Forensic Psychology: The Basics by Sandie Taylor


2058b77d64f3ccc-261x361.jpg Author Sandie Taylor
Isbn 9781138021600
File size 2MB
Year 2015
Pages 248
Language English
File format PDF
Category psychology


 

FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY THE BASICS This text provides an engaging overview of the core topics within Forensic Psychology, guiding the reader through this exciting and popular discipline. Combining a discussion of theory with information about the role of a professional forensic psychologist, it addresses such key issues as:      Police psychology Psychology of crime and delinquency Victimology and victim services Legal psychology Correctional psychology. With a glossary of key terms, case studies and suggestions for further reading, this is an informative study guide for anyone approaching the academic study of Forensic Psychology for the first time. Sandie Taylor has 20 years of experience teaching Forensic, Criminological and Investigative Psychology at both graduate and undergraduate level at the University of West London, Bath Spa University and the University of South Wales. T H E BA S I C S ACTING BELLA MERLIN DANCE STUDIES JO BUTTERWORTH AMERICAN PHILOSOPHY NANCY STANLICK EASTERN PHILOSOPHY VICTORIA S. HARRISON ANCIENT NEAR EAST DANIEL C. SNELL ECONOMICS (THIRD EDITION) TONY CLEAVER ANTHROPOLOGY PETER METCALF EDUCATION KAY WOOD ARCHAEOLOGY (THIRD EDITION) CLIVE GAMBLE ENERGY MICHAEL SCHOBERT ART HISTORY GRANT POOKE AND DIANA NEWALL EUROPEAN UNION (SECOND EDITION) ALEX WARLEIGH-LACK ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE KEVIN WARWICK EVOLUTION SHERRIE LYONS THE BIBLE JOHN BARTON FILM STUDIES (SECOND EDITION) AMY VILLAREJO BIOETHICS ALASTAIR V. CAMPBELL FINANCE (SECOND EDITION) ERIK BANKS BODY STUDIES NIALL RICHARDSON AND ADAM LOCKS FOOD ETHICS RONALD SANDLER BUDDHISM CATHY CANTWELL CHRISTIANITY BRUCE CHILTON THE CITY KEVIN ARCHER FREE WILL MEGHAN GRIFFITH GENDER HILARY LIPS GENOCIDE PAUL R. BARTROP CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE SUMAN GUPTA GLOBAL MIGRATION BERNADETTE HANLON AND THOMAS VICINIO CRIMINAL LAW JONATHAN HERRING GREEK HISTORY ROBIN OSBORNE CRIMINOLOGY (SECOND EDITION) SANDRA WALKLATE HUMAN GENETICS RICKI LEWIS HUMAN GEOGRAPHY ANDREW JONES POETRY (SECOND EDITION) JEFFREY WAINWRIGHT INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS PETER SUTCH AND JUANITA ELIAS POLITICS (FIFTH EDITION) NIGEL JACKSON AND STEPHEN D TANSEY ISLAM (SECOND EDITION) COLIN TURNER PUBLIC RELATIONS RON SMITH JOURNALISM STUDIES MARTIN CONBOY THE QUR’AN MASSIMO CAMPANINI JUDAISM JACOB NEUSNER RACE AND ETHNICITY PETER KIVISTO AND PAUL R. CROLL LANGUAGE (SECOND EDITION) R.L. TRASK RELIGION (SECOND EDITION) MALORY NYE LAW GARY SLAPPER AND DAVID KELLY RELIGION AND SCIENCE PHILIP CLAYTON LITERARY THEORY (THIRD EDITION) HANS BERTENS LOGIC JC BEALL MANAGEMENT MORGEN WITZEL MARKETING (SECOND EDITION) KARL MOORE AND NIKETH PAREEK RESEARCH METHODS NICHOLAS WALLIMAN ROMAN CATHOLICISM MICHAEL WALSH SEMIOTICS (SECOND EDITION) DANIEL CHANDLER SHAKESPEARE (THIRD EDITION) SEAN MCEVOY SOCIAL WORK MARK DOEL MEDIA STUDIES JULIAN MCDOUGALL SOCIOLOGY KEN PLUMMER METAPHYSICS MICHAEL REA SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS JANICE WEARMOUTH THE OLYMPICS ANDY MIAH AND BEATRIZ GARCIA SPORT PSYCHOLOGY DAVID TOD PHILOSOPHY (FIFTH EDITION) NIGEL WARBURTON STANISLAVSKI ROSE WHYMAN PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY JOSEPH HOLDEN SUBCULTURES ROSS HAENFLER SUSTAINABILITY PETER JACQUES THEATRE STUDIES (SECOND EDITION) ROBERT LEACH TELEVISION STUDIES TOBY MILLER WOMEN’S STUDIES BONNIE SMITH TERRORISM JAMES LUTZ AND BRENDA LUTZ WORLD HISTORY PETER N. STEARNS FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY T H E BA S I C S Sandie Taylor AddAdd AddAdd Add Add Add AddAdd AddAdd Add Add First published 2015 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN and by Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 2015 Sandie Taylor The right of Sandie Taylor to be identified as author of this work has been asserted by her in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Taylor, Sandie. Forensic psychology: the basics / Sandie Taylor. pages cm. – (The basics) Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Forensic psychology. I. Title. RA1148.T39 2015 614’.15 – dc23 2014046359 ISBN: 978-1-138-02158-7 (hbk) ISBN: 978-1-138-02160-0 (pbk) ISBN: 978-1-315-69574-7 (ebk) Typeset in Bembo by Taylor & Francis Books I would like to dedicate this book to Professor Lance Workman for all his support during this entire project This page intentionally left blank CONTENTS List of figures Acknowledgements 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x xi Forensic psychology and the role of the forensic psychologist Theories of criminal behaviour that help inform practice Forensic mental health and criminal behaviour Psychological assessments and intervention Psychological vulnerability Legal psychology Research in forensic psychology Responding to new challenges 29 64 92 124 146 181 199 Glossary Bibliography Index 212 214 232 1 LIST OF FIGURES 1.1 Key figureheads that helped to shape forensic psychology 1.2 Skills of a practising forensic psychologist 1.3 The four ethical principles 2.1 The main theoretical approaches for understanding offending behaviour 2.2 Diagram of Baddeley and Hitch’s model of working memory 4.1 Examples of questions asked during assessment 6.1 Outline of a typical courtroom procedure 6.2 The mean number of correct and incorrect responses and confabulated information obtained using the standard police interview and CI 6.3 An example of a visual map configured by SSA. Adapted with kind permission of Professor David Canter (Canter et al. 2004). 4 6 13 30 49 101 150 161 175 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to acknowledge Professor Lance Workman for reading all chapters and making useful suggestions and helpful corrections. I would also like to thank my two editors, Iram Satti and Siobhan Poole, for all their help and for being such good editors. This page intentionally left blank  1 FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY AND THE ROLE OF THE FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGIST Interestingly, the word ‘forensic’ derives from the Latin word forensis, which when translated into English means ‘of the forum’ – the central area of ancient Rome where the city’s law courts were held. Since then, the term ‘forensic’ has evolved to include scientific principles and practices applied within a legal context, and as such is a recognised specialised area that links psychology and law. An excellent way of introducing what forensic psychology entails and what a forensic psychologist does is by using the example of a personal account, in this case practising forensic psychologist Dr Eric Mart. DR ERIC MART SPEAKS Forensic psychology is a speciality area of applied psychology. Forensic psychologists work at the intersection of the legal world and clinical psychology. They provide assessments and expert testimony in a variety of types of cases and some also provide court ordered treatment in clinics and prisons. I work in a variety of forensic areas, but much of my practice involves evaluating persons accused of criminal offenses to see if they are competent to stand trial, evaluating defendants to see if they are legally insane (not guilty by reason of insanity) and evaluating convicted sexual 2 THE ROLE OF THE FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGIST offenders to see if they are eligible for commitment as sexually violent predators. I also perform personal injury, child custody, and fitness for duty assessments. (Cited by McKay and McKay 2009) What should be immediately apparent to the reader is the diversity of work carried out by forensic psychologists. Much of this work arises out of the core areas taught in most forensic psychology courses. These core areas include:      Police investigations Psychology of crime and delinquency Victimology and victim services Legal psychology Correctional psychology. While this list provides us with some insight as to what forensic psychology entails, Blackburn (1996) gives us a succinct working definition, stating that forensic psychology is: … the provision of psychological information for the purpose of facilitating a legal decision. (Blackburn 1996, p. 7) The British Psychological Society (BPS) expands on this, defining forensic psychology as follows: Forensic Psychology is devoted to psychological aspects of legal processes in courts. The term is also often used to refer to investigative and criminological psychology: applying psychological theory to criminal investigation, understanding psychological problems associated with criminal behaviour and the treatment of those who have committed offences. (British Psychological Society 2013) This will provide the backbone for our discussion of forensic psychology. First, however, we will explore the history of forensic psychology and how it developed into a discipline in its own right. THE ROLE OF THE FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGIST THE HISTORY OF FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY An important question to consider is that of when forensic psychology actually began. While the term ‘forensic psychology’ is a relatively recent one, the roots of the science date back at least 100 years. The development of forensic psychology has been helped along by influential figureheads who used their research findings and experience as evidence in a court of law. Figure 1.1 highlights four key figureheads whose testimony, research and publications have impacted on the development of forensic psychology as a respectable discipline and helped shaped the role and status of what forensic psychologists do within a legal framework. From evidence presented by figureheads such as Schrenk-Notzing and Marston, for example, research determining whether a defendant has provided a false confession is now within the domain of forensic psychology. Forensic psychologists have developed ways (albeit not foolproof) of distinguishing different types of confession, including false confessions. This is important and would have been a blessing, for example, during the Salem witch trials of 1692, where 19 women were accused of practising witchcraft and were forced to confess by being tortured. It is the role of the forensic psychologist in British and American society to ascertain whether a confession is false or true and, if false, why it was falsely made. Another important role for the forensic psychologist derived from past developments is the determination of whether a defendant is fit to stand trial and the decision as to whether an insanity plea is appropriate. If we go as far back in history as 1772 BC, for instance, the insanity defence was mentioned in Hammurabi’s code, the legal code of ancient Mesopotamia. The Romans also had an equivalent concept, non-compos mentis, used to describe an individual who had little mental control over their behaviour and therefore could not possibly be guilty of a crime. In the past, the determination of insanity has generally been based on biblical tests of ‘knowing good from evil’ or on the ‘wild beast test’. The wild beast test was applied in the British case of Rex v. Arnold in 1724. Under the rules of the test, a defendant considered to be unaware of what he was doing was considered to behave like a wild beast and therefore should be acquitted. In a similar vein, the Criminal Lunatics Act of 1800 decreed that a mentally ill defendant should be acquitted on grounds of insanity and detained in an 3 Key figureheads Contribution towards the development of forensic psychology James McKeen Cattell 1895 He asked students at Columbia University to respond and rate their degree of confidence in the answers they gave to a series of questions. He found many inaccuracies in the responses provided, and that correctness and confidence were unrelated – some students were overly confident in their incorrect answers while others had little faith in their correct answers. By doing this experiment he highlighted the problems associated with jury perceptions of confident eyewitnesses with accuracy. Albert von Schrenk-Notzing 1896 He testified at a murder trial providing evidence of the detrimental effects suggestibility has on witness testimony. He referred to mainstream psychological research on memory to argue how pre-trial media coverage could confuse witnesses into believing they had seen what was reported in the press when they had not. This is an error of perception resulting in the falsification of information. His testimony highlights the relationship between psychology and law as his expert advice arises from within a legal context used to inform the courts of a legal decision. Hugo Münsterberg 1908 He published ‘On the Witness Stand: Essays on Psychology and Crime’ where he discussed the flaws of eyewitness memory, the role of hypnosis within a legal context and the detection of false memories. Investigators trying to establish the number of shots fired during the assassination of President Kennedy referred to Münsterberg’s research some 60 years later. William Marston 1917 He established the link between systolic blood pressure and lying. After he testified in the case of Frye v. US (1923), the acceptance of expert witnesses in court judging the psychology of testimonial reliability had begun. His work also led to the development of the polygraph. Figure 1.1 Key figureheads that helped to shape forensic psychology THE ROLE OF THE FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGIST institution until considered fit for release into society. To ascertain a defendant’s mental state required expert knowledge about the human mind – a role seemingly fit for a forensic psychologist. This ability to ascertain the mental state of a defendant was put to the test when, in 1843, Daniel McNaughton shot the secretary of the Prime Minister instead of his target the Prime Minister, whom he believed was persecuting him. He was clearly deluded and was deemed insane, which meant he was not accountable for his actions. This case led to the introduction of the McNaughton Rules (to the U.K. in 1843 and the U.S. in 1851), which holds that a person found insane cannot be guilty of a crime they have committed. To this day, forensic psychologists are called upon to assess the mental state of a defendant and ascertain fitness to stand trial using the insanity plea. Another role of the forensic psychologist derived from past developments, this time in psychology itself, is the use of assessments. Of particular importance are intelligence and personality tests used to assess normal mental or cognitive functioning (see Chapters 3 and 5). Tests using questions and problem-solving tasks to assess intelligence were first used in 1889 by Alfred Binet and later in the work of David Wechsler, who developed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale in 1921. Such tests as these and personality tests like the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), developed in 1939 by Starke Hathaway (a psychologist) and J.C. McKinley (a psychiatrist), remain widely used as assessment tools by forensic psychologists today. It is clear from these examples that the contributions of past research, testimony and publications have helped to shape forensic psychology as a discipline and define the role of forensic psychologists. In fact, they have helped to create two types of forensic psychologist with very different roles – the academic and the practitioner. The academic and practitioner and their varying roles will be our next topic of consideration. HOW HISTORY HAS SHAPED FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY: ACADEMIC AND PRACTITIONER Forensic psychologists – whether academics or practitioners – are interested in the same theories, issues and subject matter but deploy their skills rather differently. The difference in the acquired skill base for academics and for practitioners of forensic psychology primarily 5 6 THE ROLE OF THE FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGIST derives from their working environments, what their aims and objectives are, and their daily job activities. This difference can be traced back historically to the different pathways taken. There are those, for example, who have taught and researched forensic psychological phenomena (i.e. primarily the academic) and those who have applied their knowledge of forensic psychological phenomena to contexts deriving from their work environment (i.e. primarily the practitioner). This, however, does not preclude the academic from acting as a professional expert in a court case, or the practising forensic psychologist from imparting knowledge to students at university. Academics who teach forensic psychology tend to have a range of different training backgrounds, qualifications and experiences of the area. Practitioners, on the other hand, are expected to undergo specialised training and experience, leading to a Diploma in Forensic Psychology which allows them, in the U.K., to become Chartered Forensic Psychologists. In the U.S., certification as a Diplomate in Forensic Psychology is awarded by the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP). According to the Division of Criminological and Legal Psychology (DCLP) Training Committee 1994, there are numerous skills and a range of knowledge that a forensic psychologist must possess before he or she is allowed to have Chartered status – which, in the U.K., means that they can qualify as a practising forensic psychologist (see Figure 1.2). Conceptual understanding of work within a legal structure Understanding of achievements gained through psychological application within a legal and clinical context Understanding of what type of psychology is relevant to offenders, witnesses, victims and investigators Understanding of forensic psychological applications in areas of assessment and how assessment should be approached; investigation and court procedure; making decisions of guilt or innocence and whether treatment or rehabilitation is appropriate; professionalism at all times and how to apply this in a report and testimonial presentation Practical experience in one or more sub-areas of forensic psychology Figure 1.2 Skills of a practising forensic psychologist THE ROLE OF THE FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGIST These skills and the outlined knowledge base are also required for forensic psychologists practising in the U.S. These skills are important, enabling a practising forensic psychologist to operate within the context of a legal structure and to apply their specialised expertise in a variety of situations. Their specialised expertise is diverse but there are two areas that are fundamental to the role of the forensic psychologist which we will consider in the next section. FUNDAMENTAL EXPERTISE ACQUIRED BY FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGISTS Forensic psychologists perform a variety of roles, most of which involve two fundamental skills – those of assessment and therapeutic intervention. ASSESSMENT Assessment has become an important aspect of a forensic psychologist’s work. It is increasingly used to inform them of an appropriate course of action, such as which therapy would best suit an offender with specific needs or what areas of problem behaviour can be improved using therapeutic intervention. Offenders are normally assessed on entering the correctional system (i.e. prison, probation or a special hospital) and when they are ready to leave (i.e. to be released into the community or reduced supervision), but can also be assessed during periods of psychological crisis (e.g. when there are relationship problems, a death in the family or recurring mental illness). In the U.S. this assessment can include the determination of competency to be executed in death penalty cases. The following are common areas of assessment:        Custody issues Competency to stand trial Risk of danger to self or others Lethality/dangerousness Insanity Vulnerability Personality (i.e. antisocial). 7

Author Sandie Taylor Isbn 9781138021600 File size 2MB Year 2015 Pages 248 Language English File format PDF Category Psychology Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare This textprovides an engaging overview to the core topics within Forensic Psychology, guiding the reader through this exciting and popular discipline. Combining a discussion of theory with information about the role of a professional forensic psychologist, it addresses such key issues as: Police Psychology Psychology of crime and delinquency Victimology and victim services Legal Psychology Correctional Psychology With a glossary of key terms, case studies and suggestions for further reading, this is an informative study guide for anyone approaching the academic study of Forensic Psychology for the first time.     Download (2MB) Homicide: A Forensic Psychology Casebook Taphonomy of Human Remains Neurocounseling: Brain-based Clinical Approaches Suggestibility In Legal Contexts: Psychological Research And Forensic Implications Evaluation For Risk Of Violence In Adults Load more posts

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