Heating, Cooling, Lighting 4th edition by Norbert Lechner


73572886503cedf.jpeg Author Norbert Lechner
Isbn 9781118582428
File size 153 Mb
Year 2014
Pages 912
Language English
File format PDF
Category architecture


 

HEATING, COOLING, LIGHTING FOURTH EDITION HEATING, COOLING, LIGHTING Sustainable Design Methods for Architects Norbert Lechner Cover photograph: Durango Library courtesy of Norbert Lechner Cover design: C. Wallace This book is printed on acid-free paper. Copyright © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. Published simultaneously in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600, or on the web at www .copyright.com. 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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Lechner, Norbert, author. â•… Heating, cooling, lighting : sustainable design methods for architects/Norbert Lechner.—Fourth Edition. â•…â•…â•…pagesâ•…cm â•…â•…Includes index. â•…â•… ISBN 978-1-118-58242-8 (cloth)--ISBN 978-1-118-82172-5 (pdf)—ISBN 978-1-118-84945-3 (epub) â•…1.â•…Heating.â•…2.╇ Air conditioning.â•…3.╇Lighting.â•…4.╇ Sustainable buildings—Design and construction. â•… I.╇Title. TH7222.L33 2014 697—dc23 2013042723 Printed in the United States of America 10╇9╇8╇7 ╇6 ╇5╇4╇3╇2╇1 CONTENTS FOREWORD TO THE FOURTH EDITIONâ•…xi Edward Mazria 2.8 The Amoeba Analogyâ•… 28 2.9 Supply versus Efficiencyâ•… 29 2.10 Sustainable-Design Issuesâ•… 30 2.11 Climate Changeâ•… 30 2.12 The Global Greenhouseâ•… 33 2.13 The Ozone Holeâ•… 33 2.14 Efficiency versus Renewable Energyâ•… 34 2.15 Energy Sourcesâ•… 34 2.16 Energy Use in Ancient Greeceâ•… 34 2.17 Nonrenewable Energy Sourcesâ•… 35 2.18 Renewable Energy Sourcesâ•… 38 2.19 Hydrogenâ•… 44 2.20 Conclusionâ•…45 Key Ideas of Chapter 2â•… 46 FOREWORD TO THE FIRST EDITIONâ•…xiii James Marston Fitch PREFACEâ•…xv ACKNOWLEDGMENTSâ•…xvii 1HEATING, COOLING, AND LIGHTING AS FORM-GIVERS IN ARCHITECTURE 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Introductionâ•…2 Indigenous and Vernacular Architectureâ•… 3 Formal Architectureâ•… 5 The Architectural Approach to Sustainable Designâ•…8 1.5 Dynamic versus Static Buildingsâ•… 11 1.6 Resilient Designâ•… 12 1.7 Biophilic Designâ•… 12 1.8 Color and Ornamentationâ•… 12 1.9 Energy and Architectureâ•… 13 1.10 Climate and Architectureâ•… 14 1.11 Sustainability Codes and Voluntary Programsâ•…16 1.12 Integrated Designâ•… 17 1.13 Decision Makingâ•… 18 1.14 Conclusionâ•… 19 Key Ideas of Chapter 1â•… 19 2SUSTAINABLE DESIGN AND ENERGY SOURCES 3BASIC PRINCIPLES 3.1 Introductionâ•…50 3.2 Heatâ•…50 3.3 Sensible Heatâ•… 50 3.4 Latent Heatâ•… 51 3.5 Evaporative Coolingâ•… 51 3.6 Convectionâ•…52 3.7 Transportâ•…52 3.8 Energy-Transfer Mediumsâ•… 53 3.9 Radiationâ•…53 3.10 Greenhouse Effectâ•… 54 3.11 Equilibrium Temperature of a Surfaceâ•… 55 3.12 Mean Radiant Temperatureâ•… 56 3.13 Heat Flowâ•… 56 3.14 Heat Sinkâ•… 57 3.15 Heat Capacityâ•… 57 3.16 Thermal Resistanceâ•… 58 3.17 Heat-Flow Coefficientâ•… 58 3.18 Time Lagâ•… 58 3.19 Insulating Effect of Massâ•… 59 3.20 Energy Conversionâ•… 59 3.21 Combined Heat and Powerâ•… 60 3.22 Fuel Cellsâ•… 60 3.23 Embodied Energyâ•… 61 3.24 Conclusionâ•… 61 Key Ideas of Chapter 3â•… 62 21 2.1 2.2 2.3 Easter Island: Learning from the Pastâ•… 22 Sustainable Designâ•… 22 Reuse, Recycle, and Regenerate by Designâ•…24 2.4 The Sustainability Movementâ•… 26 2.5 Population and Affluenceâ•… 26 2.6 Growthâ•…27 2.7 Exponential Growthâ•… 27 v 49 vi╇ ╇CONTENTS 4THERMAL COMFORT 63 4.1 Biological Machineâ•… 64 4.2 Thermal Barriersâ•… 65 4.3 Metabolic Rateâ•… 67 4.4 Thermal Conditions of the Environmentâ•… 67 4.5 The Psychrometric Chartâ•… 68 4.6 Dew Point and Wet-Bulb Temperaturesâ•… 69 4.7 Heat Content of Airâ•… 70 4.8 Thermal Comfortâ•… 72 4.9 Shifting of the Comfort Zoneâ•… 73 4.10 Adaptive Comfortâ•… 74 4.11 Clothing and Comfortâ•… 75 4.12 Strategiesâ•… 75 4.13 Conclusionâ•… 76 Key Ideas of Chapter 4â•… 76 5CLIMATE 79 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Introductionâ•…80 Climateâ•…80 Microclimateâ•…83 Climatic Anomaliesâ•… 85 Climate Regions of the United States and Canadaâ•…86 5.6 Explanations of the Climatic Data Tablesâ•… 87 5.7 Relative Heating and Cooling Loadsâ•… 93 5.8 Additional Climate Informationâ•… 94 5.9 Climate Information for Other Countriesâ•…95 Data Tables for Climate Regions, United Statesâ•…96 5.10 Design Strategiesâ•… 130 Key Ideas of Chapter 5â•… 137 6SOLAR GEOMETRY 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 139 Introductionâ•…140 The Sunâ•… 140 Elliptical Orbitâ•… 140 Tilt of the Earth’s Axisâ•… 141 Consequences of the Altitude Angleâ•… 142 Winterâ•…144 The Sun Revolves Around the Earth!â•… 144 The Sky Domeâ•… 144 Determining Altitude and Azimuth Anglesâ•…145 6.10 Solar Timeâ•… 146 6.11 Horizontal Sun-Path Diagramsâ•… 146 6.12 Vertical Sun-Path Diagramsâ•… 148 6.13 Drawing Sunbeamsâ•… 150 6.14 Sun-Path Modelsâ•… 153 6.15 Solar Heat Gainâ•… 154 6.16 Solar Site-Evaluation Toolsâ•… 158 6.17 Heliodonsâ•… 159 6.18 Sundials for Model Testingâ•… 160 6.19 Conceptually Clear Heliodonsâ•… 161 6.20 Conclusionâ•…162 Key Ideas of Chapter 6â•… 164 7PASSIVE SOLAR 165 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 Historyâ•…166 Solar in Americaâ•… 166 Solar Hemicycleâ•… 167 Latest Rediscovery of Passive Solarâ•… 169 Passive Solarâ•… 169 Direct-Gain Systemsâ•… 171 Design Guidelines for Direct-Gain Systemsâ•…173 7.8 Exampleâ•…175 7.9 Trombe Wall Systemsâ•… 175 7.10 Design Guidelines for Trombe Wall Systemsâ•… 179 7.11 Exampleâ•…179 7.12 Sunspacesâ•… 180 7.13 Balcomb Houseâ•… 182 7.14 Sunspace Design Guidelinesâ•… 183 7.15 Comparison of the Three Main Passive Heating Systemsâ•… 184 7.16 General Considerations For Passive Solar Systemsâ•… 184 7.17 Heat-Storage Materialsâ•… 189 7.18 Other Passive Heating Systemsâ•… 191 7.19 Maximizing Passive Solarâ•… 194 7.20 Conclusionâ•…194 Key Ideas of Chapter 7â•… 195 8PHOTOVOLTAICS AND ACTIVE SOLAR 8.1 Introductionâ•…198 8.2 The Almost Ideal Energy Sourceâ•… 198 8.3 History of PVâ•… 199 8.4 The PV Cellâ•… 201 8.5 Types of PV Systemsâ•… 202 8.6 Balance of System Equipmentâ•… 203 8.7 Building-Integrated Photovoltaicsâ•… 203 8.8 Orientation and Tiltâ•… 205 197 CONTENTS╇ ╇ 8.9 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 Roofs Clad with PVâ•… 206 Facades Clad with PVâ•… 207 Glazing and PVâ•… 209 PV Shading Devicesâ•… 210 PV: Part of the Second Tierâ•… 210 Sizing a PV Systemâ•… 210 Finding the PV Array Size for a StandAlone Building by the Short Calculation Methodâ•…211 8.16 Design Guidelinesâ•… 213 8.17 The Promise of PVâ•… 213 8.18 The Cost-Effectiveness of PV and Active Solar Applicationsâ•…214 8.19 Active Solar Swimming-Pool Heatingâ•… 216 8.20 Solar Hot-Water Systemsâ•… 217 8.21 Solar Hot-Air Collectorsâ•… 219 8.22 Designing an Active Solar Systemâ•… 221 8.23 Active/Passive Solar Systemsâ•… 223 8.24 Preheating of Ventilation Airâ•… 224 8.25 The Future of Active Solarâ•… 226 8.26 Conclusionâ•… 226 Key Ideas of Chapter 8â•… 228 9SHADING AND LIGHT COLORS 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 9.15 9.16 9.17 9.18 9.19 9.20 229 History of Shadingâ•… 230 Shadingâ•…234 Fixed Exterior Shading Devicesâ•… 236 Movable Shading Devicesâ•… 239 Shading Periods of the Yearâ•… 246 Overhangsâ•…249 Design of Horizontal Overhangs—Basic Methodâ•…250 Shading Design for South Windowsâ•… 251 Design Guidelines for Fixed South Overhangsâ•…251 Design Guidelines for Movable South Overhangsâ•…253 Shading for East and West Windowsâ•… 254 Design of East and West Horizontal Overhangsâ•…258 Design of Fins on North Windowsâ•… 259 Design Guidelines for Eggcrate Shading Devicesâ•…259 Special Shading Strategiesâ•… 261 Shading Outdoor Spacesâ•… 263 Using Physical Models for Shading Designâ•…267 Glazing as the Shading Elementâ•… 270 Interior Shading Devicesâ•… 276 Solar Heat Gain Coefficientâ•… 277 vii 9.21 Roof and Wall Reflectivityâ•… 278 9.22 Conclusionâ•… 281 Key Ideas of Chapter 9â•… 283 10 PASSIVE COOLING 285 10.1 Introduction to Coolingâ•… 286 10.2 Historical and Indigenous Use of Passive Coolingâ•…286 10.3 Passive Cooling Systemsâ•… 292 10.4 Comfort Ventilation versus Night-Flush Coolingâ•…293 10.5 Basic Principles of Airflowâ•… 293 10.6 Airflow through Buildingsâ•… 297 10.7 Example of Ventilation Designâ•… 306 10.8 Comfort Ventilationâ•… 307 10.9 Night-Flush Coolingâ•… 309 10.10 Double-Skin Facades and Operable Roofsâ•…312 10.11 Radiant Coolingâ•… 313 10.12 Evaporative Coolingâ•… 316 10.13 Cool Towersâ•… 319 10.14 Earth Coolingâ•… 320 10.15 Dehumidification with a Desiccantâ•…322 10.16 Solar Chimneyâ•… 323 10.17 Conclusionâ•… 324 Key Ideas of Chapter 10â•… 324 11 SITE DESIGN, COMMUNITY PLANNING, AND LANDSCAPING 11.1 Introductionâ•…326 11.2 Site Selectionâ•… 328 11.3 Solar Accessâ•… 329 11.4 Shadow Patternsâ•… 330 11.5 Site Planningâ•… 334 11.6 Solar Zoningâ•… 338 11.7 Physical Modelsâ•… 340 11.8 Wind and Site Designâ•… 341 11.9 Plants and Vegetationâ•… 346 11.10 Vegetated Roofsâ•… 352 11.11 Lawnsâ•… 355 11.12 Landscapingâ•… 355 11.13 Community Designâ•… 360 11.14 Cooling Our Communitiesâ•… 362 11.15 Conclusionâ•… 363 Key Ideas of Chapter 11â•… 363 325 viii╇ ╇CONTENTS 12 LIGHTING 365 12.1 Introductionâ•… 366 12.2 Lightâ•… 367 12.3 Reflectance/Transmittanceâ•… 370 12.4 Colorâ•… 371 12.5 Visionâ•… 374 12.6 Perceptionâ•… 375 12.7 Performance of a Visual Taskâ•… 379 12.8 Characteristics of the Visual Taskâ•… 379 12.9 Illumination Levelâ•… 381 12.10 Brightness Ratiosâ•… 382 12.11 Glareâ•… 384 12.12 Equivalent Spherical Illuminationâ•… 387 12.13 Activity Needsâ•… 389 12.14 Biological Needsâ•… 392 12.15 Light and Healthâ•… 394 12.16 The Poetry of Lightâ•… 395 12.17 Rules for Lighting Designâ•… 395 12.18 Career Possibilitiesâ•… 396 12.19 Conclusionâ•… 397 Key Ideas of Chapter 12â•… 398 13 DAYLIGHTING 399 13.1 History of Daylightingâ•… 400 13.2 Why Daylighting?â•… 403 13.3 The Nature of Daylightâ•… 405 13.4 Conceptual Modelâ•… 407 13.5 Illumination and the Daylight Factorâ•… 409 13.6 Light without Heat?â•… 410 13.7 Cool Daylightâ•… 411 13.8 Goals of Daylightingâ•… 412 13.9 Basic Daylighting Strategiesâ•… 413 13.10 Basic Window Strategiesâ•… 416 13.11 Advanced Window Strategiesâ•… 419 13.12 Window Glazing Materialsâ•… 424 13.13 Top Lightingâ•… 427 13.14 Skylight Strategiesâ•… 427 13.15 Clerestories, Monitors, and Light Scoopsâ•…432 13.16 Special Daylighting Techniquesâ•… 437 13.17 Translucent Walls and Roofsâ•… 442 13.18 Electric Lighting as a Supplement to Daylightingâ•…444 13.19 Physical Modelingâ•… 445 13.20 Guidelines for Daylightingâ•… 449 13.21 Conclusionâ•… 450 Key Ideas of Chapter 13â•… 450 14 ELECTRIC LIGHTING 453 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 History of Light Sourcesâ•… 454 Light Sourcesâ•… 455 Incandescent and Halogen Lampsâ•… 457 Discharge Lampsâ•… 459 Fluorescent Lampsâ•… 460 High Intensity Discharge Lamps (Mercury, Metal Halide, and High Pressure Sodium)â•…462 14.7 Solid State Lightingâ•… 464 14.8 Comparison of the Major Lighting Sourcesâ•…466 14.9 Luminairesâ•… 467 14.10 Lenses, Diffusers, and Bafflesâ•… 468 14.11 Lighting Systemsâ•… 470 14.12 Remote-Source Lighting Systemsâ•… 472 14.13 Visualizing Light Distributionâ•… 473 14.14 Architectural Lightingâ•… 476 14.15 Outdoor Lightingâ•… 478 14.16 Emergency Lightingâ•… 479 14.17 Controlsâ•… 480 14.18 Maintenanceâ•… 480 14.19 Rules for Energy-Efficient Electric Lighting Designâ•…481 14.20 Laws and Standardsâ•… 481 14.21 Conclusionâ•… 482 Key Ideas of Chapter 14â•…482 15 THE THERMAL ENVELOPE: KEEPING WARM AND STAYING COOL 483 15.1 Backgroundâ•… 484 15.2 Heat Lossâ•… 485 15.3 Heat Gainâ•… 487 15.4 Solar Reflectivity (Albedo)â•… 489 15.5 Compactness, Exposed Area, and Thermal Planningâ•…490 15.6 Insulation Materialsâ•… 493 15.7 The Thermal Envelopeâ•… 498 15.8 Heat Bridgesâ•… 505 15.9 Windowsâ•… 508 15.10 Movable Insulationâ•… 512 15.11 Insulating Effect From Thermal Massâ•… 513 15.12 Earth Shelteringâ•… 515 15.13 Infiltration and Ventilationâ•… 519 15.14 Moisture Controlâ•… 521 15.15 Radonâ•… 524 15.16 Appliancesâ•… 525 CONTENTS╇ ╇ ix 18 RECOMMENDED LOW ENERGY CASE STUDIES 15.17 Conclusionâ•… 526 Key Ideas of Chapter 15â•…526 16 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT FOR HEATING AND COOLING 529 17 TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS 599 19.1 Introductionâ•… 600 19.2 Site Selectionâ•… 600 19.3 Formâ•… 600 19.4 Planâ•… 600 19.5 Windowsâ•… 600 19.6 Daylightingâ•… 601 19.7 Shadingâ•… 601 19.8 Colorâ•… 601 19.9 Thermal Envelopeâ•… 602 19.10 Thermal Massâ•… 602 19.11 Glazingâ•… 602 19.12 Air Barrierâ•… 603 19.13 Passive Systemsâ•… 603 19.14 Electric Lightingâ•… 603 19.15 Mechanical Equipmentâ•… 603 577 17.1 Introductionâ•… 578 17.2 Traditional Tropical Architectureâ•… 578 17.3 The Tropical Climateâ•… 583 17.4 The Solar Geometry of the Tropicsâ•… 583 17.5 Shading in Tropical Climatesâ•… 587 17.6 Daylighting in the Tropicsâ•… 589 17.7 Passive Coolingâ•… 589 17.8 Air-Conditioned Buildings in the Tropicsâ•…590 17.9 Conclusionâ•… 593 Key Ideas of Chapter 17â•… 594 18.1 Introductionâ•… 596 18.2 Case Studiesâ•… 596 19 CHECKLIST FOR DESIGNING INTEGRATED 16.1 Introductionâ•… 530 16.2 Heatingâ•… 530 16.3 Thermal Zonesâ•… 532 16.4 Heating Systemsâ•… 532 16.5 Electric Heatingâ•… 534 16.6 Hot-Water (Hydronic) Heatingâ•… 535 16.7 Hot-Air Systemsâ•… 537 16.8 Coolingâ•… 540 16.9 Refrigeration Cyclesâ•… 541 16.10 Heat Pumpsâ•… 542 16.11 Geo-Exchangeâ•… 543 16.12 Cooling Systemsâ•… 545 16.13 Air-Conditioning for Small Buildingsâ•…548 16.14 Air-Conditioning for Large Multistory Buildingsâ•…552 16.15 Design Guidelines for Mechanical Systemsâ•…562 16.16 Air Supply (Ducts and Diffusers)â•… 563 16.17 Ventilationâ•… 566 16.18 Energy-Efficient Ventilation Systemsâ•…568 16.19 Air Filtration and Odor Removalâ•… 570 16.20 Special Systemsâ•… 570 16.21 Integrated and Exposed Mechanical Equipmentâ•…572 16.22 Low Energy Heating and Coolingâ•… 573 16.23 Conclusionâ•… 573 Key Ideas of Chapter 16â•… 574 595 APPENDIX A HORIZONTAL SUN-PATH DIAGRAMS 605 APPENDIX B VERTICAL SUN-PATH DIAGRAMS 617 APPENDIX C SOLAR ALTITUDE AND AZIMUTH ANGLES 629 APPENDIX D METHODS FOR ESTIMATING THE HEIGHT OF TREES, BUILDINGS, ETC. D.1â•…Proportional-Shadow Methodâ•…635 D.2â•…Similar-Triangle Methodâ•…635 D.3â•… 45° Right-Triangle Methodâ•… 636 D.4â•…Trigonometric Methodâ•…636 D.5â•… Tools for Measuring Vertical Anglesâ•… 636 635 x╇ ╇CONTENTS APPENDIX E SUNDIALS 639 APPENDIX F SUN-PATH MODELS 649 659 G.1â•…Introductionâ•…659 G.2â•… Construction of a Water Tableâ•… 659 APPENDIX H SITE EVALUATION TOOLS 661 H.1 Introductionâ•…661 H.2 The Solar Pathfinderâ•… 661 H.3 The SunEyeâ•… 661 H.4 The Sun Locatorâ•… 663 H.5 Do-It-Yourself Solar Site Evaluatorâ•… 663 APPENDIX I HELIODONS 669 I.1â•…Introductionâ•…669 I.2â•… The Sun Simulator Heliodonâ•… 669 APPENDIX J TABLES OF R-VALUES 675 APPENDIX K RESOURCES 679 F.1â•…Introductionâ•…649 F.2â•… Directions for Constructing a Sun-Path Modelâ•…649 APPENDIX G THE WATER TABLE FOR VENTILATION STUDIES I.3â•… The Sun Emulator Heliodonâ•… 669 I.4â•… The Tabletop Heliodonâ•… 670 I.5â•… The Bowling Ball Heliodonâ•… 673 K.1â•…Booksâ•…679 K.2â•…Journalsâ•…679 K.3â•…Videosâ•…679 K.4â•…Organizationsâ•…680 K.5â•…Web-Based Resourcesâ•…681 APPENDIX L CONVERSION FACTORS BETWEEN THE INCH-POUND (I-P) SYSTEM AND THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS (SI) BIBLIOGRAPHYâ•…687 INDEXâ•…693 683 FOREWORD TO THE FOURTH EDITION The compelling words written by James Marston Fitch in 1991 in the Foreword to the first edition (which follows) are still valid, but the stakes are now much higher. Because the fate of the planet is at stake, it is no longer just a question of following a particular architectural or design philosophy. Buildings consume about half the energy produced in the United States and around the world. Today, more than 50 percent of the world’s population lives in cities, a figure that is likely to rise to 60 percent over the next two decades. It is clear that timing is critical: with 900 billion ft2 (80 billion m2) of urban environment projected to be built and rebuilt in the next twenty years (an area equal to three times the total building stock of the United States), we are presented with an extraordinary window of opportunity to meet present and looming threats. Our best chance of doing so is to ensure that the architecture, planning, and development community, the primary agents shaping the built environment through design and construction, have access to the knowledge and tools necessary for the transition to a decarbonized, sustainable, and adaptive world. Professor Lechner’s book describes how to achieve this transition in the built environment. The book illustrates the many sustainable strategies available to designers and provides the information needed during the early phases of the design process, when a building’s energy consumption patterns are defined. By using the strategies presented in this book, much of the energy consumed to heat, light, and cool buildings can be dramatically reduced. Professor Lechner’s book is also an important resource for those architects who are concerned about the aesthetic aspects of sustainability. He convincingly explains and demonstrates how lessons learned from vernacular architecture can be combined with the best of modern ideas to create low-impact yet beautifully designed humane architecture. Since carbon neutral buildings can be fully powered by renewable resources, a future of lowimpact buildings is not only necessary but also elegantly achievable. EDWARD MAZRIA, AIA xi FOREWORD TO THE FIRST EDITION Professor Lechner’s book differs from most of its predecessors in several important respects: (1) he deals with the heating, cooling, and lighting of buildings, not as discrete and isolated problems, but in the holistic sense of being integral parts of the larger task of environmental manipulation; (2) he deals with the subjects not merely from the engineer’s limited commitment to mechanical and economic efficiency but from the much broader viewpoint of human comfort and physical and psychic well being; (3) he deals with these problems in relation to the central paradox of architecture—how to provide a stable, predetermined internal environment in an external Â�environment that is in constant flux across time and space; and finally, (4) he approaches all aspects of this complex subject from a truly cultural—as opposed to a narrowly technological—perspective. This attitude toward contemporary technology is by no means hostile. On the contrary, Professor Lechner handles it competently and comprehensively. But he never loses sight of the fact that the task of providing a truly satisfactory enclosure for human activity is that one must view the building as a whole. He points out, quite correctly, that until the last century or so, the manipulation of environmental factors was, of necessity, an architectural problem. It was the building itself—and only incidentally any meager mechanical equipment that the period happened to afford—that provided habitable space. To illustrate this point, he makes continuous and illuminating analysis to both high-style and vernacular traditions, to show how sagaciously the problems of climate control were tackled by earlier, prescientific, premechanized societies. This is no easy-to-read copybook for those designers seeking shortcuts to glitzy postmodern architecture. On the contrary, it is a closely reasoned, carefully constructed guide for architects (young and old) who are seeking an escape route from the energy-wasteful, socially destructive cul-de-sac into which the practices of the past several decades have led us. Nor is it a Luddite critique of modern technology; to the contrary, it is a wise and civilized explication of how we must employ technical and scientific knowledge if we in the architectural field are to do our bit toward avoiding environmental disaster. JAMES MARSTON FITCH Hon. AIA, Hon. FRIBA In memory of James Marston Fitch, architect, historian, professor, preservationist, and architectural theorist, 1909–2000. xiii PREFACE In this new edition the goal of previous editions remains: to provide the appropriate knowledge at the level of complexity needed at the schematic design stage. In the years since the first edition was published, we have moved from a shortage of information to a flood because of the Internet. This book will aid the designer because it presents the information in a concise, logical, and accessible arrangement and at a useful level. Since heating, cooling, and lighting are accomplished by adding energy to or removing it from a building, and since the consumption of energy is causing global warming, it is vital for architects to design low energy, sustainable buildings. Although sustainability deals with many issues, the energy issues are the most critical. Thus, an additional goal of this book is to provide architects with the skills and knowledge needed to create low energy and low carbon-emission buildings. In addition to improving and updating every chapter, three new chapters have been added. Chapter 17 on tropical architecture was added because a large portion of the world’s population lives in the tropical zone and because many architects trained in designing buildings in temperate climates end up designing buildings in the tropics. Case studies, formerly in Chapter 17, are now in Chapter 18. Because of the extensive information available on the Web, only a brief description is given of a personal selection of buildings. Chapter 19, the third new chapter, presents a checklist to help in the design of low energy, sustainable buildings. The checklist guides the designer through the decisionmaking process so that important options are considered at the appropriate time. This book focuses on the schematic design stage, where the key decisions are made. The graph below points out how the earliest decisions have the greatest impact on a project. A building’s cost and environmental impact are established mainly at the schematic design stage. The most basic decisions of size, orientation, and form often have the greatest impact on the resources required during both construction and operation. Thus, designs for sustainable buildings are achieved primarily by the earliest decisions in the design process rather than by add-ons and engineering decisions made after the architectural design of the building has been Â�essentially completed. The information in this book is presented to support the three-tier approach to sustainable design of the heating, cooling, and lighting of buildings. The first tier is load avoidance. Here the need for heating, cooling, and lighting is minimized by the design of the building itself. The second tier consists of using natural energies through methods such as passive solar, passive cooling, natural ventilation, and daylighting. This tier is also accomplished mainly by the design of the building itself. The third and last tier uses mechanical and electrical equipment to satisfy the needs not provided for by the first two tiers. With the knowledge and information presented in this book, the first two tiers can provide most of the thermal and lighting requirements of a building. As a consequence, the mechanical and electrical equipment of the third tier will be substantially smaller and will use much less energy than is typical now, thereby resulting in more sustainable buildings. Since tiers one and two are the domain of the architect, the role of the engineer at the third tier is to provide only the heating, cooling, and lighting that the architect could not. xv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS For the fourth edition, I would like to thank especially John Marusich for his excellent work on the new and revised drawings. Since this book is built on the previous three editions, I also want to thank again all of the people who helped me write those earlier editions. The typing and proofreading for the fourth edition were done by my son, Walden Lechner. And again, I want to thank my wife, Prof. Judith Lechner, whose help, support, and love are invaluable to me. NORBERT LECHNER Prof. Emeritus and Architect Auburn University xvii

Author Norbert Lechner Isbn 9781118582428 File size 153 Mb Year 2014 Pages 912 Language English File format PDF Category Architecture Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare Sustainable environmental control through building design Heating, Cooling, and Lighting is the industry standardtext on environmental control systems with the emphasis onsustainable design. By detailing the many factors that contributeto the comfort in a building, this book helps architects minimizemechanical systems and energy usage over the life of the buildingby siting, building design, and landscaping to maximize naturalheating, cooling, and lighting. This new fourth edition includesnew information on integrated design strategies and designing forthe Tropics. Resources include helpful case studies, checklists,diagrams, and a companion website featuring additional cases, animage bank, and instructor materials. Designing buildings that require less energy to heat, cool, andlight means allowing the natural energy of the sun and wind toreduce the burden on the mechanical and electrical systems. Basicdesign decisions regarding size, orientation, and form have a greatimpact on the sustainability, cost, and comfort of a building.Heating, Cooling, and Lighting provides detailed guidancefor each phase of a design project. Readers will: Understand the concept of sustainability as applied to energysources Review the basic principles of thermal comfort, and thecritical role of climate Learn the fundamentals of solar responsive design, includingactive and passive solar systems as well as photovoltaics Discover how siting, architectural design, and landscaping canreduce the requirements for mechanical and electrical systems In sustainable design, mechanical, and electrical systems shouldbe used to only accomplish what the architect could not by thedesign of the building itself. With this in mind, designers requirea comprehensive understanding of both the properties of energy andthe human factors involved in thermal comfort. Heating, Cooling,and Lighting is the complete, industry-leading resource fordesigners interested in sustainable environmental control.     Download (153 Mb) Peter Frederick Smith – Architecture in a Climate of Change BIM in Small-Scale Sustainable Design Plumbing, Electricity, Acoustics: Sustainable Design Methods for Architecture Sustainable Solar Housing: Volume 2 – Exemplary Buildings and Technologies Sustainable Solar Housing: Volume 1 – Strategies and Solutions Load more posts

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