draw a continuous line start to twist the wrist to increase/decrease the amount of edge contact with the surface. To build muscle memory try this exercise: Plot several X’s randomly over a surface; now begin linking these X’s with lines, some short, others continuous, fluctuating line weights as you go. Use four Xs close together (North, East, South and West) to practice drawing ellipses. 8 Making marks Gain confidence by exploring the type of marks you can make using this grip. The foundation of every drawing can be broken down into three basic components; line, shade and texture. The more ways you have of creating these, the more varied your drawing vocabulary will become. Marks can be generated by the following factors; direction, angle, speed and pressure. Try filling a sheet of paper with experimental marks that capture these qualities. SURFACE Q Daler Rowney A1 Smooth cartridge, 130 gsm Q CASS Canford paper - Winter pad, 150 gsm How to Paint & Draw 7 Drawing HOW TO SHARPEN YOUR PENCIL: PART 2 THE NEEDLE TIP Using a craft knife or scalpel, you need to expose about half of an inch worth of tip, by shaving off long incremental pieces of the barrel. Place the blade at a shallow angle, almost flat to the barrel, and push the blade forward using the thumb of the hand holding the pencil. You can also think of this motion as drawing the pencil back down the blade. With each stroke, rotate the barrel to begin shaping an even point. Once you’ve enough exposed graphite, continue to shape the tip using very light strokes and rolling the pencil quickly. At this point you should also be shaving away small sections of barrel from the base of the tip. Next, using an emery board or a small section of sandpaper, place the pencil tip flat to the surface. Start to shape the tip by moving the pencil back and forth, rotating the barrel. At first you’ll break the tip a lot (both in sharpening and applying marks when drawing). Eventually, though, the deftness required in sharpening like this will become second nature. 9 Shading 11 Cross-hatching How we describe that a subject has form is by applying tone, aka shading. The most common drawing method of shading is to continuously apply overlapping strokes back and forth. Keeping a consistent pressure will result in a single grade of tone. Going from heavily applied marks to a lighter application will result in a tonal gradient. Cross-hatching is similar to the Hatching technique (step 10), but a second set of lines are drawn at an angle running across the first set. Again, the more pressure and tighter the marks, the darker the tone – but now you can introduce hatch marks crossing in two or more directions to make denser areas of shade. MORE MARKS 3 OTHER WAYS OF MAKING DRAWING MARKS So far we’ve only looked at graphite and charcoal pencils, these being the most commonly used drawing tools around, but there are various types of media that can be used to make marks. Each medium has distinct properties and can be manipulated in different ways to generate very unique marks. Here are three more other options found in the life drawing room. 8 How to Paint & Draw 1 Conté When working with a Conté stick it’s vital to level out the edges so all sides make contact with the surface. (This is also a good way to remove the outer protective coating). Hold the stick, using the Overhand grip, flat to your paper and rubbing each side continuously till you get a single line of even tone. Retaining the side edges of the stick leaves you a way to draw thin lines, and the squared ends are good for wider marks. You can also fashion a single stick to a bullet tip (see ‘How to Sharpen Your Pencil part 3’, above right). Experiment with how you manipulate the Conté from the wrist and shoulder to vary continuous line quality and width. Drawing HOW TO SHARPEN YOUR PENCIL: PART 3 THE BULLET TIP PENCIL TIP SHARPENING TECHNIQUE 10 Hatching 12 Stippling Hatching is a method of shading that uses a series of parallel lines: either vertical, horizontal or following the direction of the planes of the form (contour shading). For lighter tones, line weights must be thin, soft and spaced. To darken the image, apply more pressure to lines and place them closer together; overlapping your lines also works. As you draw you can also prolong the lifespan of the tip by rolling the pencil barrel on a regular basis, so you don’t favour one side of the tip which can weaken it You can also suggest tone by creating a series of dots on your surface. Use a thicker, softer pencil, like a charcoal or Conté. Tap the point to build up an array of marks. To suggest lighter areas of tone, the dots should be appropriately spaced and small in size. To create darker areas, the dots become larger and should form a dense cluster. 2 Charcoal Whether you’re using charcoal sticks or pencils, the favoured grip is the Overhand, as moving from line to tone is as simple as changing the direction of your strokes. As with Conté charcoal is highly pigmented, especially the compressed variants. This makes blending with your finger or a stump an effective toning practice. Note that when blending with your finger, the oils from your skin can bond the pigment to the surface, making erasing difficult. Use paper stumps to avoid this. 3 Ink: Pen and Wash How you approach ink is largely determined by the drawing apparatus: graphic pens are limited in mark quality yet render consistent lines for cross-hatching. Try experimenting with ‘dip’ pens, changing the nibs to alter width and line. Reed pens can be a lot of fun as you can shape different tips using a craft knife for more varied, natural-feeling marks. Both dip and reed pens require loading with ink: if you use a water-soluble ink this can used to wash areas of tone with a wet brush. Plus an old toothbrush can be used to splatter ink (to create texture) by drawing your thumb through the inked bristles. Working in ink can be a little daunting when starting out, but see the inability to quickly erase lines as part of the challenge. As with the needle tip approach, the first part of getting a bullet shape is to expose the media from the barrel, but this time avoid shaping the exposed tip. You’re looking to reveal about an inch of media, with a smooth taper from wood to tip. Using your sandpaper, begin shaping the tip moving the pencil forwards and backwards across the surface. Remember to constantly roll the barrel: you’re after a smooth all-round cylindrical finish with no edges to the tip. Getting the bullet shape is made by rocking the wrist forwards and back, focusing on the top third of the tip. When you use sandpaper to sharpen pencils you end up with excess powder on the tip. If you don’t remove this, it can make its way to the paper and ruin a drawing. A few quick blows on the tip along with a quick wipe (your T-shirt or jeans usually being the closest cloth to hand) should be the last stage of sharpening before returning to the drawing. Drawing Core skills HOW TO DRAW BASIC SHAPES The complex world around us can be divided into simple shapes. Learn how to draw them accurately and your artwork will take off, PAUL TYSALL explains. B reaking any process down into small chunks is a great way to tackle what can seem like a daunting task. When it comes to drawing, if we break a subject down into simple shapes we can begin to describe its overall structure. In the opening stages of a drawing you should be looking to describe your subject, and its environment, in very simple terms: always avoid details too early on. By drawing with simple shapes we can focus on proportions, composition, planes and the relationships between forms. It’s all about working big down to small; simple to complex; basic shapes to crafted details. There are three basic shape archetypes that any form can be fitted into; the cube, the cylinder and the sphere. At the heart of these form shapes are two simple geometric shapes; the square and the ellipse. Learning to accurately draw and combine these will help you to construct any object, observed or imagined. In walking you through this process we will have to deal with concepts like perspective and foreshortening, so we’ll take a very brief, practical look at them, but to get a fuller understanding of Perspective head to page 102, and for more on foreshortening read the Artist Tip on page 13. Any form can be fitted into one of three basic shape archetypes: the cube, the cylinder and the sphere We’ll start with drawing the square, leading onto the cube – the most articulate shape when it comes to describing geometry in a drawing that has perspective. Having six basic planar faces, the cube’s proportions help to echo their relationship within 3D space. This aids further description of more complex rectilinear, cylindrical and curvilinear forms, which is what we’ll cover on page 16. You might think that drawing simple shapes is… well, simple. But don’t be fooled. It takes immense skill to perfect drawing freehand shapes like a simple circle: just ask Giotto. The 13th century Italian painter secured his patronage from Pope Boniface VIII based solely on his simple painting of a freehand circle... MATERIALS MEDIA Q Derwent Graphic 2B graphite pencil Q Derwent Charcoal pencil, Dark Q Swann-Morton scalpel Q Staedtler Mars technico clutch pencil, 2mm 2B graphite Q Daler Rowney Soft Putty Rubber Q Staedtler Mars plastic eraser SURFACE Q Daler Rowney A1 Smooth cartridge, 130 gsm. Q DCASS Canford paper, Winter pad, 150 gsm 10 2D SHAPES TO 3D CUBES Start with simple squares and build up to cubes and cyclinders. 1 How to draw a square Drawing a basic square is the simple connection of four straight lines, two along the horizontal axis and two to describe the vertical axis. Drawing these lines is all about living in the future: pinpoint your start point; imagine the end point. Place your pencil on the start point, relax and focus on the end point. Pull your mark along the imagined path removing the pencil once it reaches the end point. Pull your lines towards their goal: this uses more adept muscle groups. How to Paint & Draw 2 Squared exercise The grip shown here is one we’re all accustomed to using when writing. Grip using the thumb, index and middle finger. The barrel of the pencil should rest naturally in your hand’s web space. Avoid closing the web space, as this forces the barrel to rest on the knuckle of the Index finger and promotes strokes using finger gestures only. Avoid grasping at the tip of the pencil, as this can limit line length(s) and lead to less fluid, continuous lines. Drawing FIRST STEP THE IMPORTANCE OF GRIDS Using grids is an essential part of learning how to draw shapes accurately. A grid is comprised of a series of overlapping guidelines to create a plane, these planes can then be angled and tilted to express various views within 3D space. Below are examples of how a grid can evolve to help plan shapes seen in an orthographic view (straight on), with one-point perspective (using a single vanishing point) and also two-point perspective (using dual vanishing points). Learning how to draw them – and manipulate them according to your drawing needs – relies on a clear understanding of perspective, head over to page 102 for more on perspective. B C A 3 Beginnings of a cube Using the simple square as a starting point [A], begin to describe a box in 3D space. Draw another square that overlaps the first [B]. Connect all the corners of one square to the adjacent corners of the other, using 45º lines [C]. This process of showing all six sides of the cube is known as ‘drawing through’, and here it highlights a problem with this oblique drawing of a cube: it’s an impossible shape in nature. For a cube seen in nature we need to apply perspective… 4 How to draw more natural cubes When you first start drawing cubes, it helps to study with an object in front of you. The first line to go down is the vertical line closest to you [A]. The next two lines are for the inside edges [B]. These start at the top of our first stroke as we’re looking down at our cube and the top plane is visible. The degree at which the inside edge lines are drawn depends on how much top plane we can see: if it’s a lot, the lines are drawn at an acute angle, for less, a more obtuse angle. How to Paint & Draw 11 Drawing A D C B 5 Finishing your cube The length and angle of the inside edges depends on how much of the front and side is on show. If both are equal, the angle and length of the inside edge lines are also equal. Turn the front face more towards you and the line gets longer, the angle more horizontal. This turning creates the opposite; the line is more vertical, shorter. To finish, go to the end of each line and join the remaining edges with converging lines. 6 B C E D A How to draw a circle Measure out a square using a ruler. From the top left corner, draw a line [A] to the bottom right. Draw a second from top right to lower left [B]. Add two centre lines, [C] and [D]. On the eight short lines going out from the centre, plot dots at incremental thirds [E]. Now draw your circle tangent to the sides of the square and using the plot points placed two thirds from the centre. ‘Ghost draft’ this to practice first. DRAWING ON GRAVITY USE YOUR BODY On p6-9 we learned the importance of using the whole arm, including the shoulder, to draw lines, especially when you’re working on larger scale drawings. Things don’t end there, though. It’s important that you understand the entire body is utilised in some way when drawing, especially when it comes to ‘pulling’ your marks across the surface (as mentioned in step 1: Drawing a square). You can maintain a greater degree of control when you draw lines from outside the body in towards your body’s centre mass (the gut), and keeping the drawing arm closer to the body’s core promotes better muscle control too. Even shifting your weight from one leg to the other can help pull a long line down across a drawing when standing at an easel. A B 7 How to draw an ellipse To draw a circle that appears tilted in perspective (an ellipse) repeat step 6 but this time start with a square drawn on an imaginary angled plane. You can simplify this process by drawing two lines dissecting each other, one short and vertical [A], the other horizontal and longer [B]. Now plot end points. Those on the horizontal line should be equal in distance from the centre. A 9 How to draw a cylinder How to Paint & Draw Complete your ellipse 10 Complete your cylinder Once again it’s about connecting these points with a curvilinear path. But this time the upper semi-circle [A] is more foreshortened than the lower arc [B]. Practise this process small at first, just to build up your confidence – then move onto larger ellipses, which require more gestural arm and shoulder movements. It takes a lot of training to draw accurate ellipses. B You first need to determine your cylinder’s size and orientation in 3D space. Draw an angled line measured to express its length in depth [A]. Introduce a line that runs parallel to it to determine the cylinder’s width [B]. These two lines should be tapering to an imagined far off point to express any foreshortening that’s occurring. The shape of both end ellipses depends on your viewing angle; in both cases the angle of each is perpendicular to the established sides. 12 8 Your ellipses should run perpendicular to your edge lines; knowing this helps you avoid ‘squished’ cylinders, a common issue when using horizontal ellipses to cap the ends of angled cylinders. Applying this rule will also help you describe cross contour lines accurately. When you need to add a cross contour line to a cylinder, lightly ‘draw through’ the entire ellipse in question, this helps maintain the curved ends found when the visible line connects to the form edges. Drawing ARTIST TIP FORESHORTENING A B C D 11 How to draw a sphere 12 Cube exercise 13 Cylinder exercise We can express spherical form using cross contour lines. Repeat step 6, but take it further by creating an ellipse within the circle. Starting at [A], lightly draw a curve with a trajectory that passes through the first third-from-centre plot point [B] then follows around to the opposite edge [C], continuing through to the next third-from-centre [D] point, ending where it began [A]. Erase the upper or lower arc. Foreshortening is a common drawing term used to describe the shift in size when an object recedes into the distance. We can visualise this when we draw converging lines ending at a vanishing point. When we try to express this in drawing terms, especially when studying the human form, our brains tend to jump in and autocorrect what we’re seeing and this can grossly distort parts of the figure. The best way to combat this is to describe the form as an isolated abstract shape – break it down into outline only, or focus on the negative shapes around it. Draw a horizontal line across your surface, this will act as your eye line or imaginary horizon line. Draw a square directly in the centre (note no sides should be visible). Now, above the horizon line and off to the right, draw a cube as if you’d picked up the centre square and moved it up and to the right. Your goal is to populate the paper with 3D cubes as seen from various angles. Establish a horizon line, then draw a plumb line directly down the centre of your paper. From the converging centre point, draw a set of diagonal lines reaching outwards mimicking the length and width lines [A & B] from step 9, and cap it off with an ellipse. As this first cylinder started life at a single point (the vanishing point) we’ve actually drawn a tiny cone. Now continue to draw more cylinders, continuing along the established perspective plane. PERSPECTIVE TIPS ELLIPSES IN PERSPECTIVE GUIDE The amount of distortion that occurs in a circular form is dictated by the eye level. Ellipses become more foreshortened the closer they get to eye level, so an ellipse in contact with the ground appears rounder. When the ellipse is directly on the eye level we are only seeing its edge: in 2D drawing terms this becomes a line. How to Paint & Draw 13 Drawing Core skills COMBINE SHAPES TO MAKE OBJECTS Now you’ve mastered drawing simple shapes, PAUL TYSALL explains how to apply that skill to reproducing real world objects, in the form of still-life drawings. B y now you already know the importance of breaking forms down into simple shapes. Not only does this make the whole drawing process easier to manage but it also ensures that proportions and foreshortening remain accurate throughout the rendering stages by establishing them correctly early on in the drawing. On the following pages, we’re going to explain how to combine different shapes to create objects. I’m going to kick things off with a studio-based, still-life scene. A still-life affords us the luxury of dictating what we study (if you struggle to draw certain objects try adding them to your still-life for practice) and the angle we view them at, plus the lighting in the scene – something that can be tricky to control with an outdoors landscape. In this instance I’ve opted to draw some rather complicated objects to help illustrate how their forms can easily be broken down at the start of a drawing into very basic shapes. However, you might want to start with objects that are, by design, closer to the simple geometric forms used when constructing a drawing – for example: bottles, fruit and man-made packaging. Complicated objects can easily be broken down at the start of a drawing into very basic shapes Then we’ll take to our sketchbooks for a spot of open-air drawing, looking at two different settings that are really going to push how we deconstruct them into geometric forms: urban and nature. Although we’re mainly working within urban surroundings, man-made forms like architecture being a lot easier to understand in geometric terms, it’s important we get some nature in there too – after all, no one does complexity quite like mother nature. Nature landscape studies help you to see geomorphology as interconnected abstract shapes emerging from planes. Trees can be described as cylinders or sometimes cones, and petrologic surfaces can be expressed using merged cubes or ellipses. Enough talk, let’s get drawing! ALL SCENES ARE MADE OF SHAPES Discover how the most complex compositions can be broken down into geometric shapes MATERIALS MEDIA Q Derwent Graphic 2B graphite pencil Derwent Charcoal pencil, Dark Swann-Morton scalpel, Staedtler Mars technico clutch pencil, 2mm 2B graphite, Daler Rowney Soft Putty Rubber, Staedtler Mars plastic eraser SURFACE Q Daler Rowney A1 Smooth cartridge, 130 gsm. Q DCASS Canford paper, Winter pad, 150 gsm 14 1 Collect some objects When setting up a still-life, it really helps to think about the objects you’re placing in the scene. Here, I’m using an artist’s skull. Practising skulls will help improve your portraiture work no end, the skull being the foundation of a person’s facial features. Adding fabric is great for learning how to describe the way clothing folds and hangs. How to Paint & Draw 2 Compose your still-life Researching classical still-life paintings will help you understand how to construct a still-life scene. When you place and arrange objects for the purpose of drawing, you’re effectively learning composition, which can imbue an image with narrative and hierarchy. If your drawing is going to be shaded, always plan out light source placement. Drawing MASTER STILL-LIFE STUDY CLASSICS 3 Make a mental checklist 5 Plushy = sphere + cone + cylinders Make a mental checklist of the objects and how you plan to represent them as simple geometric forms and shapes. Get familiar with the form relationships and negative spaces. The first shape we establish is the glass vase (back right), a very basic rectilinear shape. The toy’s head is made from a large elliptical sphere; the body is almost conical, cylinders at its side for the limbs. The coffee tin and thermos are the most cylindrical shapes. Note the ellipses that form both top planes aren’t so far from one another but our viewing angle creates a noticeable shift. 4 A shoe = two cuboids 6 Define your details The vase helps to act as a base value that establishes proportions and perspective. We grow the rest of the drawing from this object: the length of the horizontal shoe (centre) is two and half instances of the vase’s closest top edge. As a geometric form the shoe is two merged cuboids. Drawing from a studio still-life set up is an invaluable way to practice your composition skills, in nature we rarely have the opportunity to move and arrange objects in the same way we do in the studio. Instead we have to look for these pleasing arrangements and position ourselves accordingly. The best way to learn what makes a good still-life arrangement is to do a tonal study from classical paintings. Gather 10 to 15 examples of good still-life paintings, preferably from artists you admire – 16th century Dutch and Flemish art has plenty to choose from. Using a medium like charcoal or Conté start to replicate the painted objects in silhouetted form, restrict yourself to three or four tones only, working very small on a piece of A4. Remember this isn’t about recreating what you see as an accurate drawing, it’s a study. You are studying the arrangement, the shape relationships, the use of light and shade – so that when you come to assemble your own still-life, you have a rich mental library to call upon. With enough construction lines and shapes lightly pencilled in, it’s time to begin defining details. We start out with a Light charcoal pencil to flesh out the forms, working up to Medium and Dark charcoal for more accurate lines. At this stage, make sure you don’t overwork your lines. How to Paint & Draw 15 Drawing USING ERASERS CAREFUL DOES IT Making mistakes is a part of the drawing process. Knowing the best way to make a mark is countered by knowing the best way to remove it. When it comes to drawing, go with a putty rubber for faint marks. It can also be kneaded to a point, making it handy for removing small details or hatching into shaded areas. For more stubborn marks, go with the harder plastic erasers, although overuse can attack the integrity of your surface so don’t overdo it. Sometimes it’s more refreshing to go with your mistakes though and leave them in your drawing. You’ll end up with a less than accurate outcome, but it could foster a more original approach in your artwork. 7 Shapes into sculptures 9 Start sketching with ink We picked this location (outside @Bristol science centre) based on the large spherical structure found outside the main building. The square is filled with unusual sculptures, bronze statues and water features: a very inspiring space with plenty of geometric forms. It’s time to flesh out the details with the ink Pitt pen. Drawing with ink is also about confidence, which is why we avoided details at the pencil stage. A few cross contour lines indicate the circle is in fact a large sphere. Suggesting the glass panels also emphasises its overall shape. 16 How to Paint & Draw 8 Suggesting forms 10 Add details to enhance forms Once the eye line is indicated with a horizontal line crossing the page, the background buildings are established; think of these as large cubes. Avoid details like windows at this stage. Then the large spherical structure is added: due to its size and proximity, it’s closer to a circle than it is elliptical. A main focal point is added to the centre of the composition. This sculpture is a metal tree with solar panels for leaves: good practice for drawing rectilinear forms at varying angles. Look for details that help echo perspective and the larger structures from your initial construction lines. 11 Shapes into architecture This next landscape combines architecture and nature: the Clifton suspension bridge. The main tower (see insert) was under protective sheeting which actually simplifies the overall shape, mimicking the way we should approach forms at the start of a drawing. 12 Drawing Draw structure as outline The tower is comprised of intersecting rectilinear forms. The deck appears as a foreshortened cuboid: we’ll maintain this throughout the rendering stages as it provides a strong perspective path to draw the viewer into our main focal points; the tower and the park in the background. USING NEGATIVE SPACE TRICK THE BRAIN When artists use the term negative space they are simply referring to the shapes created between objects in a composition, or between adjacent parts of a single object. Our brain’s tendency is to ignore negative spaces as it is more concerned with perceiving the object(s) before it. Negative spaces can help us construct a 2D drawing. By seeing the abstract outline of a negative space and comparing it to the same shape in our drawing, we can start to see where mistakes may be occurring. 13 Look for negative spaces We also indicated a negative ellipse to achieve the curve of the two main cables, though this was to help with establishing the lowest dipping point; as the cable gets closer to us, it detaches from the ellipse. The trees are a mix of cones and ellipses merging together. 14 Make shapes look more natural We’ve gone from staggered cuboids, like steps, to more natural looking shapes to illustrate the rock faces. The rock faces are layered planes, so we connect the diagonal lines with (almost) vertical contour lines to indicate changes in depth. Line weight is more relaxed; thick to thin. How to Paint & Draw 17 Drawing Core skills CHOOSE THE RIGHT DRAWING TOOLS Different pencils suit different styles of drawing, and there’s other equipment you need too. Here we explain how to choose the best materials for your toolkit. W hether you’re doing quick sketches and layouts, or highly realistic pencil renderings, graphite is a wonderful way to produce a variety of different looks. But buying the right pencil for your needs is largely a question of trial and error. When first becoming acquainted with using pencils for artwork, we’d recommend buying one of each grade from 9H-9B to become familiar with the hard/light and soft/dark qualities of each. Experiment with various surfaces, and a wide variety of strokes and mark-making (see pages 8-12 for more on that). BLEND AND SHARPEN After gaining an understanding of the abilities and limitations of each pencil, you can then investigate further with blending tools and erasers for different effects. A blending tool can be anything you can use to add texture to your graphite marks. The most obvious tool you have already to hand: your fingers! Other blending tools you can potentially use include tortillions, blending stumps, paper, cloth, cotton wool, make-up wipes, chamois, paper towels, paper tissue, paintbrushes, and probably a dozen other things we haven’t thought of. Be warned, though: attempting the use of blending tools too early can look smudgy and amateurish, so don’t rush into this. You also need to keep your pencils sharp. And while a pencil sharpener is fine when you’re just using a pencil to write with, for drawing we’d suggest you’re better off using a scalpel or craft knife. We explain the best ways to sharpen pencils for drawing purposes on pages 9-12. If you’re just starting out you’ll no doubt want to stick with the familiar. Graphite pencils are the most common type used for drawing as their composition allows for the smoothest strokes. Once you grow in confidence, though, it’s time to start widening your scope. 18 How to Paint & Draw For instance, you could try solid graphite pencils. These are solid sticks of graphite and clay composite (as found in a graphite pencil), which have no casing other than a wrapper or label. Often called woodless pencils, they’re used primarily for art purposes, as the lack of casing allows for covering larger spaces more easily, creating different effects. Pastels are a great medium for producing colourful artwork easily, with no need for water, brushes or palettes. The main types of pastels are soft and hard pastels, oil pastels, pastel pencils and water soluble pastels. We look in more detail at how to get started with pastels on page 20. GO FURTHER CHARCOAL Then there are charcoal pencils. As the name suggests, these are made of charcoal and provide fuller blacks than graphite pencils, but tend to smudge easily and are more abrasive than graphite. Sepia-toned and white pencils are also available for duotone techniques. “I use charcoal because it’s a versatile tool that produces a variety of effects, from thin lines to bold strokes,” says Jean-Sébastien Rossbach, an award-winning illustrator, concept artist and painter. However, he adds a word of warning: as with blending tools, “those just starting out can find it tricky to control, with the results often looking messy.” You can see some results of charcoal being used alongside graphite in both our shading tutorial on page 28 and our lighting tutorial on page 30. INK AND PASTELS Of course, drawing isn’t just about pencils: drawing with ink is another popular medium that can lead to some beautiful results. Traditional pen and ink consists of black ink and white paper, creating space through thick or thin lines, repeating marks for texture. There are many options for working in ink so, just as with graphite, you’ll need to find which best suits you by experimenting. We look in more detail at how to draw using ink on page 20. If you want your drawing to feature vibrant colours then you’ll probably want to investigate pastels. And that’s not all! You can also try using carbon pencils, which produce a fuller black than graphite pencils, but are smoother than charcoal. There are grease pencils, which write on almost any surface including glass, plastic, metal and photos. Plus there are watercolour pencils, designed for use with watercolour techniques. (They can also be used by themselves for sharp, bold lines). In short, there’s a world of different drawing implements out there. So start trying different tools, and don’t hold back! Attempting the use of blending tools too early can look smudgy and amateurish WHAT TO LOOK FOR ARTISTS’ TOOLKIT Illustrator Terese Nielsen explains how to pick your paper, pencils and more. 1 Choose the right grade Pencils are graded on a scale from H (hardness) to B (blackness). Generally a 2-4H pencil is as hard as one needs for light areas, an H-B is for midrange, and a 5B-6B is for dark areas. Rather than switching pencils for each tone, experiment with altering the pressure. Brands vary, so experiment to see what suits your temperament. 3 Try some strokes 5 Blending tortillons Many strokes can be employed to indicate textures of various objects. If you’re attempting a highly realistic style then use very small circular strokes with your pencil; otherwise unwanted banding of pencil marks occurs. Try shading with a variety of tools from blending stumps to paper tissue for better finishes. Blending tortillons are made from rolled, loose-fibre paper and are pointed at one end. The softer paper texture of blending tortillons gives a different blending texture to stumps, and they can be used to push colour and soften pencil edges. 2 Q 2-4H graphite pencils Q H-B graphite pencils Q 5-6B graphite pencils QSketchbook QDrawing paper QScalpel Q Kneaded eraser Q Plastic eraser Q Paper tissue Q Chamois Q Blending stumps Q Blending tortillons Q Charcoal sticks Q Charcoal pencil Choose the right paper As much as pencil choice requires careful consideration, the paper you choose is going to be equally significant. If attempting to create a highly realistic style, for example, you could try using a smooth, hot press/plate finish surface. We prefer Arches 140 lb hot press watercolour paper or Bristol Board plate finish. 4 Blending stumps 6 Kneaded eraser Drawing For ink drawing: Q Ink Q Pen and nib Q Brushes Q Brush pen Q Fine-point pens Q Erasing shield Q Toothbrush CHAMOIS Blending stumps are made from tightly wound paper, formed into a stick and sanded at both ends to create points. Used ideally to create gradations and half-tones, the sanded area is ideal for blending while the point (ideally kept clean) is best used to blend light-toned areas. Unlike fingers, blending stumps leave no oily smears. NO STREAKS These small leather pieces are ideal for blending, but can be expensive from art shops. Instead, buy a large piece of chamois from a car care store, soak it in washing detergent overnight and then rinse in clean water in a washing machine to remove the oils. Many things can be used to blend, so long as they’re dry and soft, and don’t contain oils or chemicals. You could try cotton buds, paper towels and make-up applicators. Unlike standard office erasers, kneaded erasers are dry and don’t smudge or leave flaked residue. Their softness makes them ideal on sketching paper with a lot of ‘tooth’. These erasers can also be formed into points for picking out highlights in eyes and hair. How to Paint & Draw 19 Drawing Core skills START DRAWING WITH INK Pencils are not the only drawing medium. We explain what ink has to offer the artist and how to get more out of this versatile medium. D rawing with ink is a big step up from drawing with graphite. The most obvious difference is that there’s no more relying on the eraser, but it can be a wonderfully creative medium. Here’s how to get started... Traditional pen and ink consists of black ink and white paper, creating space through thick or thin lines, repeating marks for texture. Ink drawing techniques can be as delicate or bold, as your temperament dictates: it’s all about trying things out. First of all, pour your ink in an inkwell high enough so that when the nib touches the bottom, it covers three-quarters of the nib. Start with the focal point, working your way back and out to the lessimportant elements. Grip the pen close to the tip and keep the angle of the pen at about 45 degrees. Your main subject should feature bold, heavy lines and should have the greatest detail and contrast. Strokes generally start close to your body and move outward. Use your arm and shoulder, not just your wrist. SENSE OF CONTROL “Pen and ink has always been my favourite medium,” enthuses Canada-based artist Socar [see some of her inspiring work on the right, and at]. “Not only is it conveniently cheap, but I like everything about it, from the way it gives me precise control over every dot and whorl, to the feel of the nib as it scratches the tooth of the paper.” Socar likes to draw things that can be found in the great Canadian outdoors, like birds, flowers, lost trinkets, roots and trees, garbage and pedestrians. “I like to sketch on tracing paper,” she says. “Because it’s translucent, I can combine elements from several sketches into one, or move them around to experiment with composition. Tracing paper is also one of the cheapest papers, so it’s okay to waste some.” 20 How to Paint & Draw Her tips for working in ink include the following: “Always cover the areas of the drawing you’re not currently working on. This cuts down on ink spatter damage, and keeps your skin oils off the page. Use tape to hold the cover paper in place. “Also remember that you can always add more ink, but you can’t take any away. When you want a subtle texture, like the one I’ve used on the birds’ wings, start light and build up slowly. Finally, she adds: “The heavier the tooth of your paper, the more its texture will show. Use smoother paper for greater precision.” COMIC ART One of the best known uses of ink by professionals is in comic act, which is where Andy Brase works. Known for his creature, character and cover illustrations, he’s worked on Daredevil, Swamp Thing and Assassin’s Creed, as well as book covers for George RR Martin, and his own artbook/sketchbook, Exorcism [ andybraseart]. “I’m often asked what tools I use to ink my art,” he says. “Most of my detailed works are done with Sakura Micron Pens. Long ago, when I started inking, I used Rapidograph technical pens, but they started leaking and required a lot of cleaning, so I switched.“ EQUIPMENT “Microns don’t require any cleaning up afterwards,” Andy continues, “and they also have more of a flexible tip than some technical pens. “Sometimes I use an opaque white ink with a brush to make small corrections, break up lines, or add splatters and stars. I’m a big fan of Winsor & Newton’s White Ink. “Sakura Micron Brush pens are a good and quick way to make small ink fills. For big fills, such as a black background, I break out the brush and ink.” There’s no ‘right answer’ to what to use, of course: it’s all about what kind of art you want to create. “So if you’re new to drawing with ink, it’s always good to try out some different tools and see what works best for you,” he recommends. His tip for anyone drawing with ink: “Test your pens on a separate practice sheet beforehand, to make sure the ink is flowing properly when you work on the drawing.” Andy adds: “Develop your style over time – don’t be too concerned about your style of inking. Style will build naturally when you’re creating your art.” Strokes start close to your body and move outward. Use your arm and shoulder, not just your wrist

Author Other Isbn 978-3598202117 File size 78 MB Year 2015 Pages 72 Language English File format PDF Category Drawing Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare The complete guide for artists on how to concept, draw and paint stunning manga style comics and characters in easy to follow steps. Learning to paint manga in a variety of styles is a fun way to develop your digital art skills. In this collection of workshops, the world’s best manga and comic artists share their professional secrets for painting brilliant manga art.     Download (78 MB) Manga: The Ultimate Guide to Mastering Digital Painting Techniques Foundations In Comic Book Art Wizard How To Draw: Advanced Techniques Painter 11 Creativity : Digital Artist’s Handbook How To Draw Manga Anime – For Beginner Load more posts

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