Handbook of Food Science and Technology 1 by Pierre Schuck, Romain Jeantet, and Thomas Croguennec


7358909fd2a0e19-261x361.jpg Author Pierre Schuck, Romain Jeantet, and Thomas Croguennec
Isbn 9781848219328
File size 5MB
Year 2016
Pages 264
Language English
File format PDF
Category chemistry



 

Handbook of Food Science and Technology 1 Series Editors Jack Legrand & Gilles Trystram Handbook of Food Science and Technology 1 Food Alteration and Food Quality Edited by Romain Jeantet Thomas Croguennec Pierre Schuck Gérard Brulé First published 2016 in Great Britain and the United States by ISTE Ltd and John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Translated by Geraldine Brodkorb from “Science des aliments” © Tec & Doc Lavoisier 2006. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms and licenses issued by the CLA. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside these terms should be sent to the publishers at the undermentioned address: ISTE Ltd 27-37 St George’s Road London SW19 4EU UK John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 111 River Street Hoboken, NJ 07030 USA www.iste.co.uk www.wiley.com © ISTE Ltd 2016 The rights of Romain Jeantet, Thomas Croguennec, Pierre Schuck and Gérard Brulé to be identified as the authors of this work have been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. Library of Congress Control Number: 2015956891 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 978-1-84821-932-8 Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gérard BRULÉ ix Part 1. Water and Other Food Constituents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter 1. Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pierre SCHUCK 3 1.1. Structure and state of water 1.2. Properties of water. . . . . . 1.2.1. Water activity (aw) . . . 1.2.2. Glass transition . . . . . 1.2.3. Phase diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 7 8 19 25 Chapter 2. Other Food Constituents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thomas CROGUENNEC 27 2.1. Carbohydrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1. Structure of carbohydrates . . . . 2.1.2. Carbohydrates in solution . . . . . 2.2. Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1. Structure of proteins . . . . . . . . 2.2.2. Solubility of proteins . . . . . . . . 2.3. Lipids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1. Composition of the lipid fraction . 2.3.2. Thermal properties of lipids . . . . 2.4. Vitamins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 28 30 36 36 38 41 41 47 51 vi Handbook of Food Science and Technology 1 Part 2. Food Modifying Agents and Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Chapter 3. Microbial Spoilage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Florence BARON and Michel GAUTIER 55 3.1. Microbial profile of food . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1. Origin of microorganisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.2. Factors influencing the growth of microorganisms 3.2. Food spoilage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1. Changes in texture and structure . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.2. Changes in flavor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3. Sanitary risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1. Foodborne disease outbreak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2. Main pathogens and toxin producers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 55 66 78 79 80 82 82 86 Chapter 4. Lipid Oxidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thomas CROGUENNEC 99 4.1. Lipid substrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2. Lipid oxidation mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1. Lipid autoxidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2. Lipid oxidation by singlet oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3. Main compounds derived from lipid oxidation . . . . . . 4.4. Factors affecting lipid oxidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1. Oxygen content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2. Catalysts of lipid oxidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3. Inhibitors of lipid oxidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.4. Physical-chemical factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5. Evaluation of susceptibility to oxidation and the level of oxidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1. Measuring the consumption of oxidation substrates 4.5.2. Determination of the peroxide value. . . . . . . . . . 4.5.3. Measurement of peroxide decomposition products . 4.6. Control and prevention of lipid oxidation . . . . . . . . . 4.6.1. Stabilization using physical means . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.2. Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 100 101 106 108 110 111 112 116 119 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 124 124 126 126 128 129 Chapter 5. Non-Enzymatic Browning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thomas CROGUENNEC 133 5.1. Substrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2. Mechanism of non-enzymatic browning . 5.2.1. Condensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.2. Amadori or Heyns rearrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 135 136 137 Contents 5.2.3. Degradation of ketosamines. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.4. Polymerization reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3. Factors influencing the Maillard reaction . . . . . . . 5.3.1. Substrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2. Physical-chemical conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.3. Presence of activators and inhibitors . . . . . . . 5.4. Consequences of non-enzymatic browning . . . . . . 5.4.1. Sensory consequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.2. Functional consequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.3. Nutritional consequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5. Evaluation of non-enzymatic browning . . . . . . . . 5.6. Control and prevention of non-enzymatic browning . 5.6.1. Removal of substrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6.2. Physical-chemical factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6.3. Formulation (addition of inhibitors) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 144 145 145 147 149 149 150 150 151 152 153 154 155 155 Chapter 6. Enzymatic Browning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thomas CROGUENNEC 159 6.1. Substrates and browning enzymes . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1. Phenolic substrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2. Browning enzymes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2. Mechanism of enzymatic browning . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1. Formation of quinones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.2. Reactions with quinones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3. Factors influencing enzymatic browning . . . . . . . . 6.3.1. Substrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.2. Physical-chemical conditions and presence of natural inhibitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4. Consequences of enzymatic browning . . . . . . . . . . 6.5. Evaluation of enzymatic browning . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.6. Control and prevention of enzymatic browning . . . . 6.6.1. Denaturation or inhibition of polyphenol oxidase . 6.6.2. Modification or removal of oxidation substrates . 6.6.3. Control of reaction products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 160 165 167 167 167 169 169 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 171 174 175 175 177 179 Chapter 7. Molecular Dynamics in Food Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thomas CROGUENNEC and Pierre SCHUCK 183 7.1. Water migration and changes in food quality . . . . . . . 7.1.1. Water migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.2. Equilibration with the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.3. Equilibration in heterogeneous foods . . . . . . . . . 7.1.4. Equilibration after a phase and/or structure change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 184 185 186 186 viii Handbook of Food Science and Technology 1 7.2. Control and prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.1. Thermodynamic factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.2. Kinetic factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 190 191 Part 3. Quality Control and Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Chapter 8. Food Safety Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Florence BARON and Gérard BRULÉ 197 8.1. EU Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.1. Directive 93/43/EEC of June 14 1993 on the hygiene of foodstuffs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.2. Food safety regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2. Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1. Guide to good practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.2. HACCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.3. Food safety and quality assurance management . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 197 198 198 199 204 Chapter 9. Evaluation of the Physical-chemical Properties and Quality of Food . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Florence BARON, Gérard BRULÉ and Michel GAUTIER 205 9.1. Microbiological evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.1. Choice of microbiological assays . . . . . 9.1.2. Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.3. Limitations of microbiological evaluation 9.2. Biochemical and physicochemical analysis . . 9.2.1. Texture analysis by rheological methods . 9.2.2. Color analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.3. Analysis of food composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 206 210 219 220 220 228 230 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 List of Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction The first concern of primitive people was to find food in their immediate environment to meet their physiological needs to survive; with no knowledge of either their requirements or the properties of food products, whether they were of plant or animal origin, these food choices were based on very empirical observations. The development of agriculture and livestock farming gradually gave people greater control in procuring food compared to the randomness of gathering, hunting and fishing. However, the supply of agricultural and livestock products has long been highly irregular for reasons of climate, diseases or simply the seasonal nature of certain products. Due to this irregularity, and in order to meet the needs of people located far from production areas, man has always been in search of ways to preserve food, thereby creating the possibility of varying the time and place of consumption of agricultural products. I.1. Traditional preservation methods at the beginning of the agri-food industry Without any knowledge of the deterioration process of raw materials, man observed that certain natural changes led to more stable products with tasty characterisitics. This is how fermentation emerged as an effective method of preservation: products of lactic acid, acetic acid and alcoholic fermentation (cheese, bread, wine, beer, etc.) are consequently some of the oldest foods since the raw materials used to produce them all contain the elements necessary for fermentation to occur. The reduction in pH, the Introduction written by Gérard BRULÉ. x Handbook of Food Science and Technology 1 presence of metabolites such as alcohol and lactic acid, the occupation of the medium by bacteria or yeast and the depletion of microbial growth factors all generate high resistance to the development of potentially pathogenic spoilage flora. Other preservation methods have gradually been developed, based in particular on the use of salt, combined with dehydration in some cases, so as to reduce the availability of water. Water is a vector of all the elements involved in microbial growth and in chemical and biochemical reactions (solvent for metabolites and reaction products). The unavailability of water hinders microbial growth and most of the reactions. Water availability can be reduced by eliminating free water, by changing its state (ice) and by transfer or by immobilizing water through the addition of highly hydrophilic solutes such as salts and sugars. Salting has long been the most common preservation method for meat and fish in particular, and still forms the basis of the meat curing industry today. Salting is sometimes combined with dehydration or smoking: smoke constituents also contribute to good microbial and biochemical stability due to their bacteriostatic and antioxidant properties, and have a favorable impact on both color and flavor. Stabilization through heat treatment appeared late compared to the methods just described, around the middle of the 19th Century. By destroying food spoilage agents (microorganisms and enzymes), heating food is an effective way of ensuring longer product life. The canning industry is based on this method. By integrating the knowledge of the role of microorganisms into food spoilage and fermentation processes, work that was initiated by Pasteur, food production and stabilization gradually moved from an artisanal level to an industrial level. This transition was facilitated by the integration of technological progress, such as the development of pasteurization and sterilization tools, the introduction of refrigeration and freezing, drum-drying followed by spray-drying, freeze-drying, etc. This transition accelerated after World War II due to the large rural exodus that ensued. The concentration of the population in urban areas generated problems of supply of agricultural and food products, which had to be tackled by improving product stability and distribution in order to vary the time and place of consumption. This need to regulate supply and adapt it to demand was instrumental in the development of the agri-food industry. Introduction xi I.2. From quantitative demand to qualitative demands Agricultural production at the end of World War II was insufficient, both quantitatively and qualitatively, to satisfy the needs of people who had moved to urban areas: the most important aspects of food were availability and accessibility. Thus, one of the first objectives of the agricultural sector and the food industry was to meet the quantitative demand by increasing productivity and reducing production and processing costs. Progress in animal and plant genetics, developments in the agricultural sector, and changes in crop protection, forage and livestock management all resulted in a considerable increase in productivity within a few years, which in some cases was at the expense of quality. Once the quantitative demand was satisfied, consumers became increasingly aware of the dangers and risks associated with poor-quality food. The number of reported food poisoning cases increased due to the obligation to conduct a more rigorous monitoring of food poisoning, the development of mass catering and the increase in immunocompromised people, some of whom live in institutions (geriatrics). A fear of shortages, which disappeared in industrialized countries, was replaced by food scares: this phenomenon was aggravated by a series of crises that adversely affected the food chain (bovine spongiform encephalopathy, genetically-modified organisms, Listeria, Salmonella, bird flu, dioxin, etc.). The consumer’s desire to eliminate food risk meant that food hygiene and safety has become the most important quality requirement today. A number of sociological changes (increase in female employment, organization of the working day, family breakdown and the development of leisure activities) have impacted eating habits and created new needs. In addition to the development of mass catering, there has also been a rise in single serving and food services. This in turn corresponds to a very high demand for food with a long shelf life, fast preparation, individual portion sizes and highly processed food (ready meals). Trying to combine quality service (proposing a high diversity of individual portions of tasty ready-toeat food products with long shelf life) as well as a guaranteed hygiene with the control of physicochemical and thermodynamic stability and the preservation of the sensory qualities of food is a real challenge faced by the food industry today. xii Handbook of Food Science and Technology 1 The health benefit of food is also a qualitative element that has started to dominate consumer expectations: progress in the area of nutrition and data from epidemiological studies now make it possible to better assess the effects of poor diet on health. The development of a number of physiological disorders and the so-called lifestyle diseases (e.g. obesity, heart disease, allergies, intestinal and colon cancer, and diabetes) is attributed to changes in eating habits and food. As a result, health-conscious consumers are very sensitive to any communication extolling the virtues and benefits of certain foods. Over the years and throughout the many health crises that have hit the agricultural and food sectors, consumers have become aware that several foods were the result of a production system based on profit, with little concern for them and even less for the well-being of animals and the environment. They discovered that the various stages of the food chain from production to distribution were opaque and that local products were disappearing. The agricultural model established after World War II and the food chain that underpins our diet are currently facing growing opposition. For the consumer, food is not solely a product that generates pleasure and satisfies nutritional needs, but it is also a symbol of the choice of society that is being supported or opposed through the act of purchase. There has been a shift from a “goods-based economy” to a “services-based economy”. These changes in expectations among consumers impact the entire food chain, and the agricultural sector should no longer be merely a place where raw materials and services are created, but also a place of living areas, beautiful countryside and natural resources. The expectations and demands of consumers regarding their food are increasingly complex and sometimes difficult to understand because imagination also plays an important role, which in some cases can lead to contradictory behavior. I.3. Better identification of quality criteria Quality can be expressed in terms of five components: safety, health, sensory, service and society (Figure I.1); we can define a number of criteria for each of the five components. Introduction xiii Figure I.1. Quality of food I.4. Safety Safety implies the absence of bacterial or viral pathogens, toxins or chemical residues. Pathogens can have several sources (e.g. raw materials and environment) and can be carried by different vectors (e.g. water, air and operators). The implementation of codes of good practice in production and processing, the application of health controls, the design of production and processing facilities, and ongoing progress are all elements that help reduce hygiene risks and limit cross contamination. Toxins can be present in some raw materials as natural defense mechanisms against predators or microbial attack, or produced in situ by bacterial or fungal microorganisms that colonize the raw materials: this is the case, for example, with aflatoxins or patulin. Chemical residues can originate from raw materials contaminated by the treatment of plants or crops (herbicides and fungicides) or animals (antibiotics, anabolic steroids and hormones), or can be generated by processing methods such as smoking (benzopyrenes) and salting (nitrites and nitrosamines). Products from traditional processes and technology are often considered a guarantee of quality, which can be true from a xiv Handbook of Food Science and Technology 1 sensory perspective, but is highly contestable from a health and safety perspective. I.5. Health The primary function of food is to satisfy the nutritional and physiological needs of the individual. Energy requirements Energy requirements vary not only depending on age and physiological condition, but also in relation to the amount of physical activity associated with muscular work during daily activities and sport. For adults, this can range from 8,000 to 15,000 kJ per day. Energy requirements are primarily fulfilled by the intake of fats and carbohydrates, which should constitute 30 and 55% of total energy, respectively, according to nutritional recommendations. Structural and functional requirements Our body needs certain amounts of organic and inorganic substances to build and repair bones and tissues as well as carry out certain biochemical reactions involved in metabolism. In terms of minerals, macronutrient requirements (e.g. sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorous) are generally covered by diet. However, this is not always the case for some micronutrients (e.g. iron, iodine, selenium and fluoride). Vitamin requirements can be met by a balanced diet that includes fruit, vegetables, and animal and vegetable fats. Proteins supply amino acids, nine of which are essential since they are not synthesized by the body (methionine, lysine, tryptophan, threonine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, valine and histidine). Again, quantitative and qualitative needs change with age, physiological condition and activity. They are easily covered by an animal and vegetable protein-based diet. Fats and carbohydrates, in addition to their energy function, play an important physiological role. Some fatty acids have reproductive, epidermal Introduction xv and platelet functions. Two families of polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-6 (linoleic acid, 18:2) and n-3 (alpha-linolenic acid, 18:3), play an essential role. The recommended daily allowance, expressed as a percentage of energy from fat, is 60% monounsaturated fatty acids, 25% saturated fatty acids and 15% polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid at a ratio of 5:1). Carbohydrates other than glucose play an important role as components of serum and tissue glycoproteins (galactose, mannose, fucose, sialic acid, etc.). Indigestible oligosaccharides are crucial in maintaining a balanced gut flora and limiting the probability of developing certain diseases. Protection and defense requirements The body is exposed to a certain amount of stress and attack. The immune system can therefore be affected by various diseases and treatments or during the process of aging, which results in greater susceptibility to viral attack and microbial infection. The immune status is maintained and even improved by the intake of micronutrients (copper and zinc) and vitamins (B6) as well as the consumption of prebiotics and probiotics. I.6. Satisfaction Eating has and always should remain a pleasure through the sensations that food provides. Sensory stimuli, whether visual, olfactory (nasally or retronasally), gustatory (taste), tactile or auditory, contribute in varying degrees to the organoleptic or sensory quality of food. The integration of all these stimuli results in sensory perception and its hedonic expression. It can differ from one individual to another, given that the discriminating power of smell and taste depends on eating habits, and can vary for organic and physiological reasons. The perception of food can also be heavily influenced by the sociocultural context; for example, the imaginative aspect associated with food can have a considerable impact. I.7. Service Sociological changes (e.g. increase in female labor force participation, organization of working time and growing importance of leisure time) tend to limit the time spent by consumers in preparing meals. They have thus contributed to the development of non-domestic catering and food services, i.e. shelf-stable prepared and/or cooked products that are easy to use. The xvi Handbook of Food Science and Technology 1 development of freezing and thawing (using household microwaves, for example) has promoted the penetration of these ready-to-use foods into the market. I.8. Society The relationship between the consumer and food has evolved considerably. Consumers are increasingly aware of buying local, demanding more “naturalness” and “authenticity” and refusing any technical developments that might damage the quality of rural areas, animal wellbeing or the environment. Food, the link between consumers and their locality, conveys the values and choices of a society, of which consumers are increasingly aware. PART 1 Water and Other Food Constituents

Author Pierre Schuck, Romain Jeantet, and Thomas Croguennec Isbn 9781848219328 File size 5MB Year 2016 Pages 264 Language English File format PDF Category Chemistry Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare This book serves as a general introduction to food science and technology, based on the academic courses presented by the authors as well as their personal research experiences. The authors’ main focus is on the biological and physical-chemical stabilization of food, and the quality assessment control methods and normative aspects of the subsequent processes. Presented across three parts, the authors offer a detailed account of the scientific basis and technological knowledge needed to understand agro-food transformation. From biological analyses and process engineering, through to the development of food products and biochemical and microbiological changes, the different parts cover all aspects of the control of food quality.       Download (5MB) Glass Transition and Phase Transitions in Food and Biological Materials Carbohydrate Chemistry, Volume 40 Science and Technology of Separation Membranes 2 Vol Set Frontiers in Bioenergy and Biofuels Multicomponent Polymeric Materials: From Introduction to Application Load more posts

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