Henry VII’s New Men and the Making of Tudor England by Steven Gunn

42581c320c91c6a-261x361.jpg Author Steven Gunn
Isbn 9780199659838
File size 4MB
Year 2016
Pages 352
Language English
File format PDF
Category history


H E N RY V I I ’ S N E W M E N A N D T H E M A K I N G OF TUDOR ENGLAND Henry VII’s New Men and the Making of Tudor England STEVEN GUNN 1 1 Great Clarendon Street, Oxford, OX2 6DP, United Kingdom Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Oxford is a registered trade mark of Oxford University Press in the UK and in certain other countries © Steven Gunn 2016 The moral rights of the author have been asserted First Edition published in 2016 Impression: 1 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permitted by law, by licence or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organization. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of the above should be sent to the Rights Department, Oxford University Press, at the address above You must not circulate this work in any other form and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer Published in the United States of America by Oxford University Press 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, United States of America British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Data available Library of Congress Control Number: 2016933518 ISBN 978–0–19–965983–8 Printed in Great Britain by Clays Ltd, St Ives plc Links to third party websites are provided by Oxford in good faith and for information only. Oxford disclaims any responsibility for the materials contained in any third party website referenced in this work. For my daughters, Sarah and Eleanor Acknowledgements This book has been an unconscionable time in the making. It originated in the project I proposed to pursue when applying for junior research fellowships in 1985, it was trailed in a footnote in my first book in 1988, and parts of it have been appearing in articles since 1990. Conceived five hundred years after Henry VII’s accession, it has taken seven years longer to write than he did to reign. I have incurred many debts of gratitude along the way. I have benefited from many discussions with the small but international band of  scholars who study Henry, notably Paul Cavill, Margaret Condon, Sean Cunningham, John Currin, Ralph Griffiths, David Grummitt, Sam Harper, Mark Horowitz, Michael K. Jones, Tom Penn, and James Ross. For references to sources and other advice I am grateful to George Bernard, Tom Carter, Kirsten ClaidenYardley, James Clark, Alasdair Hawkyard, Anita Hewerdine, Richard Hoyle, Michael C. E. Jones, James McComish, Malcolm Mercer, Stuart Minson, Robert Peberdy, Tracey Sowerby, Tim Thornton, Ann Weikel, and Margaret Yates. Susan Brigden, Nicholas Orme, and John Watts read drafts of some chapters and provided helpful comments and John in particular has shared thought-provoking discussion about the end of the Middle Ages over many years. Ian Archer, Alex Gajda, and Martin Ingram, together with all the participants in our Early Modern Britain seminar, have generated intellectual stimulation and support. My tutorial colleagues at Merton, Philip Waller, Robert Gildea, Karl Gerth, Matthew Grimley, and Micah Muscolino, have been models in their different ways both of good historical practice and of collegial friendship. Cliff Davies has been a constant source of encouragement and ideas since he first commented, as my doctoral supervisor, on my plans for a post-doctoral project. Rhys Robinson, always a generous guide to the history of Tudor Wales, kindly bequeathed to me his impressive collection of books on Tudor history. I am grateful to Major Richard Coke and Dr Jacques Beauroy for their help with the Weasenham Hall muniments, to Professor Sir John Baker for help with those of St Catharine’s College, Cambridge, and to the staffs of the many archives and libraries in which I have worked for their patient assistance. Jill Gascoigne transcribed Edmund Dudley’s accounts for me and David Ashton searched some king’s bench files. I am grateful to His Grace the duke of Rutland for access to the Belvoir Castle archives, to His Grace the duke of Northumberland for access to those at Alnwick Castle, to the Marquess of Bath for access to those at Longleat and to the Dean and Canons of Windsor for access to those at Windsor. Sir Robert Worcester kindly showed me his home at Allington Castle and shared with me his work on its history. I have been fortunate to spend my academic life to date in only two institutions, Merton College, Oxford, and the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, and both have supported my research generously, as did the Huntington Library with a viii Acknowledgements visiting research fellowship in 1996. Many schools and Historical Association groups provided hospitality for trips to archives in return for lectures. At Oxford University Press, Robert Faber, Cathryn Steele, Stephanie Ireland, Rupert Cousens, Ela Kotkowska, and several anonymous readers have each contributed in different valuable ways to shaping this book. My wife has provided cheerful encouragement and loving support throughout its long gestation, as have my parents and parentsin-law. My daughters, to whom the book is dedicated, have grown up with it. I hope it has not distracted me too much from the more important and pleasurable matter of spending time with them. In quotations from primary documents I have modernized spelling at the suggestion of one of the publisher’s readers. There is a loss of fidelity in this, but also a gain in immediacy; and I hope that making this explicit will allay suspicion that I have employed sleight of hand to make the new men speak to us more directly. Perhaps I deceive myself in thinking that their careers carry sufficient fascination to make such trickery unnecessary. Contents List of figures List of genealogical tables List of abbreviations xi xi xii NEW MEN 1.  Caitiffs and villains of simple birth 2.  Principles and talents 3 16 S E RV I C E 3.  Council, court, and parliament  39 4.  The pursuit of justice  53 5.  The king’s revenues  67 6.  Borderlands, war, and diplomacy  88 P OW E R 7.  Towns and stewardships 113 8. Followers  134 9.  Church and churchmen 153 10.  Law and power 168 11.  Families and friends 180 W E A LT H 12.  The profits of power 201 13.  The land market 224 14.  Landlordship 242 15.  Expenditure and status 259 x Contents S U RV I VA L 16.  The new reign  285 17.  Faith and fortune  302 18.  The making of Tudor England 319 Bibliography  Index  330 364 List of figures 1.  Biting dog from the tomb of Sir John Mordaunt, Turvey, Bedfordshire. Photograph by the author.  2.  Westenhanger Castle, Kent. Photograph by the author.  3.  New range at Westenhanger Castle. Photograph by the author.  4.  Allington Castle, Kent. Photograph by Sir Robert Worcester.  31 261 262 262 List of genealogical tables 1. The family of Sir Thomas Brandon  2. The family of Sir John Hussey  3. The family of Sir Thomas Lovell  4. The family of Sir Henry Marney  5. The family of Sir Edward Poynings  6. The family of Sir Robert Southwell  7. The family of Sir Andrew Windsor  8. The family of Sir Henry Wyatt  xv xvi xvii xviii xix xx xxi xxii List of abbreviations AC Archaeologia Cantiana Addl. Ch. Additional Charter Addl. MS Additional manuscript ADN Archives Départementales du Nord, Lille App. Appendix AHPV The Anglica Historia of Polydore Vergil AD 1485–1537, ed. D. Hay, CS, 3rd ser. 74 (London, 1950) BCL Birmingham Central Library BI Borthwick Institute, York BIHR Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research BLARS Bedfordshire and Luton Archives and Records Service CA College of Arms CBS Centre for Buckinghamshire Studies A Descriptive Catalogue of Ancient Deeds in the Public Record Office, 6 vols CAD (London, 1890–1915) CCA Canterbury Cathedral Archives CCR* Calendar of Close Rolls CEPR* Calendar of Entries in the Papal Registers relating to Great Britain and Ireland, ed. W. H. Bliss et al., 19 vols to date (London and Dublin, 1893–) Calendar of the Fine Rolls preserved in the Public Record Office, Henry VII CFR (London, 1962) Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Henry VII, 3 vols (London, CIPM 1898–1955). CP G. E. Cokayne, The Complete Peerage, ed. V. Gibbs et al., 13 vols (London, 1910–59) Calendar of Patent Rolls CPR Camden Society CS CSPM Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts in the Archives and Collections of Milan 1385–1618, ed. A. B. Hinds (London, 1912) Calendar of Letters, Despatches, and State Papers, relating to the Negotiations CSPS between England and Spain, Preserved in the Archives at Simancas and Elsewhere, ed. G. Bergenroth et al., 13 vols (London, 1862–1954) Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts, Relating to English Affairs, Existing CSPV in the Archives and Collections of Venice and other Libraries of Northern Italy, 1534–1554, ed. R. Brown (London, 1873) CYS Canterbury and York Society d penny DCRO Duchy of Cornwall Record Office EETS Early English Text Society East Sussex Record Office ESRO Essex Record Office ERO EHR English Historical Review List of Abbreviations xiii fo./fos. folio/s HJ Historical Journal HKW H. M. Colvin (ed.), The History of the King’s Works, 6 vols (London, 1963–82) HL Huntington Library, San Marino, CA HMC Historical Manuscripts Commission HMC Rutland The Manuscripts of His Grace, the Duke of Rutland, G.C.B., preserved at Belvoir Castle, 4 vols, HMC 24 (London, 1888–1908) HR Historical Research HS Harleian Society JRL John Rylands Library, Manchester KHLC Kent History and Library Centre, Maidstone KUL Keele University Library LA Lincolnshire Archives LJ Journals of the House of Lords, 10 vols (London, 1846 edn) LJRO Lichfield Joint Record Office LMA London Metropolitan Archives LP* Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII, ed. J. S. Brewer et al., 23 vols in 38 (London, 1862–1932) LPL Lambeth Palace Library LPRH Letters and Papers illustrative of the Reigns of Richard III and Henry VII, ed. J. Gairdner, 2 vols, Rolls Ser. 24 (London, 1861–3) Materials Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry VII, ed. W. Campbell, 2 vols, Rolls Ser. 60 (London, 1873–7) Memorials Memorials of King Henry VII, ed. J. Gairdner, Rolls Ser. 10 (London, 1858) NA Norfolk Archaeology NRO Norfolk Record Office NRA National Register of Archives (‘NRA report’ indicates documents I have not seen in the original) n.s. new series NUL Nottingham University Library ODNB Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, ed. H. C. G. Matthew, B. Harrison, 60 vols (Oxford, 2004) OHC Oxfordshire History Centre OHS Oxford Historical Society ORS Oxfordshire Record Society o.s. old series PML Pierpoint Morgan Library, New York PRO The National Archives: Public Record Office PROME The Parliament Rolls of Medieval England, 1275–1504, ed. C. GivenWilson (Woodbridge and London, 2005) RCHM Royal Commission on Historical Monuments REED Records of Early English Drama RS Record Society s shilling SCC Select Cases in the Council of Henry VII, ed. C. G. Bayne, W. H. Dunham, SS 75 (London, 1958) xiv List of Abbreviations ser. series SHC Surrey History Centre SROB Suffolk Record Office, Bury St Edmunds SROI Suffolk Record Office, Ipswich SS Selden Society StP State Papers, King Henry the Eighth, 5 vols in 11 (London, 1830–52) TBPV Three Books of Polydore Vergil’s English History, Comprising the Reigns of Henry VI, Edward IV, and Richard III, ed. H. Ellis, CS o.s. 29 (London, 1844) TEAS Transactions of the Essex Archaeological Society TRHS Transactions of the Royal Historical Society TRP * Tudor Royal Proclamations, ed. P. L. Hughes, J. F. Larkin, 3 vols (New Haven CT and London, 1964) VCH Victoria County History VE Valor Ecclesiasticus, ed. H. Caley, 6 vols (London, 1810–33) WAM Westminster Abbey Muniments WSHC Wiltshire and Swindon History Centre WSRO West Sussex Record Office YAS Yorkshire Archaeological Society YASRS Yorkshire Archaeological Society Record Series *  References in these sources are usually made to document number, rather than to pages. Sir Robert Wingfield Sir William Elizabeth = Wingfield Brandon Sir William Brandon Sir Robert Brandon 1 Anne, marchioness Sir Thomas = of Berkeley Brandon Elizabeth, Lady Fitzwarin Sir Gregory Margaret = Lovell Brandon John Anne = Loveday Brandon John Mary = Redyng Brandon Sidney = 2 = Sir William Sidney Charles Brandon Sir John Wingfield, d. 1481 Sir John Wingfield, d. 1509 Anthony Wingfield 1.  The family of Sir Thomas Brandon Anne Brandon Sir Robert Wingfield Sir Richard Wingfield Walter Wingfield Lewis Wingfield Humphrey Wingfield John Hussey Thomas Hussey Peter Hussey, Archdeacon of Northampton Sir William Elizabeth Hussey, = Berkeley CJKB Gilbert Hussey Simon Blount 1 Margaret = Sir John Hussey, Blount Lord Hussey 2 = Ursula = Sir William Lovell Hussey George Grey, earl of Kent Anne Grey Sir William Hussey Mary = William, Lord Hussey Willoughby d’Eresby Anne = Sir Robert Hussey Say Thomas Hussey Richard Grey, = Anne earl of Hussey Kent Sir Giles Jane = Hussey Pigot Thomas Hussey Gilbert Hussey Reginald Hussey Elizabeth William, Lord = Hussey Hungerford 2.  The family of Sir John Hussey Mary Hussey Dorothy Hussey Bridget Hussey Thomas Lovell Joan = of Barton Bendish Muswell Thomas Lovell Cecily = of Barton Bendish Orell Thomas Lovell Anne = of Barton Bendish Toppes Sir Gregory Margaret = Lovell Brandon Sir Thomas Lovell junior Sir Francis Lovell Nicholas Lovell of Terrington Thomas Lovell of Enfield John Lovell Edward Lovell Ralph Lovell of Beachamwell Sir Thomas Isabel = Lovell Roos William Lovell of Chesterton Sir Robert Ela = Lovell Lovell Margaret Anthony = Lovell Gurney Ursula William = Lovell Hussey Elizabeth Thomas = Lovell Manners 3.  The family of Sir Thomas Lovell John Lovell of Barton Ela John = Lovell Billesby John Anne = Fitzlewis Lovell Sir John Marney Sir Thomas Arundel Thomasine Arundel Sir Roger Newburgh Cristina Newburgh 1 = Sir John Marney, Lord Marney Katherine Marney 2 = Bridget Waldegrave 1 = = Jane Throckmorton Sir Henry Marney, Lord Marney Thomas Marney 2 Isabel 1 John = = Norreys Wyfold Sir Edmund Grace = Bendingfield Marney Elizabeth Marney Margaret Sir William = Arundel Capel Sir Giles Capel 4.  The family of Sir Henry Marney Edmund 1 Katherine 2 Thomas = = Knyvett Marney Bonham Robert, Lord Poynings Sir John Scott Sir Richard Guildford Anne Pympe Sir Edmund Bedingfield Margaret Scott John Pympe Reginald Pympe Anne Pympe Sir William Scott Sir Richard Poynings Isabel Scott (1) Elizabeth Paston (2) Sir George Browne Matthew Browne Sir Edward Poynings Edward Poynings, Master of Arundel College John Poynings Sir John Scott Thomas Fiennes, Lord Clinton Edward Fiennes, Lord Clinton,earl of Lincoln 5.  The family of Sir Edward Poynings Robert Poynings d. 1461 Jane Poynings Isabel Fiennes Sir Thomas Sir Adrian Edward Poynings Poynings Poynings Barbara Fiennes Margaret Poynings Maria Poynings

Author Steven Gunn Isbn 9780199659838 File size 4MB Year 2016 Pages 352 Language English File format PDF Category History Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare The reign of Henry VII is important but mysterious. He ended the Wars of the Roses and laid the foundations for the strong governments of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I. Yet his style of rule was unconventional and at times oppressive. At the heart of his regime stood his new men, low-born ministers with legal, financial, political, and military skills who enforced the king’s will and in the process built their own careers and their families’ fortunes. Some are well known, like Sir Edward Poynings, governor of Ireland, or Empson and Dudley, executed to buy popularity for the young Henry VIII. Others are less famous. Sir Robert Southwell was the king’s chief auditor, Sir Andrew Windsor the keeper of the king’s wardrobe, Sir Thomas Lovell, the Chancellor of the Exchequer so trusted by Henry that he was allowed to employ the former Yorkist pretender Lambert Simnel as his household falconer. Some paved the way to glory for their relatives. Sir Thomas Brandon, master of the horse, was the uncle of Henry VIII’s favourite Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk. Sir Henry Wyatt, keeper of the jewel house, was father to the poet Sir Thomas Wyatt. This volume, based on extensive archival research, presents a kaleidoscopic portrait of the new men. It analyses the offices and relationships through which they exercised power and the ways they gained their wealth and spent it to sustain their new-found status. It establishes their importance in the operation of Henry’s government and, as their careers continued under his son, in the making of Tudor England.     Download (4MB) The Later Middle Ages, 1272-1485 Literature, Nationalism, and Memory in Early Modern England and Wales The Shadow Of The White Rose: Edward Courtenay, Earl Of Devon 1526-1556 Sir Thomas Elyot as Lexicographer The Rise Of Thomas Cromwell Load more posts

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