Children and Cultural Memory in Texts of Childhood by Heather Snell and Lorna Hutchison


36597800196d23c-261x361.jpg Author Heather Snell and Lorna Hutchison
Isbn 9780415704731
File size 2.06MB
Year 2013
Pages 252
Language English
File format PDF
Category culture



 

CHILDREN AND CULTURAL MEMORY IN TEXTS OF CHILDHOOD The essays in this collection address the relationship between children and cultural memory in texts both for and about young people. The collection overall is concerned with how cultural memory is shaped, contested, forgotten, recovered, and (re)circulated, sometimes in opposition to dominant national narratives, and often for the benefit of young readers who are assumed not to possess any prior cultural memory. From the innovative development of school libraries in the 1920s to the role of utopianism in fi xing cultural memory for teen readers, it provides a critical look into children and ideologies of childhood as they are represented in a broad spectrum of texts, including fi lm, poetry, literature, and architecture from Canada, the United States, Japan, Germany, Britain, India, and Spain. These cultural forms collaborate to shape ideas and values, in turn contributing to dominant discourses about national and global citizenship. The essays included in the collection imply that childhood is an oft-imagined idealist construction based in large part on participation, identity, and perception; childhood is invisible and tangible, exciting and intriguing, and at times elusive even as cultural and literary artifacts recreate it. Children and Cultural Memory in Texts of Childhood is a valuable resource for scholars of children’s literature and culture, readers interested in childhood and ideology, and those working in the fields of diaspora and postcolonial studies. Heather Snell is Associate Professor of English at the University of Winnipeg, Canada Lorna Hutchison is Visiting Assistant Professor in Children’s Literature at Metropolitan State University of Denver, USA Children’s Literature and Culture Philip Nel, Series Editor For a complete series list, please go to routledge.com Reading Victorian Schoolrooms Childhood and Education in Nineteenth-Century Fiction Elizabeth Gargano Soon Come Home to This Island West Indians in British Children’s Literature Karen Sands-O’Connor Boys in Children’s Literature and Popular Culture Masculinity, Abjection, and the Fictional Child Annette Wannamaker Into the Closet Cross-dressing and the Gendered Body in Children’s Literature Victoria Flanagan Russian Children’s Literature and Culture Edited by Marina Balina and Larissa Rudova Crossover Fiction Global and Historical Perspectives Sandra L. Beckett The Crossover Novel Contemporary Children’s Fiction and Its Adult Readership Rachel Falconer Shakespeare in Children’s Literature Gender and Cultural Capital Erica Hateley Critical Approaches to Food in Children’s Literature Edited by Kara K. Keeling and Scott T. Pollard Neo-Imperialism in Children’s Literature About Africa A Study of Contemporary Fiction Yulisa Amadu Maddy and Donnarae MacCann Death, Gender and Sexuality in Contemporary Adolescent Literature Kathryn James The Outside Child In and Out of the Book Christine Wilkie-Stibbs Fundamental Concepts of Children’s Literature Research Literary and Sociological Approaches Hans-Heino Ewers Representing Africa in Children’s Literature Old and New Ways of Seeing Vivian Yenika-Agbaw Children’s Fiction about 9/11 Ethnic, Heroic and National Identities Jo Lampert The Fantasy of Family Nineteenth-Century Children’s Literature and the Myth of the Domestic Ideal Liz Thiel The Place of Lewis Carroll in Children’s Literature Jan Susina From Nursery Rhymes to Nationhood Children’s Literature and the Construction of Canadian Identity Elizabeth A. Galway The Family in English Children’s Literature Ann Alston Enterprising Youth Social Values and Acculturation in Nineteenth-Century American Children’s Literature Monika Elbert Constructing Adolescence in Fantastic Realism Alison Waller Power, Voice and Subjectivity in Literature for Young Readers Maria Nikolajeva “Juvenile” Literature and British Society, 1850–1950 The Age of Adolescence Charles Ferrall and Anna Jackson Picturing the Wolf in Children’s Literature Debra Mitts-Smith New Directions in Picturebook Research Edited by Teresa Colomer, Bettina Kümmerling-Meibauer, and Cecilia Silva-Díaz The Role of Translators in Children’s Literature Invisible Storytellers Gillian Lathey The Children’s Book Business Lessons from the Long Eighteenth Century Lissa Paul Humor in Contemporary Junior Literature Julie Cross Innocence, Heterosexuality, and the Queerness of Children’s Literature Tison Pugh Reading the Adolescent Romance Sweet Valley and the Popular Young Adult Romance Novel Amy S. Pattee Irish Children’s Literature and Culture New Perspectives on Contemporary Writing Edited by Valerie Coghlan and Keith O’Sullivan Beyond Pippi Longstocking Intermedial and International Perspectives on Astrid Lindgren’s Work s Edited by Bettina Kümmerling-Meibauer and Astrid Surmatz Contemporary English-Language Indian Children’s Literature: Representations of Nation, Culture, and the New Indian Girl Michelle Superle Re-visioning Historical Fiction The Past through Modern Eyes Kim Wilson The Myth of Persephone in Girls’ Fantasy Literature Holly Virginia Blackford Pinocchio, Puppets and Modernity The Mechanical Body Edited by Katia Pizzi Landscape in Children’s Literature Jane Suzanne Carroll Colonial India in Children’s Literature Supriya Goswami Children’s Culture and the Avant-Garde Painting in Paris, 1890–1915 Marilynn Olson Textual Transformations in Children’s Literature Adaptations, Translations, Reconsiderations Edited by Benjamin Lefebvre The Nation in Children’s Literature Nations of Childhood Edited by Kit Kelen and Björn Sundmark Subjectivity in Asian Children’s Literature and Film Global Theories and Implications Edited by John Stephens Children’s Literature, Domestication, and Social Foundation Narratives of Civilization and Wilderness Layla AbdelRahim Charles Dickens and the Victorian Child Romanticizing and Socializing the Imperfect Child Amberyl Malkovich Second-Generation Memory and Contemporary Children’s Literature Ghost Images Anastasia Ulanowicz Contemporary Dystopian Fiction for Young Adults Brave New Teenagers Edited by Carrie Hintz, Balaka Basu, and Katherine R. Broad Jews and Jewishness in British Children’s Literature Madelyn J. Travis Crossover Picturebooks A Genre for All Ages Sandra L. Beckett Genocide in Contemporary Children’s and Young Adult Literature Cambodia to Darfur Jane M. Gangi Peter Pan’s Shadows in the Literary Imagination Kirsten Stirling Children and Cultural Memory in Texts of Childhood Heather Snell and Lorna Hutchison This page intentionally left blank CHILDREN AND CULTURAL MEMORY IN TEXTS OF CHILDHOOD E DI T E D BY H E AT H E R SN E L L A N D LOR NA H U TCH ISON NEW YORK AND LONDON First published 2014 by Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017 Simultaneously published in the UK by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 2014 Taylor & Francis The right of Heather Snell and Lorna Hutchison to be identified as the authors of the editorial material, and of the authors for their individual chapters, has been asserted in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Children and cultural memory in texts of childhood / edited by Heather Snell and Lorna Hutchison. pages cm. — (Children’s Literature and Culture ; #96) Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Children’s literature—History and criticism. 2. National characteristics in literature. 3. Collective memory in literature. I. Snell, Heather, editor of compilation. II. Hutchison, Lorna, editor of compilation. PN1009.5.N35C48 2014 809'.89282—dc23 2013025365. ISBN13: 978-0-415-70473-1 (hbk) ISBN13: 978-0-203-76183-0 (ebk) Typeset in Minion by IBT Global. For Lucien & Sierra: dreams, clarté, curiosity LH For my mother: faith, challenge, integrity HS This page intentionally left blank Contents List of Illustrations Series Editor’s Foreword Acknowledgments xi xiii xv Introduction Fixing the Past for Young People 1 LORNA HUTCHISON AND HEATHER SNELL Chapter 1 Reading Canadian: Children and National Literature in the 1920s 15 GAIL EDWARDS Chapter 2 “A Real True Merrican Like Us”: Edith Wharton’s Past, Modern Children and American Identity 33 JENNY GLENNON Chapter 3 Nationalism, Nostalgia, and Intergenerational Girlhood: Textual and Ideological Extensions to Laura Ingalls Wilder’s Little House 47 BENJAMIN LEFEBVRE Chapter 4 A Japanese History Textbook and the Construction of World War II Memory 67 AYA MATSUSHIMA Chapter 5 Modern Architecture, National Traditions, and Ambivalent Internationalism: An East German Architectural Text for Young Readers CURTIS SWOPE ix 87 x • Contents Chapter 6 “You Say You Want a Revolution”: Cultural Memory, Black Nationalist Didacticism, and Sonia Sanchez’s It’s a New Day: Poems for Young Brothas and Sistuhs 103 JEAN-PHILIPPE MARCOUX Chapter 7 Ambivalent Doomsday for the Young: Nuclear Fictions for Children and Adolescents in the 1980s 125 TAMAR HAGER Chapter 8 Constructing an Innocent German Past: Childhood and National Socialism in Dieter Forte’s Der Junge mit den blutigen Schuhen and Martin Walser’s Ein springender Brunnen 147 NORA MAGUIRE Chapter 9 “Infinnate Joy”: Play, Performance, and Resistance in Arundhati Roy’s The God of Small Things 163 LUCY HOPKINS Chapter 10 The Seductions of Good and Evil: Competing Cultural Memories in Steven Keewatin Sanderson’s Superhero Comics for Aboriginal Youth 179 DORIS WOLF Chapter 11 “They’re Good with Good Girls”: Constructions of Childhood in Coming-of-Age Films about the Spanish Civil War 197 ANINDYA RAYCHAUDHURI Chapter 12 “Does Not Happen”: M.T. Anderson and Terry Pratchett Imagine the Nation 211 ADRIENNE KERTZER List of Contributors 229 Index 233 Illustrations Cover 4.1 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Created by Lorna Hutchison A photograph of General MacArthur taken upon his arrival at Atsugi airport. 78 Kyle’s rendition of Wesakecak, from Steven Keewatin Sanderson’s Darkness Calls. 185 Kyle’s mental translation of Wesakecak from a Cree “demon spirit” to modern superhero, from Steven Keewatin Sanderson’s Darkness Calls. 186 Ricky and Captain Zaz in a Disney-like world, from Steven Keewatin Sanderson’s An Invited Threat. 190 A monster prepares to saw off Diane’s legs, from Steven Keewatin Sanderson’s An Invited Threat. 192 xi This page intentionally left blank Series Editor’s Foreword The Children’s Literature and Culture series is dedicated to promoting original research in children’s literature, children’s culture, and childhood studies. We use the term “children” in the broadest sense, spanning from earliest childhood up through adolescence. The already capacious term “culture” encompasses media (radio, fi lm, television, video games, blogs, websites, social networking sites), material culture (toys, games, products), acculturation (processes of socialization), and of course literature, including all types of crossover works. Since children’s literature is defined by its audience, this series seeks to foster scholarship on the full range of children’s literature’s many genres and subgenres: fairy tales, folk tales, comics, graphic novels, picture books, novels, poetry, didactic tales, nonsense, fantasy, realism, mystery, horror, fan fiction, and others. Founded by Jack Zipes in 1994, Routledge’s Children’s Literature and Culture is the longest-running series devoted to the study of children’s literature and culture from a national and international perspective. In 2011, expanding its focus to include childhood studies, the series also seeks to explore the legal, historical, and philosophical conditions of different childhoods. An advocate for scholarship from around the globe, the series recognizes innovation and encourages interdisciplinarity. In Zipes’ words, “the goal of the Children’s Literature and Culture series is to enhance research in this field and, at the same time, point to new directions that bring together the best scholarly work throughout the world.” Philip Nel xiii This page intentionally left blank Acknowledgments The editors owe a debt of gratitude to the contributors of this volume, who responded graciously and with patience to our repeated queries and suggestions. They have taught us much, both about the process of putting a collaborative work such as this together and about the complex and dynamic relationship that exists between cultural memory and young people. We also owe great thanks to Benjamin Lefebvre, who was responsible both for initiating the project in the fi rst place and for contributing a wonderful chapter to the collection. He has been enormously supportive of our efforts over the past three years, offering help and advice whenever we needed it. Heather Snell would like to extend thanks, first and foremost, to her highly skilled and supportive co-editor, Lorna Hutchison, without whom the collection would not have been possible to finish, and to all of her amazing friends and colleagues in Winnipeg, including Mavis Reimer, Catherine Hunter, Kirstian Lezubski, Jackie Benson, Judith Harris, Naomi Hamer, Kathryn Ready, Catherine Tosenberger, charlie peters, Christina Fawcett, Kendra Magnus-Johnston, Larissa Wodkte and, last but not least, Doris Wolf, whose fascinating and politically important work on the comic art of Steven Keewatin Sanderson appears in the collection. In addition to her mother (Linda), Heather is indebted to her father (Guy), Sharon, sister (Sarah), brother (Noah), and nieces (Alena, Erin, and Jessica). She would also like to thank her two cats, Misha and Tatyana, who kept her company during long hours of editing. Lorna Hutchison would like to specifically thank and extend her deep appreciation to: Dr. Cynthia Kuhn for sharing her insight and knowledge on the editing, writing, and publishing process, and her wonderful capacity for cheerfulness; my students past and present; Heather Snell, of whose abilities I am in awe, and for whose friendship the world is a better place; Dale & Adrianne in ways too numerous to list; friends and intellectual companions Brenda Jones, Alissa Levine, Shelley Boyd, Craig Svonkin, James Aubrey, xv xvi • Acknowledgments Jennifer Stroh, and Shane Petersen; and to Rosetta Lovato for her warm and generous support at every level. Love and thanks to my children, Lucien and Sierra, who make it “all good” and who enrich and inform all matters of life and contemplation. Heather Snell and Lorna Hutchison May 2013 Introduction Fixing the Past for Young People Lorna Hutchison and Heather Snell Participation in cultural memory is not diffuse in still another sense. In contrast to communicative memory, it does not spread itself around spontaneously but has to be thoroughly prepared and vetted. Its distribution is controlled, and whereas on the one hand it makes participation obligatory, on the other it withholds the right to participate. It is subject to restrictions that are more or less rigid. —Jan Assmann, Cultural Memory and Early Civilization1 Memories are lost, reshaped, even challenged. Notwithstanding their susceptibility to change, shared memories contribute to identity formation and a sense of belonging; correlatively, they can help to provide the glue with which to hold a people together. For better or for worse, memories can also function as hegemonic tools in the name of nationalism. In this collection we are primarily interested in how young people fit or are made to fit into the processes and collective experiences associated with cultural memory and the operative structures, such as identity formation, patriotism, or political and moral values, through which cultural memory exists or operates. Adult general perception typically assumes young people to be lacking those experiences that may enable them to challenge popular or dominant interpretations of the past and present; not surprisingly, then, young people often become a target of attempts to consolidate these. In fact, one might argue that cultural memory comes (or is brought) to the fore only once a new generation of individuals who do not possess a living memory of the past begins to come of age. Indeed, almost two decades after the abolishment of official apartheid in South Africa, one would expect a flurry of new books written for those who 1 2 • Lorna Hutchison and Heather Snell cannot remember it. The children’s international book market has not disappointed. At least two new books have been released in 2013 that engage, indirectly, the history of the brutal system of racial segregation that dominated social life in South Africa between 1948 and 19942: Kadir Nelson’s Nelson Mandela, and Desmond and the Very Mean Word, a picture book that Archbishop Desmond Tutu produced with Douglas Carlton Abrams and illustrator A.G. Ford. Both books seek to instill in their young readers a particular interpretation of the history of apartheid, the first through a memorialization of the heroic actions of Nelson Mandela, who fought against apartheid and eventually became South Africa’s first black president, and the second by emphasizing the role that children might play in eradicating racism. Implicit in this second book is the notion that small, interpersonal exchanges, including and perhaps especially those that occur among children, affect the larger social body. The young Desmond in the story—clearly a reflection of Tutu, the former chairman of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (or the TRC, established in 1995), learns that the road to freedom lies in forgiveness. The lesson is not an easy one, for the act that Desmond must forgive—the shouting out of a “very mean word” on the part of a gang of boys—hurts him profoundly: “His teeth were clenched, and the mean word kept repeating itself over and over inside his head like echoes in a dark cave.”3 When Desmond’s mentor, Father Trevor, asks Desmond if he can forgive the boys, he responds in the negative, prompting Trevor to articulate the primary message of the book: “That is the problem, Desmond. You will get them back, and then they will get you back, and soon our whole world will be filled with nothing but ‘getting back.’”4 Desmond does begin to perpetuate this cycle—until he discovers that the same boys who are bullying him are bullying one of their own too: the unnamed “red-haired boy.” The recycling of revenge is reflected in the reproach the mother of the red-haired boy makes in response to the bullying: “You are as bad as your father.”5 Desmond’s discovery that the red haired boy is, like him, a victim of bullying, and more guidance from Father Trevor, proves instrumental in encouraging Desmond not only to forgive the boys who hurt him but also to appreciate forgiveness and the fleeting and precarious racial harmony that ensues. What is interesting about this book is its refusal to name the very mean words exchanged among its characters and the racial and ethnic stigmas to which they are attached. We know that Desmond is black only because he is pictured as such in the illustrations; likewise, the boys who bully Desmond are clearly white, although they hardly comprise a homogenous bunch, making it difficult to place them within any one ethnic category. The book eschews naming race and ethnicity, with the expectation no doubt that young readers will cultivate color blindness or non-racialism. It thereby risks discouraging any real debate about racial politics in South Africa or, for that matter, anywhere else in the world, presumably because children are neither interested in nor capable of thinking about difficult social issues. As is typical of texts that so explicitly attempt to “imagineer”—that is, to imagine and engineer— Introduction • 3 the past for the benefit of young people, Desmond reduces a complex social conflict to a simplified and highly individualized scenario in which there lies a simple solution to a simple problem: Desmond must forgive a gang of boys for repeating what is almost certainly, in the South African context, a racially inflected word. Part of the problem here is that young readers are not given the context; instead, apartheid, and the attendant history of colonialism in South Africa, is written out of the story. Apartheid and colonialism constitute background only for those familiar enough with the histories of South Africa to understand them. Given that most of the book’s readers are bound to be children and, therefore, not in possession of a living memory of apartheid (such children are called “born frees” in South Africa), some contextualization seems prudent so as not to sanitize or diminish a complex reality. It appears more so when one considers that the book circulates internationally: we ourselves purchased it in Canada. It is not that Desmond tells a simple story about apartheid; it is that the book refuses to tell a story about apartheid at all, opting instead for a universally applicable moral tale that emphasizes the importance of interpersonal forgiveness. This occurs at the expense of sparking critical thinking about how and in what form forgiveness can possibly occur in a nation in which an unofficial apartheid persists. In Imagining Justice: The Politics of Postcolonial Forgiveness and Reconciliation (2009), Julie McGonegal suggests that fiction ably supplements the public address (and redress) of grievance and pain with a form of discourse that recognizes the limits of legal remedy and that inhabits an affective register that may well aid in the creation of a future in which forgiveness and reconciliation are possible.6 Desmond seems to want to invest in such affectivity, yet in its refusal to name and contextualize racism, it threatens to merely reproduce the maneuvers of the TRC, which, as Mahmood Mamdani and other critics point out, tended to rely too heavily on theological discourses of forgiveness and so “individualized the victims of apartheid.”7 The book relies far too heavily on the emotions that take place around interpersonal forgiveness without ever really assessing the extent to which forgiveness is a necessary, or even desirable, element of political reconciliation. As Charles Villa-Vicencio points out, reconciliation may require “less than forgiveness” and it is “necessarily a modest exercise” involving “what has been called ‘reconciliation for survival’ rather than interpersonal forgiveness.”8 In its invitation to young readers to suture themselves into a romanticized scene of forgiveness, the book risks aestheticizing the core issues at stake. Consequently, the book might be read as one that encourages a forgetting of apartheid. If we think about the ways in which memory and cultural understanding can be triggered, and if we think also about the conduit that facilitates or makes possible their transportation, then we can theorize cultural memory

Author Heather Snell and Lorna Hutchison Isbn 9780415704731 File size 2.06MB Year 2013 Pages 252 Language English File format PDF Category Culture Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare The essays in this collection address the relationship between children and cultural memory in texts both for and about young people. The collection overall is concerned with how cultural memory is shaped, contested, forgotten, recovered, and (re)circulated, sometimes in opposition to dominant national narratives, and often for the benefit of young readers who are assumed not to possess any prior cultural memory. From the innovative development of school libraries in the 1920s to the role of utopianism in fixing cultural memory for teen readers, it provides a critical look into children and ideologies of childhood as they are represented in a broad spectrum of texts, including film, poetry, literature, and architecture from Canada, the United States, Japan, Germany, Britain, India, and Spain. These cultural forms collaborate to shape ideas and values, in turn contributing to dominant discourses about national and global citizenship. The essays included in the collection imply that childhood is an oft-imagined idealist construction based in large part on participation, identity, and perception; childhood is invisible and tangible, exciting and intriguing, and at times elusive even as cultural and literary artifacts recreate it. Children and Cultural Memory in Texts of Childhood is a valuable resource for scholars of children’s literature and culture, readers interested in childhood and ideology, and those working in the fields of diaspora and postcolonial studies.     Download (2.06MB) Death Representations in Literature A Family Occupation: Children of the War and the Memory of World War II in Dutch Literature of the 1980s Spatial Turns: Space, Place, and Mobility in German Literary and Visual Culture Translation and Medicine From Nursery Rhymes to Nationhood Load more posts

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