English Presbyterianism, 1590-1640 by Polly Ha

5659fd0c8446c43-261x361.jpg Author Polly Ha
Isbn 9780804759878
File size 2MB
Year 2010
Pages 320
Language English
File format PDF
Category religion


English Presbyterianism, 1590-1640 English Presbyterianism s 1590–1640 Polly Ha Stanford University Press Stanford, California 2011 Stanford University Press Stanford, California ©2011 by the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University All rights reserved. No part of this printing may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system without the prior written permission of Stanford University Press. Printed in the United States of America on acid-free, archival-quality paper Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Ha, Polly English Presbyterianism, 1590–1640 / Polly Ha p.  cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. isbn 0-978-8047-5987-8 (cloth : alk. paper) 1.  Presbyterian Church—England—History—17th century.  2.  Presbyterianism—History—17th century.  3.  Congregationalism— History—17th century.  4.  Church polity—History—17th century. 5. Reformed Church—Netherlands—History—17th century.  6.  Church and state—England—History—17th century.  7.  England— Church history—17th century. I. Title. bx9055.h3   2011 285.24209032—dc22 2010011334 Designed and typeset at Stanford University Press in 10/13 Galliard For my parents Contents s Acknowledgments  ix Preface  xiii Abbreviations  xv Introduction  1 pa rt i.  english presbyterianism and the church of england 1. Royal Supremacy  13 2. Anti-Episcopacy  21 part ii.   the evolution of english ecclesiology 3. The Visible Church  47 4.  Common Consent  74 5.  Presbyterian “Promiscuity”  97 part iii.  from theory to practice 6.  Presbyterianism in Practice?  121 7.  Popular Presbyterianism  144 Conclusion  179 Appendix: Walter Travers’s Papers  191 Bibliographic Note: The Provenance of Walter Travers’s Papers  195 Notes  199    Bibliography  267 General Index  289    Biblical Citations  301 Tables and Figures s tables 1. Membership Profile (ERCA, 1607–40)  151 2. Number of Baptisms (ERCA)  152 3. Status of Witnesses for New Members (ERCA)  154 4. Status of Complainants and Defendants in Disciplinary Cases (ERCA)  159 5. Relationships in Disputes (ERCA)  160 6.  Disciplinary Sentences and Status (ERCA)  167 7. Responses to Discipline and Status (ERCA)  171 8. Summary of Popular Participation (ERCA)  175 9. Summary of Disciplinary Cases (ERCA)  176 figures 1. Absence from Communion, 1631–43 (ERCA)  157 A1.  Presbyterian-related Manuscripts, Trinity College Dublin Library  191 A2. Travers’s Ramus Tree, TCD MS 366, fol. 6  192 A3. Travers’s Ramus Tree, TCD MS 366, fol. 6v  193 A4. Travers’s autograph letter to Michael Hicks, British Library ADD MS 4276, fol. 157  194 Acknowledgments s The recovery of English presbyterianism is based not only on the recent identification of a collection of manuscripts but firstly upon the work and generous help of many others. Any attempt to account for my intellectual debts is bound to be severely inadequate. Long before I reached Cambridge, Patrick Collinson sparked my interest in the subject; it goes without saying that his research was responsible for recovering English presbyterianism in the first place. He provided invaluable references and directed me toward an important line of investigation by suggesting I interact more with congregationalism. His kindness has been immense and his influence and support have been incalculable. He and Ann Hughes rigorously examined the dissertation upon which this book is based and helped me to strengthen the work. Ann Hughes kindly allowed me to read a version of Gangraena before publication. It will be obvious that this work also owes more to Peter Lake than it is possible to spell out. I am indebted to him for generously providing references, reading drafts of the first four chapters, asking precisely those questions that helped to crystallize my thought, and for discussing many aspects of the study as a whole. John Morrill, as my doctoral supervisor, guided me from my earliest days as a postgraduate to the final stages of revising this book: he offered invaluable guidance, challenged me to develop my work, and has continued to offer unstinted help. Keith Wrightson first introduced me to early modern British history when I was an undergraduate, and I remain ever grateful to him for encouraging me in my study. I am especially indebted to Elisabeth LeedhamGreen: there are few scholars with the combined erudition, palaeographic expertise, and generosity to interpret the manuscripts that are at the core of this study. She and I spent many afternoons discussing Walter Travers and strained our eyes for countless hours to interpret his cryptic notes, which  Acknowledgments would have been a much more formidable task without her learning, insight, good humor, and encouragement. I am further grateful to a great number of scholars who helped me with valuable references, shared their insights, and lent me resources or copies of their dissertations. Alexandra Walsham, Thomas Freeman, and especially John Craig guided me in my first faltering steps in the Cambridge University Library, discussed the earliest contents of the work, and commented upon the introduction and conclusion. Alan Ford and Jonathan Moore supported me in my initial research when I was still an undergraduate. Alice Wolfram made astute comments on almost the entire work and advised me on the final chapter. Irena Backus inspired me and offered helpful comments on Chapter 4. I hounded many other scholars in their passage through Cambridge, including Anthony Milton and David Harris Sacks. I am grateful for their conversation at Clare Hall, for their comments on drafts, and for continuing to offer guidance. John Walter very kindly read and commented on the final chapter. Christopher Brooks made helpful suggestions for Chapter 2. I am in debt to David Como and Jane Dawson for sharing their references, notes, and transcriptions for Chapter 6. Keith Sprunger very generously helped me to navigate my way through archives in the Netherlands and patiently answered many questions relating to the final chapter. Earlier drafts of Chapters 2, 3, and 6 were presented at the Religious History Seminar of the Institute of Historical Research, seminars in the University of Cambridge History and Divinity faculties, at the Reformation Studies Colloquium, and the North American Conference on British Studies. I thank the moderators and audiences for their comments, especially the convenors of the Religious History Seminar at the IHR, for sharing their extensive knowledge. My ideas took further shape by participating in the Freedom and Construction of Europe and Insular Christianity networks, and I wish to thank the convenors, Quentin Skinner and Martin van Gelderen, and Robert Armstrong and Tadhg Ó hAnnracháin, for inviting me to their conferences. I could not have hoped for a more amiable publisher than Stanford University Press. Nor could I have asked for more helpful readers than Paul Seaver and Sears McGee, who carefully read and commented upon the entire manuscript, bringing numerous corrections to my attention. The revision of this book would have been unthinkable without the editorial help of Christine Linehan, who taught me how to write (and rewrite) entire sections. She patiently helped me to untangle my thoughts and sentences and to transform my writing into readable prose. John Feneron and Martin Hanft saw the book manuscript through to publication with alacrity. Acknowledgments xi The Governing Body of Clare Hall elected me to a Research Fellowship as I was completing the dissertation; it has been a warm intellectual home and played a formative role in the development of my work. Postdoctoral fellowships from the British Academy and the University of Southern California also provided me with invaluable opportunities to take my research in new directions. The British Academy and the USC-Huntington Early Modern Studies Institute lavishly assisted with my career development and with a subsidy for the publication of this book. Shorter-term fellowships at the Huntington Library and the American Antiquarian Society also shaped my thinking about this monograph. I am particularly grateful to Cynthia Herrup, Philip Gura, David Hall, and Frank Bremer for their support and conversation at USC and AAS. I also thank the Yale Paul Mellon Fellowship Committee for electing me to a postgraduate fellowship at Clare College, which lacked nothing, and the board of directors for the Archbishop Cranmer and Lightfoot funds, for awarding me additional grants for research in Dublin and the Netherlands. The staff at libraries and archives offered outstanding assistance, particularly at Trinity College Dublin. Bernard Meehan and the Manuscripts Library staff of Trinity College Dublin showed more courtesy than I could have expected in numerous visits and requests over the years, and provided me with the microfilm of Travers’s manuscripts from their collection. I am grateful to the board of Trinity College Dublin and to the British Library for permission to reproduce excerpts from Travers’s manuscripts in this book. I am indebted to Stuart O’Seanoir and to Liz Toner-Hughes, who helped and welcomed me in research trips to Dublin. As assistant librarian, Stuart provided extensive bibliographic references on the holdings at Trinity College Dublin Library, in addition to transcribing passages from MS 292 that were illegible from microfilm. With a careful eye for detail and wide-ranging knowledge he also proofread the entire manuscript. I am also grateful to James Ha and Nawal Lutfiyya for running data for the final chapter through SPSS. It would be impossible here to account for my largest debts, to family and friends who have supported and inspired me throughout my years in California, Connecticut, and Cambridge. I wish to offer them my deepest appreciation. I owe the most to my husband, And, for making the completion of this book and life beyond it a joy. Roth and Gabriela must be singled out for their friendship, which has personally and intellectually challenged me and remained a constant source of encouragement. Peter and Soo have been remarkable friends and examples in more ways than it is possible to spell out. My family taught me virtually everything. Peter, Jane, and James have xii Acknowledgments mentored and put up with me from infancy. My in-laws, especially Chris and Margaret, showered me with encouragement. My parents have always supported me unconditionally and demonstrated throughout their lives what it means to search beneath the surface of people and events. Without their example, encouragement, and many sacrifices, I would have never attempted, nor had the ability, to write this book. This work is dedicated to them. Preface s The genesis of this book can be traced to the summer of 2001, when I came across the biography of the Elizabethan presbyterian ideologue Walter Travers. Although still an undergraduate at the time with no intention of investigating the institutional remains of puritanism, I soon became intrigued by the later life of Travers. There seemed to be a story to tell about him and about Elizabethan presbyterianism following its official suppression in the early 1590s. English presbyterianism, which posed a threat to the hierarchy of the Church of England, was supposed to have been effectively wiped out after that time, only to reappear during the 1640s at the onset of the English Civil War. Travers remained a shadowy figure until his death in 1635, and his biographer believed that not much could be learned about his later life, since his papers seemed to be untraceable. Following leads by William O’Sullivan and Laetitia Yeandle, however, I was able to confirm attributions of Travers’s papers in Trinity College Dublin and to recover additional manuscripts by him and other presbyterian spokesmen that span the half-century of apparent English presbyterian silence. These do not simply reveal the individual thoughts of Walter Travers and the continued activity of English presbyterianism, but modify traditional accounts of the religious, political, and social climate of pre–Civil War England. A central contention of this book is that English presbyterianism, however covert, was far from being a self-contained and marginalized clerical community. Following their prosecution, and the deaths of key patrons in the 1590s, presbyterians made a concerted effort to prove the compatibility of their ecclesiology with the monarchy and to develop an alliance with lawyers against episcopal authority. They were also at the heart of some of the fiercest religious controversies of pre–Civil War England, giving rise to new puritan ideology. In addition, they placed pressure on xiv Preface the very nerves of society. With the help of the laity, English presbyterians established networks through centers of power and commerce in England that extended across the North Sea and the Atlantic. They also adapted to varying circumstances and incorporated diverse social groups, men as well as women. Abbreviations s AD H. M. Adams, Catalogue of Books Printed on the Continent of Europe, 1501–1600 in Cambridge Libraries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967. BL British Library DWL Dr. Williams’s Library ERCA English Reformed Church in Amsterdam GAA Gemeentearchief, Amsterdam GAD Gemeentearchief, Dordrecht GAL Gemeentearchief, Leiden NA (Kew) National Archives, Kew TCD Trinity College, Dublin AHR CH EHR HJ JBS JEH JMH ODNB P&P SCJ STC American Historical Review Church History English Historical Review Historical Journal Journal of British Studies Journal of Ecclesiastical History Journal of Modern History Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Past & Present Sixteenth Century Journal A Short Title Catalogue of Books Printed in England, Scotland and Ireland 1475–1640, 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976–91. English Presbyterianism, 1590-1640 Introduction s To suggest that English presbyterianism had a continuing history in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries is to challenge the standard narrative of the period. From their first appearance in the 1570s, presbyterians emerged as leaders of a puritan movement for further reformation of the Elizabethan religious settlement. They posed a threat to its episcopally organized hierarchy by insisting on a model of government based on the equality of ministers and the inclusion of lay elders in the oversight of the Church.1 But when the crown suppressed the movement in 1592 by arresting its leaders and depriving them of their ministry, English presbyterianism appeared to be a dead letter. Thomas Rogers, a chaplain to Archbishop Bancroft, gloated that they had “so battered the new [presbyterian] discipline as hitherto they could never, nor hereafter shall ever fortify and repair the decays thereof.”2 Modern historians concurred. According to R. G. Usher, “[A]fter the arrests of 1590 and the trials in the Star Chamber in 1592, the whole movement was tacitly abandoned by all concerned,” and “there was even no continuity reaching from one to the other, from the ‘Presbyterians’ of Elizabeth to the ‘Presbyterians’ of the Civil War.”3 The sudden resurgence of English presbyterians in the frontline of the English Civil War has instead been explained by political expediency and Scottish influence. The fate of presbyterianism makes sense in light of revisionist accounts of puritanism, which disabused readers of the view that it was a precursor to modernity.4 As chief agitators against Charles I and William Laud, puritans were previously considered champions of liberty in explaining the rise of parliamentary sovereignty and religious toleration.5 It has been fifty years since Patrick Collinson complicated that picture.6 Puritanism, he argued, was indeed initially organized as a movement led by presbyterians. However, it was also compatible with episcopacy so long as bishops remained committed to upholding a reformed protestant preaching ministry.7 Nicholas Tyacke’s classic

Author Polly Ha Isbn 9780804759878 File size 2MB Year 2010 Pages 320 Language English File format PDF Category Religion Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare This book offers an alternative interpretation of pre-Civil War England, challenging the standard narrative that English presbyterianism was successfully extinguished from the late sixteenth century until its prominent public resurgence during the English Civil War. From their emergence in the 1570s, English presbyterians posed a threat to the Church of England, and, in 1592, the English crown arrested the leaders of the presbyterian movement. Ha shows that, during the ensuing half century of apparent silence, English presbyterians remained continually active. They made a concerted effort, for example, to build an alliance with common lawyers against episcopal authority. Yet they also sought to prove the compatibility of their church government with royal supremacy. They agitated for further reformation of the Church of England, but by the early seventeenth century they had contributed to the birth of ‘independency’ and to puritan appeals to neo-Roman views of liberty.     Download (2MB) A Reforming People: Puritanism and the Transformation of Public Life in New England Princes, Pastors And People: The Church And Religion In England, 1529-1689 The Abbots and Priors of Late Medieval and Reformation England Fathers, Pastors and Kings: Visions of Episcopacy in Seventeenth-Century France The Rise and Fall of the English Ecclesiastical Courts, 1500-1860 Load more posts

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