Fundamentals of Materials Science for Technologists by Larry D. Horath


575a370c77d4a47-261x361.jpg Author Larry D. Horath
Isbn 9780130143877
File size 81.99MB
Year 2000
Pages 598
Language English
File format PDF
Category engineering and technology


 

Fundamentals of Materials Science for Technologists Properties, Testing, and Laboratory Exercises Second Edition L���� H����� California University of Pennsylvania Dedication This work has resulted from the advice, support, and encouragement of many individuals. Therefore, it is dedicated to my friends and family, without whose support it could not have been completed.  For information about this book, contact: Waveland Press, Inc. 4180 IL Route 83, Suite 101 Long Grove, IL 60047-9580 (847) 634-0081 [email protected] www.waveland.com Copyright © 2001, 1995 by Larry Horath Reissued 2017 by Waveland Press, Inc. 10-digit ISBN 1-4786-3463-4 13-digit ISBN 978-1-4786-3463-8 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Preface This book and its accompanying materials are meant as an introduction for learning about the importance of materials and materials testing. This introduction is appropriate for two-year and four-year colleges and universities preparing future technicians, technologists, and engineers. The objective of this volume and its supplemental materials is to provide an awareness of the theory, manufacturing, processing, properties, applications, and common test procedures relating to common materials. These materials include the most common materials that a learner is most likely to encounter, including metals, plastics, glass and ceramics, wood and composites, fuels, and adhesives. Also included are the important advantages, disadvantages, and importance of these materials. The first section of this book is a background on the chemistry of materials, including their structure, properties, and selection. This includes their common properties that are important to material applications and how these properties may be created, reduced, and altered for various applications. The second section deals with the destructive and nondestructive evaluation of material properties, focusing on the mechanical properties. Further support for the learner is included in the accompanying materials found on the book's web page at waveland.com. Each chapter contains an introduction, summary, and questions and problems. These are intended to assist learners in identifying the overall objectives of the chapter and section and reinforce their understanding and learning. Examples and photos are included as visual aids for the concepts presented. Laboratory assignments and reference materials have been included for hands-on learning in a supervised environment. Thus, it helps promote understanding of the "why" of studying materials and materials testing. It is beyond the scope of this book to cover every material and test available. However, the intent of this material is to provide a basic understanding of the materials available and the tests made on these materials to identify their properties. There are endless combinations of materials available today. This book provides a discussion and examples of the most common. This information can then be applied in other situations and applications. iii iv Preface ACKNOWLEDGMENTS It is a daunting task to try and acknowledge everyone involved in this book and its additional materials. However, I would like to take this opportunity to thank Bob and Lori Olson, multimedia development; Dan Arnold, photographer; Bethany, Elyse, and Rachael; and all of the various contributors to this work. I would also like to thank the following reviewers of the manuscript: Thomas R. Clark, Rock Valley College (IL), Dr. Greg E. Maksi, State Technical Institute at Memphis (TN), and Dr. Christian Unanwa, South Carolina State University. Thank you all for your patience, support, and understanding. Contents SECTION ONE Fundamentals of Materials Technology 1 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Materials Technology 3 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1. 7 Introduction 4 Atomic Theory 4 Bonding of Materials 10 Crystalline Structures 13 Specification of Materials 18 Standards Organizations 20 Summary 21 CHAPTER 2 Ferrous Metals 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 23 Introduction 24 Production of Iron 25 Production of Steel 28 Carbon Content in Steels 33 Other Elements in Steels 35 Nomenclature of Steels 35 Tool Steels 37 Cast Iron 41 Stainless Steels 42 Corrosion 43 Summary 46 CHAPTER 3 Nonferrous Metals 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Introduction 50 Aluminum 50 Chromium 54 Copper, Brass, and Bronze Magnesium 60 Nickel 62 49 54 v vi Contents 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 Precious Metals 63 Refractory Metals 64 Titanium 65 White Metals: Lead, Tin, and Zinc Summary 68 66 CHAPTER 4 Heat Treatment 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 CHAPTERS 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 CHAPTER 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 CHAPTER 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 71 Introduction 72 Iron-Carbon Phase Diagrams 73 Time-Temperature Transformation Curves Methods of Softening Steels 89 Methods of Hardening Steels 90 Surface Hardening 93 Heat Treatment of Other Metals 95 Summary 96 75 Polymers and Elastomers 99 Introduction 100 Polymeric Structure 100 Mechanisms of Polymerization 102 Properties of Polymers 104 Manufacturing Processes Involving Polymers 118 Natural Resins Thermosetting Materials 119 Thermoplastic Materials 123 Liquid Crystal Polymers 129 Reinforced Polymers 129 Elastomers 132 Summary 140 107 Wood and Wood Products 143 Introduction 144 Types and Properties of Wood and Lumber 144 Physical and Mechanical Properties of Wood Classification and Grading of Lumber Plywood, Reconstituted Wood Panels, Modified Woods, and Their Applications Preservatives Paper and Cardboard Summary Ceramics and Glass Introduction 174 Ceramics 174 Glass 176 Types and Properties of Stone 173 193 Contents 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 Types and Properties of Clay 196 Types and Properties of Refractory Materials 203 Abrasives Summary 204 201 CHAPTER 8 Cement, Concrete, and Asphalt 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 CHAPTER 11 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 221 Introduction 222 'lYpes of Composites 222 Composite Construction 224 Fabrication 226 Summary 228 CHAPTER 10 Adhesives and Coatings 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 207 Introduction 208 Manufacture of Portland Cement 208 Concrete 211 Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete 215 Concrete Additives 217 Asphalt and Asphaltic Concrete 218 Summary 219 CHAPTER 9 Composites 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 vii 231 Introduction 232 Adhesives 232 Coatings 241 Summary 251 Fuels and Lubricants 255 Introduction 256 Types and Properties of Fuels 257 Coal 259 Petroleum 265 Gaseous Fuels 275 Types and Properties of Lubricants 275 279 Summary SECTION 1WO Principles of Mechanical and Nondestructive Testing 281 CHAPTER 12 Mechanical Behavior 283 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 Introduction 284 Fundamental Mechanical Properties 284 Mechanical Test Considerations 285 Testing Conditions 285 Stress and Strain 287 Stiffness 290 viii Contents 12.7 12.8 12.9 12.10 12.11 12.12 12.13 12.14 CHAPTER 13 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 13.10 CHAPTER 14 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 CHAPTER 15 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 CHAPTER 16 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 Stress-Strain Diagrams Slip 294 Elasticity 294 Plasticity 296 Categories of Strength Types of Failure 299 Energy Capacity 300 Summary 302 293 298 305 Introduction to Materials Testing Introduction 306 Testing versus Inspection 307 Precision, Accuracy, and Significance of Tests Collecting Data 308 Testing Procedures 309 Testing Machines 310 Test Instruments 312 Presentation of Results 315 Test Selection 319 Summary 321 325 Tensile Testing Introduction 326 Principles 326 Equipment 331 Procedure 332 Expected Results 336 Variations on Standard Procedures Summary 341 Creep Testing 307 338 345 Introduction 346 Principles 346 Equipment 348 Procedure 349 Expected Results 349 Summary 350 Compression Testing Introduction 352 Principles 352 Equipment 354 Procedure 355 Expected Results 356 Summary 357 351 Contents CHAPTER 17 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 CHAPTER 18 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 CHAPTER 19 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 CHAPTER 20 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 CHAPTER 21 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 CHAPTER 22 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 22.7 22.8 ix 359 Shear Testing Introduction 360 Principles 360 Equipment 364 Procedure 365 Expected Results 367 Summary 370 373 Bend or Flexure Testing Introduction 374 Principles 374 Equipment and Procedures Summary 378 374 379 Hardness Testing Introduction 380 Principles 380 Equipment and Procedures Summary 393 380 395 Impact Testing Introduction 396 Principles and Equipment 396 Procedures and Expected Results Summary 401 398 403 Fatigue Testing Introduction 404 Principles and Equipment Procedures 405 Summary 407 404 Nondestructive Testing 409 Introduction 410 Radiography and Diffraction 410 Magnetic and Electromagnetic Methods 413 Ultrasonic and Acoustic Emissions Methods 419 Visual Methods and Holography 426 Photoelasticity 434 Liquid Penetrants 436 Summary 438 APPENDIX A Sources of Further Information 443 APPEND IX B Measurement and Properties of Materials 457 x Contents APPENDIXC e.1 C.2 e.3 C.4 e.5 e.6 e.7 e.8 e.9 e.lO e.ll e.12 e.13 e.14 e.15 e.16 e.17 e.18 e.19 e.20 e.21 C.22 e.23 e.24 e.25 e.26 e.27 C.28 e.29 e.30 e.31 e.32 e.33 e.34 APPENDIX D 469 Laboratory Exercises Table of Contents 469 Introduction 473 Tensile Testing of Metals 479 Tensile Testing of Wire and Cable 489 Tensile Testing of Cordage 491 Tensile Testing of Welded Specimens 493 Tensile Testing of Brazed and Soldered Specimens 497 Tensile Testing of Adhesives Compression Testing 499 Compression Testing of Wood Parallel to the Grain Compression Testing of Concrete 503 Compression Testing of Brittle Metals 505 Compression Testing of Ductile Metals 507 Shear Testing 509 Direct Shear Testing of Metals 513 Direct Shear Testing of Adhesives (Wood) 515 Direct Shear Testing of Adhesives (Metals) 517 Flexure, or Bend, Testing 519 Flexure Testing of Metals 521 Flexure Testing of Concrete 523 Flexure Testing of Wood 525 Hardness Testing 527 Rockwell Hardness Test 533 Brinell Hardness Test 535 Hardness Testing for Wood 537 File Hardness Testing 539 Impact Testing 541 Izod Impact Testing 545 Fatigue Testing 547 Creep Testing 549 Creep Test for Polymers 551 Slump Testing for Concrete 553 Measurement of Entrained Air in Concrete 555 Testing of Lubricants 557 Test Glossary 559 Glossary of Selected Terms 495 501 563 APPENDIX E Answers to Selected Questions and Problems 571 INDEX 593 SECTION ONE Fundamentals of Materials Technology Chapter 1 Introduction to Materials Technology Chapter 2 Ferrous Metals Chapter 3 Nonferrous Metals Chapter 4 Heat Treatment Chapter 5 Polymers and Elastomers Chapter 6 Wood and Wood Products Chapter 7 Ceramics ChapterS Cement, Concrete, and Asphalt Chapter 9 Composites Chapter 10 Adhesives and Coatings Chapter 11 Fuels and Lubricants 1 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Materials Technology Objectives • State reasons for studying materials. • List and describe common terms related to the study of materials. • Describe and define terms and conditions associated with atomic structure and atomic theory. • Recognize and describe how the periodic table of elements is used and the structure of the table. • List and describe how the various bonding forces act to hold atoms together. • Define the various structures of materials in crystal lattice formation. • Describe the solidification process. • List and recognize various standards organizations and their purposes. 3 4 SECTION ONE Fundamentals of Materials Technology 1.1 INTRODUCTION The general purpose of this text is to introduce the reader to the nature of various materials, including their applications, advantages and disadvantages, and properties. Later, testing procedures and specifications are provided so that students can conduct their own tests and analyze the data they collect. Materials technology deals with the specifications, properties, selection, and testing of engineering materials. Engineering materials consist primarily of those materials used in the construction of various structures and machines and the many different products manufactured or produced from these materials throughout the world. To introduce the subject of materials technology, aspects of the origins, content, components, specifications, and standards regarding materials are presented in this chapter. 1.2 ATOMIC THEORY Why study engineering materials? These materials surround us. To understand the function of machines and the actions and components of structural assemblies, we must first identify and understand the characteristics of materials and their structures. Once we understand the structure of materials, we are able to ask questions about how they perform in service. This latter aspect of materials technology relies on testing to collect data on a material's performance. New materials are constantly researched and developed, putting a greater emphasis on the understanding of the structure and properties of these materials. All materials are made of atoms. Atoms are the smallest parts of an element that still retain the properties of that element. These atoms are bonded together in different patterns using different methods to form different materials. It is often necessary to classify or categorize materials according to their attributes. We may base this classification on available empirical data or on some theoretical basis yet to be proved or disproved. At present, there are several ways to classify materials, but they all refer to four important categories: • Chemical composition • The material's natural state • The refining or manufacturing processes the material must undergo before it reaches its final useful or applicable state • Atomic structure All materials can be classified into one of the following areas based on their chemical composition: elements, compounds, or mixtures. Elements cannot be broken down into chemically simpler substances. The periodic table of elements is shown in Figure 1-1. Dmitri Mendeleyev produced the first table of elements more than a century ago. Many of the elements in Figure 1-1 were not discovered until long after Mendeleyev's table. All of the elements listed are in their most basic form and cannot be simplified. Oxygen (0) and hydrogen (H) are two common basic elements. By studying the elements, scientists discovered repeti- Ul 22 23 24 VI B 25 VII B 26 27 VIII 28 29 IB Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni 30 Pd P S CI Ga Ge As Se Br Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I (226) (223) (227) tAc 59 Pr 60 Nd 10 Ne Ar Kr Xe 61 Pm 62 Sm 63 Eu 64 Gd Au 65 Tb Hg 66 Dy Ti 67 Ho Pb 68 Er Bi 69 Tm 70 Vb 71 Lu !~ I~ (222) Rn (242) 94 232.038 (231) 238.03 (237) 93 Pu U 92 Np 91 Pa 90 Th 'Actinium Series 96 (243) (247) Am Cm 95 (247) Bk 97 (249) Cf 98 (254) Es 99 101 (253) (256) Fm Md 100 (256) No 102 (257) Lr 103 2 9 ? ~ 18 32 140.12140.907144.24 (147) 150.35151 .96157.25158.924162.50 164.930167.26168.934173.04 174.97 ~ Ce 58 "Lanthanum Series Figure 1-1 Periodic table of elements. Atomic weights corrected to conform to the 1963 values of the Commission of Atomic Weights. () Numbers in parentheses are mass numbers of most stable or most common isotope. Ra Fr Pt (210) Ir 132.905137.34138.91178.49180.948183.85 186.2 190.2 192.2 195.09196.967200.59204.37207.19208.980 (210) 87 88 89 Os At W Rh 9 F \ 1.00797 4.00261 101 .07102.905 106.4 107.870 112.40 114.82 118.69 121.75 127.6C 126.904<1 131.30 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 Ru Zn 0 8 INERT GASES 63.54 65.37 69.72 72.59 74.9216 78.96 79.909 83.80 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Cu \ I VII A 14.006715.999418.9984 20.183 15 16 17 18 N 7 VI A 26.9815 28.08630.973832.064 35.453 39.948 31 32 33 34 35 36 Si 14 I VA Po Ta Re Hf Cs Ba *La (99) 75 Zr 85.47 87.62 88.905 91.22 92.906 95.94 55 56 57 72 73 74 V Tc Sr Nb Mo Rb 39.102 40.08 44.956 47.90 50.94251.99654.938055.84758.9332 58.71 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 K 122.989824.312 19 20 Mg C 6 IV A 10.81112.0111~ B 5 '" A \ \/ II B AI 21 VB Na Be Li II IV B 13 4 1JXJ797 3 III B 6.939 9.0122 11 12 II A IA 19 ~~ ~ 8 ~ la 2 8 18 8 2 g 2 8 2 6 SECfION ONE Fundamentals of Materials Technology tive patterns, which allowed them to predict the nature and properties of elements not discovered until much later. This periodic (repetitive pattern) nature of elements is determined in part by the nuclear particles and also by the behavior and configuration of the electrons. Looking at the table of elements, note that the element hydrogen (H) has an atomic number of 1. The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus or center of the atom. Protons are positively charged particles. Other elements have various numbers of protons in the nucleus, characterized by their atomic number. Also included in the nucleus are neutrons, or neutral particles. Neutrons remain at the center or nucleus of the atom. Electrons are negatively charged particles that orbit the nucleus at velocities approaching the speed of light. Atoms in a free state (balanced electronic charge) must contain the same number of electrons as protons. In the free state, the negative charges balance the positive. Electrons do not follow neat, well-defined orbits. Instead they randomly orbit the nucleus in what have been described as clouds. Electrons orbit so quickly that, if you could see an atom, the orbit of the electrons would appear to be a random pattern typified by a cloud structure (Figure 1-2). I Electron cloud probabilities ~ . .. ,...... ...-.-.............. ... ..... -... -..:... . . ... ..... -.: -: ...... -.................. ..:.:.......... .. ....... ...... -.-.::.. ..... .. :: . .. . .. . : ....... ..-:.... -....... . . ...... ......_-: ••::::.:-. • .... : ....~$::.:::.": : • : !:.:~:: ., .... ..... - .••... -:. .... ,. . ..: .... -:........... :. . ..... .... .~ ..:... . ...... :..... :. ... . ......:::... . . ....: ~:.' ...•••......• . . .. -.. ..... -... .•••• ...... • • • • • ••• • • .... ....:.. . .. . . .. .... ::... . ...... ...:..... .......• . ...... '.::. .. ..... •.•.• .... . ...I::'· :.... •••. • ••• •••• .••... .... .. . . .. . .. ..:.:.... ... .. . ....... .. .. : : . . ....... .......... :.: ............:. : .. :..:.... :....:.. . . .....:: . ..... :. . .....•.....:..• •. .................... ..... ...... ... ... . ... ..... ....... ...... • •• ••••••• • .:.......:..... .... .. ...: ... . ....::::...... :: .. ~ . .. ... ..• •...... . •• ............ . •••• •• • •••••••• ,..... :. ...... ... : ..... ,.. ••••••••• •• • •••:.: •••••• •••• ..:.,: ..:.... ........ : ..•• ............ :.. :..... . ~ / , Electron orbit - ••• ••••• _::... Nuceus I • • • .:.. • ••• •••• ~ ~:.: '-... ............... 0 ---- ........ /' A tomic structure Figure 1-2 Atomic structure and electron cloud. Electron cloud CHAPTER ONE Introduction to Materials Technology 7 An atom consists of the central cluster called the nucleus and the orbiting electrons. The number of protons in the nucleus determines which element the atom represents. For example, carbon (C) has an atomic number of 6, because there are six protons in the nucleus of a carbon atom. Neutrons and protons are much heavier than the other subatomic particles. Based on this fact, scientists often ignore the mass of the other particles and define the atomic mass of an atom as the sum of the masses of the protons and neutrons. Mass is a property of a body, expressed in pounds or kilograms. Weight is the gravitational force exerted on a body by the earth. The terms mass and weight are often confused and erroneously used interchangeably. An electron, the largest of the remaining particles, weighs about 1/2000 as much as a proton. An arbitrary mass of 1 is assigned to protons and neutrons. For example, carbon has six protons and six neutrons in the nucleus. Therefore, its atomic mass is 12. Refer to the periodic table in Figure 1-1 and compare the atomic masses to the atomic numbers of several elements. The difference between the two numbers is roughly the number of neutrons in the nucleus. Isotopes are atoms that vary from the normal atomic mass found in naturally occurring forms of the element. ·For instance, an atom may contain more or fewer neutrons in the nucleus. Neutrons are neutral particles (without electrical charge); therefore, they do not alter the atomic number or the chemical properties of the element. However, some isotopes are unstable and radioactive. These isotopes are used as chemical tracers and nuclear fuels. For example, some elements are known to collect in certain cancerous tumors. Doctors inject radioisotopes into the bloodstream of a patient to detect or to monitor change in tumors using sensitive radioactivity monitors. Electrons orbit the nucleus of the atom. This tiny solar system behaves in ways that cannot be predicted by the common laws of physics. The speeds involved and the size of the particles make it necessary to use a branch of physics called quantum mechanics to study atoms. Quantum mechanics is a field of study that uses energy levels, motion analysis, and probability theories to describe and predict the motion and behavior of electrons. Quantum mechanics makes a basic assumption related to the electrons: Electrons behave ina wavelike fashion rather than like individual particles. Waves can be diverted by reflection or diffraction. This makes it difficult to predict the exact locations or paths of electrons. It is more accurate or descriptive to use energy levels or energy contents of electrons in describing their location in space. Again using the idea of the solar system, the higher the energy level or energy content of an electron, the farther it is from the central core or nucleus. It is common to have more than one electron in an orbit. Two electrons in the same orbit or energy level have the same energy content. In addition to orbiting the nucleus, electrons also spin or rotate while orbiting. Electrons spin in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction. For two electrons to orbit at the same energy level, they must spin in opposite directions, one positive and one negative. The two electrons are virtually identical except for spin direction. Energy levels appear at predictable intervals. Electron levels cannot exist in the gaps between these major levels. The first orbit, or electron shell, called Is, can hold up to two electrons. The second orbit contains two subshells, called 2s (lower energy) and 2p (higher energy), that are close to each other in energy values. The 8 SECfION ONE Fundamentals of Materials Technology subshell designations are s, p, j, and d, and they increase in energy from s to d. Referring to the periodic table in Figure 1-1, the repetitive pattern of the elements becomes clearer. Looking at Group I, the hydrogen contains one proton in the nucleus and one electron at the Is level. Hydrogen, also in the first period, has two electrons, both in the Is level but with opposite spin directions. The second period begins with lithium, which has one electron in the outer shell, like hydrogen. Lithium (Li) has two electrons in the Is level and one electron in the 2s level. The second and third periods (rows) continue to fill the third energy level. Starting with the fourth period, lower subshells must be filled before the outermost energy shell is filled. Electron shells are shown in Figure 1-3. Quantum mechanics has come up with four quantum numbers to describe an electron. The total energy of an electron is designated by the principal quantum number, n. The letter n is used to designate the shell: 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. The angular momentum of an electron, I, is the second quantum number. The angular momentum of the electron ranges from 0 to n-l, and the subshell is 2(2/ + 1). This expression is used to determine the subshell inhabited by the electron. Subshells are designated as s, p, d, f, g, and h. The magnetic moment of the electron, designated M, is the third quantum number. M has values from + 1 to 0 to -1 and designates the orbit within the subshell that corresponds to its energy level. Ms is the spin direction of the electron. It can have values from + 1/2 to -1/2. No two electrons have the same four quantum numbers. The vertical groupings in the periodic table are based on similar electron configurations and similarities in both chemical and physical properties. For example, the members of Group IA are called the alkali metals; Group lIA are the alkaline-earth metals; Groups IlIA through VA and VIlA are mostly nonmetals; and the last group contains the inert gases. The groups listed as transition elements are mostly metals with incomplete subshells. The atomic size of the elements decreases from left to right within a period and increases from top to bottom within a group. Elements are roughly divided into two categories: metals or nonmetals. Metals tend to be solid at room temperature and to be good conductors. Nonmetals may be solids, liquids, or gases and tend to be insulators. These are general considerations and are meant to be rough guidelines, not absolutes. About 92 elements occur naturally in the earth. With the addition of synthesized or manufactured elements, the total number of elements is around 120. Many of these synthetic elements are shortlived, and many even remain unnamed. Compounds are combinations of two or more elements. These combinations may have properties that are different from any of the component elements. Sodium chloride (NaCl), or salt, is an example of a compound that has properties different from either constituent. Sodium is a metal that burns at room temperature, and chlorine is a poisonous gas. Alloys are metals combined with one or more other elements. The smallest part of a compound that retains the properties of that compound is a molecule. Molecules are generally made up of different types of atoms in varying combinations. Mixtures are constructed of two or more pure substances that have been mechanically mixed together. The pure substances can be elements or compounds. Mixtures Element Symbol Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium H He Li Be B C N Atomic Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Shell and Subshell Configuration 1s-1 1s-2 V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1s-2,2s-1 1s-2,2s-2 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-1 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-2 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-3 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-4 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-5 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-6 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-6, 3s-1 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-6, 3s-2 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-6, 3s-2, 3p-1 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-6, 3s-2, 3p-2 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-6, 3s-2, 3p-3 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-6, 3s-2, 3p-4 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-6, 3s-2, 3p-5 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-6, 3s-2, 3p-6 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-6, 3s-2, 3p-6, 4s-1 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-6, 3s-2, 3p-6, 4s-2 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-6, 3s-2, 3p-6, 3d-1, 4s-2 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-6, 3s-2, 3p-6, 3d-2, 4s-2 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-6, 3s-2, 3p-6, 3d-3, 4s-2 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-6, 3s-2, 3p-6, 3d-5, 4s-1 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-6, 3s-2, 3p-6, 3d-5, 4s-2 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-6, 3s-2, 3p-6, 3d-6, 4s-2 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-6, 3s-2, 3p-6, 3d-7, 4s-2 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-6, 3s-2, 3p-6, 3d-8, 4s-2 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-6, 3s-2, 3p-6, 3d-10, 4s-1 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-6, 3s-2, 3p-6, 3d-10, 4s-2 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-6, 3s-2, 3p-6, 3d-10, 4s-2, 4p-1 Silver Ag 47 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-6, 3s-2, 3p-6, 3d-10, 4s-2, 4p-6, 4d-10, 5s-1 Cesium Cs 55 1s-2, 2s-2, 2p-6, 3s-2, 3p-6, 3d-10, 4s-2, 4p-6, 4d-10, 5s-2, 5p-6,6s-1 Gold Au 79 .. . 3s-2, 3p-6, 3d-10, 4s-2, 4p-6, 4d-10, 4'-14, 5s-2, 5p-6, 5d-10, 6s-1 Lead Pb 82 . . . 3s-2, 3p-6, 3d-10, 4s-2, 4p-6, 4d-10, 4'-14, 5s-2, 5p-6, 5d-10, 6s-2, 6p-2 0 F Ne Na Mg AI Si P S CI A K Ca Sc Ti 17 Figure 1-3 Electron shells and orbits for selected elements. 9

Author Larry D. Horath Isbn 9780130143877 File size 81.99MB Year 2000 Pages 598 Language English File format PDF Category Engineering and Technology Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare For courses in Metallurgy, Materials Science, and Materials Testing in two- and four-year technology programs. Clearly written and with a practical, problem-solving approach, this introduction to the characteristics and testing of materials effectively combines the background students need in principles and theory with plenty of applications, to provide a solid understanding of the materials used in today’s machines, devices, structures, and consumer products. Straightforward, non-mathematical coverage is aimed at answering the “why” and “how” questions of materials science and materials testing as they relate to all types of materials?concrete, wood, metals, and polymers?and is geared to helping students build a foundation from which they can learn to design and develop additional materials and conduct materials testing procedures on their own.     Download (81.99MB) Fundamentals of Polymer Engineering, Revised and Expanded Machinery’s Handbook Extractive Metallurgy 2: Metallurgical Reaction Processes Advances in Mechatronics User’s Guide to Powder Coating Load more posts

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