Drugs & Behavior (7th Edition) by Stephanie Hancock Ph.D and William A. McKim


4057a091444657e.jpg Author Stephanie Hancock Ph.D and William A. McKim
Isbn 9780205900909
File size 10.3 MB
Year 2012
Pages 36
Language English
File format PDF
Category psychology



 

Why Do You Need this New Edition? If you’re wondering why you should buy this new edition of Drugs and Behavior: An Introduction to Behavioral Pharmacology, here are 15 good reasons! 1. Addition of many new figures, tables, and images to help students master the material. 2. New data on prevalence trends in drug use. 3. Coverage of newly emerging club drugs, including salvia and mephedrone (bath salts). 4. Extensive coverage of new research studies, their findings, and implications has replaced older material. 5. New information on a variety of topics, including the placebo effect, energy drinks, and stimulant and club drugs. 6. Greatly expanded content on neurophysiology, neurotransmitters, and the nervous system. 7. Greater detail and coverage of neurobiological theories of substance use and addiction. 8. Inclusion of treatment approaches for drug addiction and the latest evaluations of their effectiveness. 9. Updated information on the neurophysiology of drug effects, much of which was previously unknown. 10. Updates on currently available and most prescribed drug treatments for anxiety disorders, depression, and schizophrenia. 11. Updates on the status of mood, anxiety, and psychotic disorders on the cusp of a new version of the DSM. 12. Expanded coverage of neurobiological theories of schizophrenia and depression. 13. Expanded coverage of mechanisms of action of many drug classes, including opioids, antidepressants, antipsychotics, stimulants, and others. 14. Newly included MySearchLab, providing engaging experiences that personalize, stimulate, and measure student learning. 15. A complete eText—just like the printed text, you can highlight and add notes, listen to audio files, and more. WWW.EBOOK777.COM This page intentionally left blank WWW.EBOOK777.COM Drugs and Behavior An Introduction to Behavioral Pharmacology WWW.EBOOK777.COM This page intentionally left blank WWW.EBOOK777.COM Seventh Edition Drugs and Behavior An Introduction to Behavioral Pharmacology William A. McKim Memorial University of Newfoundland and Queen’s University Stephanie D. Hancock Memorial University of Newfoundland Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montréal Toronto Delhi Mexico City São Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo WWW.EBOOK777.COM Editorial Director: Craig Campanella Editor in Chief: Jessica Mosher Executive Editor: Susan Hartman Editorial Assistant: Shiva Ramachandran VP, Director of Marketing: Brandy Dawson Senior Marketing Manager: Wendy Albert Director of Production: Lisa Iarkowski Managing Editor: Denise Forlow Project Manager: Shelly Kupperman Senior Manufacturing and Operations Manager for Arts & Sciences: Mary Fischer Operations Specialist: Diane Peirano Digital Media Director: Brian Hyland Digital Media Editor: Peter Sabatini Digital Media Project Manager: Pam Weldin Full-Service Project Management and Composition: Revathi Viswanathan/PreMediaGlobal Printer/Binder/Cover: Courier/Westford Cover Designer: Suzanne Behnke Cover Image: MacX/Fotolia Text Font: 10/12 Adobe Jenson Pro Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on the appropriate page of appearance and on pages 392–395. Copyright © 2013, 2007, 2003 by Pearson. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290. Many of the designations by manufacturers and seller to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data McKim, William A., 1945– Drugs and behavior: an introduction to behavioral pharmacology.—7th ed./William A. McKim, Stephanie D. Hancock. p. cm. ISBN-13: 978-0-205-24265-8 ISBN-10: 0-205-24265-0 1. Psychopharmacology—Textbooks. 2. Psychotropic drugs—Textbooks. I. Hancock, Stephanie D. II. Title. RM315.M36 2012 615.7’8—dc23 2012016040 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Student Edition ISBN-10: 0-205-24265-0 ISBN-13: 978-0-205-24265-8 Instructor’s Review Copy ISBN-10: 0-205-92035-7 ISBN-13: 978-0-205-92035-8 WWW.EBOOK777.COM To Alyssa, Jacob, Nicholas, James, Jillian, Sarah, Aiden, and Petra and Darron and Cole WWW.EBOOK777.COM This page intentionally left blank WWW.EBOOK777.COM CONTENTS Preface xvii Chapter 1 SOME BASIC PHARMACOLOGY 1 What Is a Drug? 1 Names of Drugs 1 Describing Dosages 4 Potency and Effectiveness 6 Primary Effects and Side Effects 6 Drug Interactions 7 Pharmacokinetics 7 Routes of Administration 8 Absorption from Parenteral Sites 10 Inhalation 12 Oral Administration 13 Transdermal Administration 16 Distribution of Drugs 16 Elimination 18 Factors that Alter Drug Metabolism 21 Combining Absorption and Excretion Functions 23 The Therapeutic Window 23 Chapter 2 BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS OF DRUG EFFECTS 25 History of Behavioral Pharmacology 25 Research Design 27 Measuring Unconditioned Behavior of Nonhumans 30 Measuring Conditioned Behavior of Nonhumans 31 Stimulus Properties of Drugs 33 Reinforcing Properties of Drugs—Abuse Liability 34 Measuring Behavior of Humans 35 Development and Testing of Psychotherapeutic Drugs 38 Chapter 3 HOW WE ADAPT TO DRUGS—TOLERANCE, SENSITIZATION, AND EXPECTATION 40 Tolerance 40 Mechanisms of Tolerance 42 Withdrawal 43 ix WWW.EBOOK777.COM x Contents Conditioning of Drug Effects 46 Sensitization 52 Expectancy and Context 53 Chapter 4 NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, NEUROTRANSMITTERS, AND THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 56 The Neuron 56 The Synapse 63 The Nervous System 67 Development of The Nervous System and Potential for Disruption 78 Neurotransmitters 79 Brain Imaging of Drug Effects 91 Chapter 5 SUBSTANCE USE AND ADDICTIVE DISORDERS 96 Defining Addiction 97 History of Research on Drug Use and Addiction 100 Addiction as Physical Dependence 102 Modern Behavioral Explanations of Drug Use 104 The Neuroanatomy of Motivation and Reinforcement 114 Incentive Sensitization Theory 121 Hedonic Dysregulation and Adaptation 123 Disruption of Brain Control Circuits 125 Treating Drug Addiction 126 Chapter 6 ALCOHOL 132 Source of Alcohol 132 Origin and History 133 Measuring Alcohol Levels in the Body 135 Route of Administration and Pharmacokinetics 136 Absorption 136 Distribution 137 Elimination 139 Neuropharmacology 139 Alcohol Antagonists 142 Effects of Alcohol 142 Effects on Human Behavior and Performance 143 Effects on the Behavior of Nonhumans 146 Discriminative Stimulus Properties 146 Tolerance 147 WWW.EBOOK777.COM Contents Withdrawal 148 Self-Administration in Nonhumans 148 Self-Administration in Humans 149 Alcoholism 150 Harmful Effects of an Acute Administration 152 Harmful Effects of Chronic Consumption 154 Benefits of Alcohol Consumption 156 Treatments 159 Chapter 7 ANXIOLYTICS AND SEDATIVE-HYPNOTICS 162 The Nature and Neurophysiology of Anxiety 162 Introduction to Anxiolytics and Sedative-Hypnotics 163 History of Anxiolytic and Sedative-Hypnotic Drug Development 164 Neurophysiology 167 Route of Administration and Absorption 169 Distribution and Excretion 170 Effects on the Body 170 Effects on the Behavior and Performance of Humans 171 Effects on the Behavior of Nonhumans 173 Discriminative Stimulus Properties 173 Tolerance 174 Withdrawal 175 Self-Administration in Humans 177 Self-Administration in Nonhumans 178 Harmful Effects 180 Treatment 181 Chapter 8 TOBACCO AND NICOTINE 182 Preparations 182 History 183 Route of Administration 186 Distribution 189 Excretion 189 Neurophysiology 189 Effects of Nicotine 191 Effects on the Behavior and Performance of Humans 192 Effects on the Behavior of Nonhumans 194 Drug State Discrimination 195 WWW.EBOOK777.COM xi xii Contents Withdrawal Symptoms 196 Self-Administration in Humans 198 Harmful Effects 202 Treatments 205 Chapter 9 CAFFEINE AND THE METHYLXANTHINES 209 Sources of Methylxanthines 209 History of Methylxanthine Use 213 Extent of Methylxanthine Use 214 Route of Administration 215 Absorption 215 Distribution 215 Excretion 216 Neurophysiology 216 Effects of Caffeine and the Methylxanthines 217 Discriminative Stimulus Properties 220 Withdrawal 221 Self-Administration in Nonhumans 223 Self-Administration in Humans 224 Harmful Effects 225 Beneficial Effects 227 Epilogue 227 Chapter 10 PSYCHOMOTOR STIMULANTS 228 Sources 228 History 229 Routes of Administration and Absorption 231 Distribution 232 Excretion 232 Neurophysiology 232 Effects of Psychomotor Stimulants 235 Effects on the Behavior and Performance of Humans 236 Effects on the Behavior of Nonhumans 241 Dissociation and Drug State Discrimination 242 Tolerance 242 Withdrawal 243 Self-Administration in Humans 244 WWW.EBOOK777.COM Contents Harmful Effects 249 Treatment 251 Chapter 11 OPIOIDS 254 Origins and Sources of Opioids 254 History 256 Routes of Administration 258 Distribution 258 Excretion 259 Neurophysiology 259 Effects of Opioids 262 Effects on Human Behavior and Performance 262 Effects on the Behavior of Nonhumans 264 Drug State Discrimination 265 Tolerance 265 Self-Administration in Humans 267 Laboratory Studies 268 Self-Administration in NonHumans 269 Harmful Effects 270 Pharmacological Treatment of Opioid Addiction 273 Chapter 12 ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUGS 277 The Nature of Schizophrenia 277 Theories of Schizophrenia 280 Discovery of Antipsychotic Medications 285 Comparing Typical and Atypical Antipsychotics 286 Routes of Administration 289 Absorption and Distribution 289 Excretion 289 Effects of Antipsychotics 290 Effects on the Behavior and Performance of Humans 291 Effects on the Behavior of Nonhumans 291 Drug State Discrimination and Dissociation 292 Tolerance 292 Withdrawal 292 Self-Administration in Humans and Nonhumans 292 WWW.EBOOK777.COM xiii xiv Contents Harmful Effects 293 Other Therapeutic Effects of Antipsychotic Drugs 293 Chapter 13 ANTIDEPRESSANTS 294 The Nature of Depression 294 Theories of Depression 296 History of Antidepressant Medications 300 Neurophysiology 302 Absorption 303 Distribution 303 Excretion 303 Effects of Antidepressants 304 Effects on the Behavior and Performance of Humans 306 Effects on the Behavior of Nonhumans 307 Discriminative Stimulus Properties 308 Tolerance 308 Withdrawal 308 Self-Administration in Humans and Nonhumans 308 Harmful Effects 309 Other Treatments for Depression 310 Chapter 14 CANNABIS 312 History 312 The Cannabinoids 314 Absorption 315 Distribution 316 Excretion 317 Neuropharmacology 317 Effects of Cannabis 319 Effects on the Behavior and Performance of Humans 320 Effects on the Behavior of Nonhumans 323 Dissociation 324 Drug State Discrimination 324 Tolerance 325 Withdrawal 325 Self-Administration in Humans and Nonhumans 326 Epidemiology 326 Harmful Effects 327 WWW.EBOOK777.COM Contents Chapter 15 HALLUCINOGENS, PHANTASTICANTS, AND CLUB DRUGS LSD and the Monoamine-Like Drugs 332 Ecstasy and Synthetic Mescaline-Like Drugs 339 Salvia 342 Dissociative Anesthetics: Phencyclidine and Ketamine 343 Dextromethorphan 346 GHB 347 Mephedrone 349 References 350 Credits 392 Index 396 WWW.EBOOK777.COM 332 xv This page intentionally left blank WWW.EBOOK777.COM PREFACE Like most modern scientific endeavors, the field of behavioral pharmacology is ever changing. Each day brings exciting new developments and insights, and a great many discoveries have been made since the first edition of this book in 1987. These discoveries intrigue people who use drugs both as medicines and for recreation. It is an ongoing challenge to keep current with these new developments and decide what to include in each succeeding edition. At the same time, we believe that it is important to tell the stories of the pioneers, to describe their groundbreaking research and insights, and to provide the context in which these new discoveries were made. In addition, new drugs and new fashions in drug use, both recreational and medicinal, come on the scene as others go out of style. As students ask new and different questions, it is important to be able to provide answers. While every edition of this book has attempted to keep up with these rapid changes, it is sometimes difficult to keep pace, and any book in the field is apt to be a bit behind the times. As such, we count on course instructors to supplement the text content with up-to-date material on new trends and developments, with the text providing background in which the significance of new developments can be understood. NEW TO THIS EDITION The following changes have been made to the seventh edition. • This edition welcomes a coauthor, Dr. Stephanie Hancock. Stephanie is an experienced teacher and researcher. In the sixth edition, she contributed to the chapter on neurophysiology. Now, she has brought her energy, enthusiasm, and fresh new insights to the seventh edition, making it a completely revised text. • We have expanded the discussion of the neuroscience behind each class of drugs, the area of research in which the most new developments are taking place. • We have also expanded the chapters covering psychotherapeutic drugs—anxiolytics, antipsychotics, and antidepressants—and updated the descriptions of the related disorders. • We have updated the chapter on addictions, detailing the most recent theoretical and neurophysiological developments. • We have also increased the amount of visual material–graphs, tables, drawings, and figures–in order to make the information more accessible to students. • MySearchLab: Included with this edition, MySearchLab provides engaging experiences that personalize, stimulate, and measure student learning. Pearson’s MyLabs deliver proven results from a trusted partner in helping students succeed. Features available with this text include: A complete eText—just like the printed text, you can highlight and add notes, listen to audio files, and more. Assessment—chapter quizzes, topicspecific assessment, and flashcards offer and report directly to your grade book. Chapter-specific learning applications—ranging from videos to case studies, and more. Writing and Research Assistance—a wide range of writing, grammar, and research topics including access to a variety of databases that contain academic journals, census data, Associated Press newsfeeds, and discipline-specific readings. MySearchLab can be packaged with this text at no additional cost—just order using the ISBN on the back cover. Instructors can also request access to preview MySearchLab by contacting your local Pearson sales representative or visiting www. mysearchlab.com. xvii WWW.EBOOK777.COM xviii Preface SUPPLEMENTS The following supplements are available to qualified instructors. Instructor’s Manual with test materials (0205913571): Written by Dr. Anna Hicks, the instructor’s manual is a wonderful tool for classroom preparation and management. The manual contains a brief overview of each chapter of the text with suggestions on how to present the material, sample lecture outlines, classroom activities and discussion topics, ideas for in-class and out-of-class projects, and recommended outside readings. The test bank contains multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay questions, each referencing the relevant content pages in the text. PowerPoint Presentation (0205920926): Created by Dr. Anna Hicks, the PowerPoint Presentation is an exciting interactive tool for use in the classroom. Each chapter pairs key concepts with images from the textbook to reinforce student learning. MySearchLab (0205924824): MySearchLab provides engaging experiences that personalize learning and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals. Features include the ability to highlight and add notes to the eText online, or download changes straight to the iPad. Chapter quizzes and flashcards offer immediate feedback and report directly to the grade book. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This book would not have been possible without the assistance of many people. These include all of the individuals acknowledged in the earlier editions whose contributions are still reflected in the text. In this edition, we would like to further acknowledge the help of our spouses, Edna McKim and Darron Kelly, who tolerated our frequent and prolonged absences, both physical and mental, while the manuscript was being revised. We would also like to acknowledge the contribution of many of our colleagues at Memorial University and at other institutions around the world who have made helpful suggestions, read drafts, and corrected our errors. We also want to acknowledge the many students who have used earlier editions and contributed helpful suggestions and criticisms that have helped shape this most recent edition. We acknowledge the help of Brent Turner and Cam Rempel, two young men with very bright futures, who researched and contributed particularly to the chapters on alcohol, cannabis, and hallucinogens. We would like to acknowledge the helpful comments of the reviewers of the seventh edition and thank the people at Pearson for their excellent professional help with the editing and production. These include, but are not limited to, Susan Hartman, Jessica Mosher, Shivangi Ramachandran, Wendy Albert, Shelly Kupperman, Revathi Viswanathan, and Sathya Dalton. Apart from taking credit where it is due, none of these people can be held responsible for errors or problems in the book. Please direct all complaints to us so we can make the eighth edition even better. William A. McKim Brighton, Ontario Stephanie D. Hancock Medicine Hat, Alberta WWW.EBOOK777.COM C H A P T E R 1 Some Basic Pharmacology WHAT IS A DRUG? Most people understand what is meant by the term drug, but, surprisingly, coming up with a precise definition is not all that easy. The traditional way is to define a drug as any substance that alters the physiology of the body. This definition, however, includes food and nutrients, which are not usually thought of as drugs. Consequently, a drug is sometimes defined as a substance that alters the physiology of the body but is not a food or nutrient. This definition usually works, but it still leaves a lot to be desired. To begin with, the distinction between a drug and a nutrient is not at all clear. Vitamin C, for example, alters physiology, but is it a drug? If it is consumed in the form of an orange, it is clearly food, but if taken as a tablet to remedy a cold, it could be thought of as a drug. Similarly, some substances that alter the physiology of the body may best be thought of as toxins or poisons rather than as drugs and may not be deliberately consumed. Gasoline and solvent vapors are examples. If they are consumed deliberately to get high, they might be drugs, but when inhaled unintentionally in the workplace, they may be called environmental toxins. The exact distinction between a toxin and a drug is not clear. One element that complicates the definition appears to be the intention of the drug user. If a substance is consumed to get high or to treat a disorder, it is clearly best to think of it as a drug, but if it is consumed for taste or sustenance, it may not be useful to think of it as a drug. Such a debate has been waged about caffeine. As you will see in Chapter 9, caffeine clearly alters human physiology, but it also has been used as a flavoring agent in products such as soft drinks. If consumers prefer a soft drink that contains caffeine because they like the drink’s taste, perhaps caffeine should not be thought of as a drug in that context. If the soft drink is consumed because of the effect caffeine has on the nervous system, then it is appropriate to think of it as a drug. A similar debate has been waged about the role of nicotine in tobacco (see Chapter 8). In these cases, the consequences are important to government regulatory agencies and various manufacturers. Fortunately, it is not necessary for us to form a precise definition of the term drug. An intuitive definition will serve our purposes. However, we should never lose sight of the fact that any one definition may not be appropriate in all circumstances. NAMES OF DRUGS One of the more confusing things about studying drugs is their names. Most drugs have at least three names—a chemical name, a generic name, and a trade name—and it may not always be apparent which name is being used at any given time. In addition, recreational drugs have an assortment of street names. 1 WWW.EBOOK777.COM

Author Stephanie Hancock Ph.D and William A. McKim Isbn 9780205900909 File size 10.3 MB Year 2012 Pages 36 Language English File format PDF Category Psychology Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare An up-to-date overview of behavioral pharmacology.   Drugs & Behavior starts with descriptions of basic pharmacological concepts of drug administration and pharmacokinetics, research methodology including clinical trials, tolerance and withdrawal, drug conditioning, addiction processes, and the neuroscience of drug action. Each chapter applies these concepts to different classes of recreational and therapeutic drugs.   Each chapter also includes a section on the history of the drug class being described to place the drugs in their historical and social context. The text is written to be understandable to students without a background in pharmacology, neuroscience, or psychology.   Learning Goals Upon completing this book, readers should be able to: Understand the behaviors of people who use drugs as medicine and for recreation Understand new trends and developments in pharmacology     Download (10.3 MB) Medicalization of Everyday Life: Selected Essays Emotional Development in Psychoanalysis Emotion And Reasoning Handbook of Office-based Buprenorphine Treatment of Opioid Dependence The Oxford Handbook of Emotion, Social Cognition, and Problem Solving in Adulthood Load more posts

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