Diseases and Disorders of Finfish in Cage Culture (2nd edition) by David W. Bruno and Patrick T. K. Woo


1159654fff3b3a4-261x361.jpg Author David W. Bruno and Patrick T. K. Woo
Isbn 9781780642079
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Year 2014
Pages 354
Language English
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Diseases and Disorders of Finfish in Cage Culture 2nd Edition This page intentionally left blank Diseases and Disorders of Finfish in Cage Culture 2nd Edition Edited by Patrick T.K. Woo Department of Integrative Biology College of Biological Science University of Guelph Guelph, Ontario, Canada and David W. Bruno Marine Scotland Science Aberdeen, Scotland, UK CABI is a trading name of CAB International CABI Nosworthy Way Wallingford Oxfordshire OX10 8DE UK CABI 38 Chauncy Street Suite 1002 Boston, MA 02111 USA Tel: +44 (0)1491 832111 Fax: +44 (0)1491 833508 E-mail: [email protected] Website: www.cabi.org Tel: +1 800 552 3083 (toll free) Tel: +1 617 395 4051 E-mail: [email protected] © CAB International 2014. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronically, mechanically, by photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owners. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library, London, UK. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Diseases and disorders of finfish in cage culture / edited by Patrick T.K. Woo, Department of Integrative Biology, College of Biological Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, and David W. Bruno, Marine Scotland Science, Scotland, UK. -- 2nd edition. pages cm ISBN 978-1-78064-207-9 (hbk : alk. paper) 1. Fishes--Diseases. 2. Cage aquaculture. I. Woo, P. T. K. II. Bruno, D. W. (David W.) SH171.D53 2014 639.3--dc23 2014011557 ISBN-13: 978 1 78064 207 9 Commissioning editor: Rachel Cutts Editorial assistant: Emma McCann Production editor: Laura Tsitlidze Typeset by SPi, Pondicherry, India. Printed and bound by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR0 4YY. Contents Contributors vii Preface to the Second Edition ix Preface to the First Edition xi 1 Overview of Cage Culture and Its Importance in the 21st Century Donald J. Noakes 1 2 Infectious Diseases of Coldwater Fish in Marine and Brackish Waters Eva Jansson and Pia Vennerström 15 3 Infectious Diseases of Coldwater Fish in Fresh Water Kenneth D. Cain and Mark P. Polinski 60 4 Non-infectious Disorders of Coldwater Fish Heike Schmidt-Posthaus and Mar Marcos-López 114 5 Infectious Diseases of Warmwater Fish in Marine and Brackish Waters Angelo Colorni and Ariel Diamant 155 6 Infectious Diseases of Warmwater Fish in Fresh Water Gilda D. Lio-Po and L.H. Susan Lim 193 7 Non-infectious Disorders of Warmwater Fish Florbela Soares, Ignacio Fernández, Benjamín Costas and Paulo Gavaia 254 8 Sporadic Emerging Diseases and Disorders Simon R.M. Jones and Pedro A. Smith 287 9 Transmission of Infectious Agents between Wild and Farmed Fish Sonja M. Saksida, Ian Gardner and Michael L. Kent 313 Index 331 v This page intentionally left blank Contributors David W. Bruno, Marine Scotland Science, 275 Victoria Road, PO Box 101, Aberdeen, AB11 9DB, Scotland, UK. E-mail: [email protected] Kenneth D. Cain, Department of Fish and Wildlife Science, University of Idaho, 875 Perimeter Drive M51136, Moscow, Idaho 83844-1136, USA. E-mail: [email protected] Angelo Colorni, National Center for Mariculture, Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research Ltd., PO Box 1212, Eilat 88112, Israel. E-mail: [email protected] Benjamín Costas, CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050-123, Porto, Portugal. E-mail: [email protected] Ariel Diamant, National Center for Mariculture, Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research Ltd., PO Box 1212, Eilat 88112, Israel. E-mail: [email protected] Ignacio Fernández, CCMAR - Centre of Marine Sciences (CCMAR/CIMAR-LA), University of Algarve, Campus of Gambelas, 8000-139 Faro, Portugal. E-mail: [email protected] Ian Gardner, Atlantic Veterinary College, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada. E-mail: [email protected] Paulo Gavaia, CCMAR - Centre of Marine Sciences (CCMAR/CIMAR-LA), University of Algarve, Campus of Gambelas, 8000-139 Faro, Portugal. E-mail: [email protected] Eva Jansson, National Veterinary Institute (SVA), SE-75189 Uppsala, Sweden. E-mail: [email protected] sva.se Simon R.M. Jones, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada. E-mail: [email protected] Michael L. Kent, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. E-mail: [email protected] oregonstate.edu L.H. Susan Lim, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Malaysia. E-mail: [email protected] Mar Marcos-López, Marine Laboratory, Marine Scotland Science, 375 Victoria Road, Aberdeen AB11 9DB, UK. E-mail: [email protected] Donald J. Noakes, Thompson Rivers University, 900 McGill Road, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada V2C 0C8. E-mail: [email protected] Gilda D. Lio-Po, Fish Health Section, Aquaculture Department, South East Asia Fisheries Development Center, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines. E-mail: [email protected] vii viii Contributors Mark P. Polinski, National Centre of Marine Conservation and Resource Sustainability, University of Tasmania, Locked Bag 1370, Launceston, Tasmania 7250, Australia. E-mail: [email protected] Sonja M. Saksida, BC Centre for Aquatic Health Sciences, Campbell River British Columbia, Canada. E-mail: [email protected] Heike Schmidt-Posthaus, Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health, Institute of Animal Pathology, University of Berne, Laenggassstrasse 122, PO Box 8466, 3001 Berne, Switzerland. E-mail: [email protected] Pedro A. Smith, Department of Animal Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile. E-mail: [email protected] Florbela Soares, IPMA - National Institute for the Ocean and Atmosphere, Olhão, Portugal. E-mail: [email protected] Pia Vennerström, Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland. E-mail: pia. [email protected]fi Patrick T.K. Woo, Department of Integrative Biology, College of Biological Science, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada. E-mail: [email protected] Preface to the Second Edition The world population was 7 billion in 2011, and at the current rate of increase it will be about 8 billion by 2025. Also, the demand for animal protein as a food source will continue to increase and exert additional pressures on food production which will have to compete with other human activities (e.g. housing, transportation, industry) for the limited usable land. Animal protein contains essential amino acids which are important components of a balanced diet. However, free ranging land animals are no longer a significant source of protein, and the production costs of farm animals continue to escalate. To increase efficiency and to reduce costs animal farms are large and often close to human habitations. Wastes associated with the large scale breeding of mammals and birds can pollute the environment and also increase the risks of disease outbreaks in animals with the subsequent interspecies transmission of zoonotic diseases (e.g. Nipah virus in pigs, avian influenza virus in birds, cryptosporidian parasites in cattle) to humans. Finfish are an excellent source of protein and many marine species have beneficial PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids); however, the capture-fishery is either stagnant or in decline as there are no newly discovered fishing grounds. Also, natural fish stocks in many parts of the world have been significantly reduced due to more efficient fishing technologies, over and/or indiscriminate fishing, and the loss and/or destruction of spawning grounds. Industrial wastes (e.g. heavy metals, organophosphates) discharged into the aquatic environment can affect fish growth, survival and reproduction, and in some areas pollutants have accumulated in fish to the extent they are no longer suitable for human consumption. Cage culture of finfish (especially in-shore) has lower start-up and production costs and it does not have some of the problems associated with the raising of large numbers of warm blooded animals. Intensive culture of fish is one solution to producing more affordable animal protein; however, outbreaks of diseases may occur more frequently because of numerous factors, which include enhanced transmission of infectious pathogens between fish. A tremendous volume of research has been conducted on the diseases and disorders since the publication of the first edition of ‘Diseases and Disorders of Finfish in Cage Culture’ in 2002. The aims, philosophy, audience, focus and format have remained unchanged. However, significant changes in the current edition include new contributors for eight of the nine chapters, the addition of a new chapter (on ‘transmission of infectious agents between wild and farmed fish’), and the deletion of one chapter (on ‘the history of cage culture’) have resulted in a more relevant and informative text. ix x Preface to the Second Edition Our contributors are highly respected international experts from Asia, Australia, Europe, North America and South America. They have practical experience and/or research expertise on diseases/disorders and their diagnosis, and /or solutions to problems associated with cage culture. As with the first edition our primary objective is to produce an authoritative and practical volume for colleagues in the aquaculture industry, especially those associated with the cage culture of finfish. We also hope this volume will alert industry to potential and/or emerging diseases and disorders in specific regions of the world and to point out gaps in our knowledge so as to stimulate further research. Patrick T.K. Woo and David W. Bruno Preface to the First Edition In many parts of the world the primary source of animal protein for humans is finfish. The intensive culture of finfish has grown significantly since the 1980s partly because of the dramatic decline in the natural fish stocks and the increase in fish consumption by the everincreasing population. For example, the worldwide consumption of fish between 1990 and 1997 increased by 30% while the capture fisheries increased only by 9%. The demand for fish is expected to continue to increase, especially as the more affluent consumers in the developed countries become more aware of the beneficial effects of fish (e.g. marine fish are an excellent source of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids). Aquaculture is the only solution to the demand as it can provide consistently high quality fish protein year round. The industry is already considered the single fastest-growing food production process in the world. The cage culture of finfish, especially mariculture, is becoming more popular because there are many economic advantages associated with this approach. However, it also has problems and one of them is disease. Disease outbreaks tend to occur more often when fish are raised under intensive culture conditions, and consequently both infectious and non-infectious diseases are important constraints to the industry. Our primary objective is to produce an authoritative and practical volume on diseases and disorders of finfish in cage culture. We hope the book will also alert the industry to potential and/or emerging disease problems in specific regions of the world, and to point out gaps in our knowledge so as to stimulate further research. This book is designed for aquaculturalists who are using or intend to use cage culture. It will also be useful to fish health consultants (e.g. veterinarians), microbiologists, parasitologists, fish pathologists, and managers and directors of diagnostic laboratories. Each chapter is written by international experts who have personal experience or expertise on diseases and their diagnosis, and/or solutions to problems associated with the cage culture of finfish. This book is divided into four parts – the first part is on the cage culture system, the second and third are on diseases/disorders in warmwater fish (water temperature above 15°C) and in coldwater fish, respectively. In each of these parts, there are three chapters – one on infectious diseases in fresh water (zero salinity), one on estuarine and marine diseases and one on non-infectious disorders. The final part on emerging diseases is to alert the industry to potential problems. We hope this division of the book will make it easier for the reader to access information on known diseases/disorders within a group of fish. The arrangement will also help to highlight similarities and differences in disease problems between groups of fish xi xii Preface to the First Edition (e.g. between marine warmwater and marine coldwater fish). However, such divisions also create some minor problems, e.g. a few pathogens have been isolated from both seawater and freshwater fish, so our authors and editors have worked closely to avoid extensive overlaps in coverage. For example, furunculosis is in Chapter 4, with only brief reference to it in Chapter 3, because it is often seen in freshwater fish. Similarly, important infectious agents (e.g. Piscirickettsia salmonis) of marine fish (Chapter 3) are only briefly mentioned in Chapter 4 because of their lesser importance to freshwater fish. There are books on infectious and on non-infectious diseases/disorders of fish (e.g. Fish Diseases and Disorders, Volumes 1–3, CAB International), but there are none devoted specifically to problems associated with cage culture of finfish. Problems encountered in cage culture are in some ways different from those using other rearing methods. In cage culture, fish may be exposed constantly to ubiquitous pathogens. Also, the stress associated with captive rearing creates opportunities for disease, and to a lesser extent non-infectious disorders, to become significant causes of morbidity and mortality. Transmissions of infectious agents are also enhanced, and fish become more susceptible to disease partly because their immune system may be compromised due to prolonged exposure to pollutants in the water and/or crowding stress. The impact and spread of new and/or emerging diseases are also important, and are influenced by factors that include international trade in eggs or fry, unauthorized transportation of fish, and contact with migratory or naive fish species. Under natural conditions these agents in their natural hosts may not be considered important pathogens, but in an expanded geographical and/or host range, under different environmental conditions or temperatures, they may lead to epizootics with serious consequential economic impact. As the demand for animal protein increases in the new millennium, we expect a significant increase in cage culture activity in many countries. This will be true especially in countries with limited usable land mass but with relatively long coastlines and/or extensive river–lake systems. We hope this book will fill a niche and be useful to colleagues who are active in the industry. Patrick T.K.Woo David W. Bruno L.H. Susan Lim 1 Overview of Cage Culture and its Importance in the 21st Century Donald J. Noakes* Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, Canada Almost half of the fish consumed by humans is the product of some form of aquaculture and the relative and absolute contribution of this important sector will only increase in the future. While there are many different forms of aquaculture, there are currently more than 100 species of fish, shellfish and invertebrates cultured in cages and that number is expected to increase substantially in the future (FAO, 2011). Typically these are high value, fast or relatively fast growing species that not only provide consumers with high quality food but also contribute substantially to local, regional and global trade and commerce. There are also many other socio-economic benefits associated with aquaculture (cage culture and other forms) and they include direct and indirect local employment as well as opportunities for specialized education and training, and for research and development. Indeed, research and development in fish culture and husbandry practices, disease monitoring, detection, and treatment, and optimizing fish feed have driven the development of cage culture worldwide. Although fish have been cultured for more than 2500 years, the first record of cage culture is from the late 1800s (Eng and Tech, 2002 and references within). Eng and Tech (2002, Table 1.1a, b, c) provide a good summary of the finfish species that have been or are cultured in cages in fresh, brackish and salt water worldwide with some of the species being cultured in more than one of these environments. Although there are some problems with incomplete records and standardized reporting, currently about 10% of the total world aquaculture production or roughly 5 million t comes from cage culture (FAO, 2012a). Salmon and trout (Salmo salar and Oncorhychus spp.) accounts for approximately half (by weight) of the finfish grown in cages (FAO, 2012b). Given the significant capital investment required to establish and maintain a successful cage culture operation and the number of regulatory and environmental conditions that must be met and addressed, salmon and trout are likely to remain the key species cultured in cages in the next decade (FAO, 2012b). To fully appreciate the importance of aquaculture now and in the future, it is worthwhile adding both context and perspective by comparing aspects of this sector with traditional fisheries. To that end, four broad areas are considered in this chapter. First, current and past production trends for traditional fisheries and aquaculture are compared as well as expected future trends in both sectors. This includes the importance of cage culture * E-mail: [email protected] © CAB International 2014. Diseases and Disorders of Finfish in Cage Culture, 2nd Edition (eds P.T.K. Woo and D.W. Bruno) 1 2 D.J. Noakes in the future where significant overall growth is expected. Second, the production and economic value of the top 15 currently cultured species are discussed with particular emphasis on the importance of and outlook for species being raised through cage culture. Third, an overview of the socio-economic benefits of aquaculture including direct and indirect employment and trade are discussed. Although the focus is on the aquaculture, data for traditional (wild) fisheries are also included for perspective. Finally, there are significant challenges and issues facing aquaculture in general and cage culture in particular that need resolution. A discussion of these issues (sustainability and growth) with specific emphasis on problems facing cage culture is included along with concluding remarks. Production Trends Aquaculture has been practised for at least the past 2500 years or more and since it began it has been and continues to be an important source of food production and employment for local communities. It has also contributed substantially to local, regional and global trade and commerce – much more so recently given the significant growth in the aquaculture sector worldwide, an increasing global population, and the continued globalization of the world’s economy. Despite recent economic troubles and concerns, there is every reason to believe that the aquaculture sector will continue to grow and contribute substantially to global food security. Demand for high quality fish products (especially for the fresh food market) continues to grow and it is clear that traditional fisheries cannot and will not be able to meet this demand now and in the future. Recent estimates of stock status suggest that about 30% of world fish stocks are over exploited, 50% are fully exploited and the remaining 20% under or moderately exploited. Thus given the current state of world fish stocks, it is unlikely that there will be any real growth in capture fisheries in the near future and there is a real possibility of further declines in stocks (fisheries) in both the short and long term (FAO, 2012a). Aquaculture is different from traditional harvest fisheries in two very important ways. First, it involves some form of intervention in the production cycle of freshwater or marine fish, invertebrates and shellfish or aquatic plants. The interventions may include the regular stocking of ponds, tanks, cages or other grow-out systems using captured (wild) or hatchery produced juvenile fish or plants and regular feeding of the stocked fish or plants. They may also include monitoring and detection of disease-causing agents and treatment of infections, or a variety of other fish husbandry practices aimed at enhancing the survival and/or growth of the species being cultured. Another very important and essential feature of any aquaculture venture is ownership of the stock. This ensures that benefits accrue to those directly involved with and responsible for the aquaculture enterprise. Stock ownership applies whether the aquaculture operation is being conducted on privately owned land or waterways or on leased or public land or water. This is quite different from capture fisheries where typically participants do not have ownership rights – a characteristic that has frequently resulted in overfishing and depletion of fish stocks (commonly referred to as ‘the tragedy of the commons’). Limited entry fisheries where the number of fishers allowed to catch a particular species in a specific area provide more predictable access to fish stocks but only after conservation targets are met and only after those with legitimate fishing ‘rights’ to access (such as First Nations or Aboriginal peoples) have been allowed their share (often negotiated). Thus, in some years fishers, even those involved in limited access fisheries, may have low or no quota allocated to them. Stock enhancement programmes used to rebuild or supplement traditional fisheries or stocks may employ some of the same types of interventions that are used in the aquaculture sector, such as using hatchery produced juveniles. However, like capture fisheries there is no ownership of the stock. All three of these approaches to fish production (aquaculture, fisheries and stock enhancement) are important for food production and conservation and they are certainly linked economically. Overview of Cage Culture in the 21st Century World aquaculture production, excluding marine plants, was less than 1 million t per year in the 1950s or about 5% of the total world fisheries and aquaculture production (FAO, 2012a). Aquaculture production grew at a very modest rate until about the mid- to late-1980s at which time it was roughly 10 million t per year. The rate of growth in this sector increased substantially through the 1990s and 2000s and between 2001 and 2010, world aquaculture production increased by approximately 6.3% per year or about three times the rate of increase for meat production (beef, poultry and pork) (FAO, 2012a). In 2010, world aquaculture production reached 59.9 million t for fish, shellfish and invertebrates with an additional 19 million t of aquatic plants. By comparison, production from all capture fisheries increased steadily from about 18 million t in the early 1950s until the early 1990s when the annual production from world capture fisheries levelled off at approximately 90 million t. Although the rate of growth in aquaculture production has moderated slightly in recent years, total world aquaculture production is expected to equal or exceed production in the wild capture fisheries within the next decade or two (FAO, 2012a). This may in fact happen sooner than later given the predicted decline in world fish population expected as a result of climate change (IPCC, 2007). Fish is an important source of animal protein providing almost 4.2 billion people with about 15% of their average annual per capita intake (FAO, 2012a). In 2010, that represented an average per capita consumption of fish of approximately 18.6 kg per person, which is more than double the per capita consumption of fish in the 1960s. Demand for fish for human consumption is expected to substantially increase in the future (given both its significant economic and health benefits) and demand will be further compounded by population growth (FAO, 2012a). While world capture fisheries totalled about 90 million t in 2010, not all of the fish were for human consumption. A substantial fraction of the 90 million t was by-catch and some of the catch was used as fishmeal for feed, and fish oil for animal and fish consumption as well as for use in industry. 3 By contrast, the vast majority (90% or more) of aquaculture production is used for human consumption. The net result was that aquaculture production contributed approximately 47% of the 115 million t of fish, shellfish and invertebrates (excluding marine plants) destined for human consumption in 2010. This disproportionate and very significant contribution from aquaculture is not immediately obvious from production statistics but none the less it is an important and crucial fact (FAO, 2012b). With wild capture fishery production levelling or slightly declining, it is estimated that more than half of the aquatic food destined for human consumption will come from aquaculture sources in the very near future. Thus, the importance of the aquaculture sector to local, regional and global food security now and in the future cannot be overstated. Major Species and Their Importance by Area and Region The recent growth in aquaculture production has been the result of significant increases in production in China, which now accounts for about 60% (36.7 million t) of the total biomass (FAO, 2012a). Other Asian countries (including India and a number of other Southeast Asian countries) account for another 30% of the world’s production (Fig. 1.1). The growth in production in these areas is clearly driven by the demands of increasing populations in China and other Asian countries as well as their expanding and maturing economies that support healthy export markets. While most aquaculture production is consumed by the producing nation, a portion is also exported to countries such as Japan, the United States and European nations where the demand for fish and fish products is more than can be produced locally either through their capture fisheries or aquaculture ventures. The demand in these markets also tends to be for species such as salmon, shrimp, tilapia and other high value species, particularly for servicing the fresh fish market (FAO, 2012b). 4 D.J. Noakes 5 India India 4.65 mt Vietnam 2.67 mt Indonesia 2.3 mt Bangladesh 1.31 mt Thailand 1.29 mt Norway 1.01 mt Egypt 0.92 mt Myanmar 0.85 mt Philippines 0.74 mt Japan 0.72 mt Chile 0.7 mt t × 1,000,000 4 3 Viet Indo 2 Bang Thai 1 Nor Egy Myan Phil Jap Chil 0 Fig. 1.1. The 2010 production (million t) of cultured fish, crustaceans, molluscs and other non-plant species for nine of the top ten producing nations (excluding China). In 2010, China’s aquaculture production was 36,734,200 t (excluding marine plants) representing approximately 61% of the total world aquaculture production. Production from these ten countries accounted for nearly 90% of the world aquaculture production. Source: FAO, 2012b, FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture 2010 Statistical Yearbook. In 2010 and in recent years, approximately 55% of the world’s aquaculture production occurred in freshwater (Fig. 1.2) primarily in lakes or ponds or other areas including flooded fields whose primary purpose is growing other crops such as rice (FAO, 2012b). Although some cage culture also occurs in fresh water (approximately 1 million t), this is an area or mode of production that is expected to increase substantially in the future (FAO, 2007). In addition to promoting and expanding co-culture opportunities, there is an increasing trend to create aquaculture operations or facilities (including cage culture) as part of other projects in developing countries both to meet the demand for fish and to ensure the best use of limited space and resources (Soto, 2009). The rate of increase in aquaculture production has been similar for fresh and brackish waters (approximately 5% or 6% growth per year over the last decade) and both are about double the rate of increase in production for species grown in marine waters (Fig. 1.2). In part this is because many freshwater species (such as various species of tilapia and carp, Table 1.2) have been cultured for many years and production is simply being scaled up, whereas the technologies for cultivating many marine species (such as tropical sea bass (Lates calcarifer) Centropomidae and sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbra) are still being developed and refined. Also, a significantly higher capital investment and higher on-going costs are required for marine aquaculture ventures, so expansion in this sector is less rapid than in fresh water. While aquaculture remains an important sector worldwide, Asia currently accounts for about 90% of the aquaculture production by weight and almost 80% of the total value. In both the short- and longer-term, this will likely be the region in which most of the future growth in the industry will occur, although Africa is also an area where significant growth in aquaculture may occur, particularly with freshwater species (FAO, 2011, 2012b). While freshwater species accounted for just over half the production by weight and value of the aquaculture sector, other species were important both regionally and globally (Table 1.1). For instance, mollusc production in 2010 was 14.1 million t or approximately 40% of the freshwater fish production (by weight). Although as a group molluscs were Overview of Cage Culture in the 21st Century Year Freshwater 5 Marine Brackish 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 0 10 20 30 0 5 10 15 Million t 0 1 2 3 4 Fig. 1.2. Marine, brackish and freshwater aquaculture production of fish, crustaceans, molluscs and other non-plant species from 2001 through 2010 inclusive. Production increased by approximately 75% over this 10-year period with freshwater aquaculture production accounting for approximately 60% of the total on an annual basis. Source: FAO, 2012b, FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture 2010 Statistical Yearbook. Table 1.1. Aquaculture production (million t) and value (billion US$) by species group (excluding aquatic plants) in 2010. While aquaculture production was dominated by freshwater fishes, high-valued crustacean and diadromous fish species contributed substantially (US$ 42.7 billion) to the economies of producing nations and international trade. Source: FAO, 2012b, FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture 2010 Statistical Yearbook. Species group Freshwater fishes Molluscs Crustaceans Diadromous fishes Marine fishes Aquatic animals Total Quantity (million t) Value (billion US$) 33.7 (56.4%) 14.1 (23.6%) 5.7 (9.6%) 3.6 (6.0%) 1.8 (3.1%) 0.8 (1.4%) 59.7 51.5 (43.1%) 14.3 (12.0%) 26.9 (22.5%) 15.8 (13.2%) 8.0 (6.7%) 3.0 (2.6%) 119.5 less valuable per t of production compared to some other species they still contributed over US$14 billion to the aquaculture sector and were an important source of protein for local communities. Conversely, crustacean and diadromous fish production (culture) by weight was much more modest (9.3 million t combined) but these high value species contributed more than US$40 billion (roughly 36% of the total value) to the sector in 2010 (Table 1.1). While some high-valued species (such as shrimp and salmon) are consumed where they are produced, the majority of the production is destined for the fresh fish food markets in developed countries where demand is high and the economies (and per capita income) can support the premium prices for these high quality products (FAO, 2012b). There are also multiplier factors associated with each group (Table 1.1) which would magnify the economic importance of the entire sector and perhaps to a greater degree for those species (such as salmon, shrimp) that are exported rather than consumed locally. The top 15 species cultivated in 2010 accounted for roughly 60% of the total production or 35.1 million t (Table 1.2). These major species will likely retain their prominence for the foreseeable future, although their individual ranking may change slightly reflecting year-toyear variations in production and/or annual shifts in species preference (FAO, 2012b). Six freshwater carp species dominated the list, each with production in excess of 2 million t annually 6 D.J. Noakes Table 1.2. Top 15 cultured species according to 2010 production. Carp and tilapia species culture accounted for 24,277,264 t or roughly 40% of the 59,872,600 t of fish, crustaceans, molluscs and other non-plant species grown or cultivated in 2010. Source: FAO, 2012b, FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture 2010 Statistical Yearbook. Species Common name(s) Ctenopharyngodon idellus Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Catla catla Ruditapes philippinarum Cyprinus carpio Penaeus vannamei Hypophthalmichthys nobilis Oreochromis niloticus Carassius carassius Salmo salar Labeo rohita Chanos chanos Penaeus monodon Oncorhynchus mykiss Sinonovacula constricta Grass carp Silver carp Indian carp Manila clam Common carp White leg shrimp Bighead carp Nile tilapia Crucian carp Atlantic salmon Rohi or Rohu (carp) Milkfish Giant Tiger prawn Rainbow trout Chinese razor or Agemaki clam (Table 1.2). The top three species, the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and Indian carp (Catla catla), had a combined production of about 12.3 million t in 2010 (Table 1.2). While these species are cultured worldwide, much of the production is in China, India and other Asian countries. Carp and tilapia are cultured primarily in lakes, ponds or fields (as a component of a co-culture venture) and although most are consumed locally some are also exported (FAO, 2012b). Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum), white legged shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) round out the list of species with production in excess of 2 million t annually. Shrimp and tilapia are also important species for export (FAO, 2012b). Atlantic salmon (Salmo salmar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are coldwater or temperate water species that are raised primarily in cages and tanks in both the northern and southern hemispheres with a combined production of 2.15 million t in 2010 (Table 1.2). Salmon and trout (as well as shrimp and prawns) are high-value species with much of the production being exported to Japan, the United States and a number of European nations (FAO, 2012b). Because the unit production cost for these species is relatively high, these species are usually raised at high density 2010 Production (t) 4,337,114 4,116,835 3,869,984 3,604,247 3,444,203 2,720,929 2,585,962 2,538,052 2,217,799 1,425,968 1,167,315 808,559 781,582 728,448 714,434 and in cages or tanks. In 2005, salmon and trout accounted for more than 50% (by weight) of the cage culture globally although the data on cage culture were at best incomplete (FAO, 2007). Currently, more than 100 species are cultured in cages worldwide with 10 species accounting for 90% of the production and the remaining species contributing about 10% of the production (Tacon and Halwart, 2007; FAO, 2011). Complete records are not available for all nations but reporting and the statistics from some countries (particularly for China) have improved since 2005 (FAO, 2012a). It’s likely that cage culture still only accounts for a small (5% to 10%) fraction of the total production of cultured fish, shellfish and invertebrates (FAO, 2012a, b). Nevertheless, a significant amount of research has been done to diagnose, manage and treat diseases of species raised in cages or tanks in order to maximize production, minimize costs and ensure the highest quality product (Woo et al., 2002; Woo, 2006; Eiras et al., 2008; Leatherland and Woo, 2010; Noga, 2010; Woo and Bruno, 2011). While much of this work has been directed to resolving issues associated with the culture of salmonids and shrimp, the advances made for these species may be useful or provide guidance for finding solutions for new species being cultured or being considered for culture. Overview of Cage Culture in the 21st Century Not surprisingly, China having the largest freshwater aquaculture industry is also the country with the largest freshwater cage culture sector with a production of approximately 704,000 t in 2005 (Tacon and Halwart, 2007). 7 Vietnam (126,000 t), Indonesia (67,700 t) and the Philippines (61,000 t) also have significant freshwater cage culture production, with other countries producing substantially less (Fig. 1.3a). While about 30 species are cultured (a) 140 Viet Vietnam 126 Indonesia 67.7 Philippines 61 Russian Federation 14 Turkey 10.8 Lao PDR 9.9 Thailand 7 Malaysia 6.2 Japan 3.9 120 t × 1000 100 80 Indo Phil 60 40 20 Rus Turk Lao Thai Mala Jap 0 (b) 140 Pang Pangasius spp. 133.6 Oreochromis niloticus 87 Cyprinus carpio 21.6 Oreochromis spp. 16.7 Oncorhynchus mykiss 14.6 Salmon spp. 12.1 Channa micropeltes 11.5 Salmon trutta 8.6 Freshwater fishes nei 6.9 Acipenseridae 2.4 120 100 t × 1000 O.nil 80 60 40 Cypr 20 Ore O.myk Salm Chan S.tru F.nei Acip 0 Fig. 1.3. (a) Excluding China, freshwater cage culture production (t × 1,000) for the top nine countries in 2005. Freshwater cage production in China was about 704,000 t in 2005. (b) Excluding China, the top ten species grown in freshwater cage culture in 2005. The data for China’s freshwater cage culture is not specific enough to provide a breakdown by species (Tacon and Halwart, 2007). Source: FAO, 2007.

Author David W. Bruno and Patrick T. K. Woo Isbn 9781780642079 File size 4.77MB Year 2014 Pages 354 Language English File format PDF Category Biology Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare This new edition is a timely update on important advances in the understanding of infectious diseases of finfish. The content has been significantly updated to reflect current knowledge and developments in the fish production industry, including the dramatic increases in production in the Asia-Pacific region. An important resource for aquaculturalists, fish health consultants and fish pathologists. * The content has been significantly updated to reflect current knowledge and the developments in the fish production industry, including the dramatic increases in production in the Asia-Pacific region. * European and South American aquaculture production has continued to rapidly increase during the past 10 years due to the expansion of marine production. In the Asia–Pacific region production accounts for 89% in terms of quantity and 79% in terms of value. This dominance is the result of China’s enormous production, which accounts for 62% of global production in terms of quantity. Therefore there is a huge potential for sales across fish growing regions of the world * Each chapter features brief descriptions of the pathogens/disorders, their geographical location(s), and impact(s) on fish production. Greater emphases will be on clinical signs, diagnoses, pathology, prevention, and control     Download (4.77MB) Sparidae: Biology And Aquaculture Of Gilthead Sea Bream And Other Species By Michalis Pavlidis Evolutionary Biology Of The Atlantic Salmon Paddlefish Aquaculture Marine Bivalve Molluscs Microalgae: Biotechnology, Microbiology And Energy Load more posts

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