Character Costume Figure Drawing by Tan Huaixiang

Character-Costume-Figure-Drawing-Step-by-Step-Drawing-Methods-for-Theatre-Costume-Designers-260x200.jpeg Author Tan Huaixiang
Isbn 9780240805344
File size 17 Mb
Year 2004
Pages 304
Language English
File format PDF
Category drawing


Focal Press is an imprint of Elsevier 200 Wheeler Road, Burlington, MA 01803, USA Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK Copyright © 2004, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone: (+44) 1865 843830, fax: (+44) 1865 853333, e-mail: [email protected] You may also complete your request on-line via the Elsevier homepage (, by selecting “Customer Support” and then “Obtaining Permissions.” Recognizing the importance of preserving what has been written, Elsevier prints its books on acid-free paper whenever possible. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Tan, Huaixiang. Character costume figure drawing : step-by-step drawing methods for theatre costume designers / by Tan Huaixiang. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-240-80534-8 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Costume. 2. Costume design. 3. Drawing--Technique. I. Title. PN2067.T36 2004 792.02’6--dc22 2003023767 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. For information on all Focal Press publications visit our website at 04 05 06 07 08 10 11 Printed in China 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Table of Contents Preface v Acknowledgements vi Introduction vii What Makes a Good Theatrical Costume Designer? vii The Importance of Personality and Body Language vii Philosophy for Drawing viii CHAPTER 1 DRAWING THE FIGURE 1 Proportions of the Body 2 The Basic Bone Structure of the Body 6 The Joints of the Body 7 The Head, Chest, and Pelvis 7 The Relationships between the Limbs and Body Masses 10 The Balance of the Body 10 Weight on Both Legs 10 Weight on One Leg 16 Body Leaning on an Object 21 Figures in Action 24 Abstract Stick Figures in Action 24 Contouring the Stick Figure 25 Figures in Dance 37 Figure Poses Change through Time and Fashion 50 Garments and Textures in Relation to the Body in Action 60 CHAPTER 2 CREATING THE FACE 69 Proportions of the Face—Front, Profile, and Three-Quarter Views 70 Step One: Establish the Head as an Abstract Form or Mass 70 Step Two: Block in the Features 72 Step Three: Contour the Features 74 Types and Characteristics of Faces 83 Facial Expressions 92 How Can Proper Facial Expression Be Achieved? 92 Emotions 92 Positioning the Head and Neck and Directing the Eyesight 111 CHAPTER 3 FIGURE AND FACIAL VARIATIONS 113 Characteristics of Different Age Groups 113 Children’s Faces and Body Types 118 Teenagers’ Faces and Body Types 118 Youths’ Faces and Body Types 122 Middle-Aged Faces and Body Types 126 Elderly Faces and Body Types 130 Characteristics of Different Figure Types 132 Heavy Body Types 132 Thin, Tall, or Short Body Types 135 iv M CONTENTS CHAPTER 4 HANDS, FEET, AND ACCESSORIES 139 CHAPTER 6 RENDERING TECHNIQUES Heads and Hats 140 Hands, Gloves, and Props 150 Hand Proportions 151 Relationship Angle between Hand and Wrist 152 Feet and Shoes 160 Creating Highlights and Shadows 185 Characteristics of Materials and Drawing Strokes 189 Painting Costumes 196 Painting from Light to Dark 196 Rendering Sheer Material 207 Painting from Dark to Light 208 Painting with Markers 217 Creating Texture 225 Painting the Head and Face 233 Decorating the Background of the Costume Design 235 Drawing Supplies 247 CHAPTER 5 CHARACTER COSTUME DESIGN CREATION 169 What Is the Best Way to Begin? 170 Proportion, Action, and Movement 171 What Is the Figure Doing beneath the Garments? 172 Detailed Costumes 173 Outlining the Garment 173 The Details 174 185 CHAPTER 7 COSTUME RENDERING GALLERY 249 Credits to Walt Stanchfield: Words of Wisdom A handout for people who are interested in animation drawings or want to be animators. Preface A s an instructor, I have been working with theatre costume design students for many years. I know how students become frustrated when drawing human figures, and I understand their needs. I feel I have a responsibility to write this book in order to help students who have trouble drawing, and hope this book will greatly help all prospective designers out there. Because English is my second language, writing this book has been a very difficult task. Some days I felt it was impossible and wanted to give up. But the desire to help my students—future designers—encouraged me to continue. The development of this book is based on years of experience with educational theatre and, more specifically, my teaching experience with college students. I know they need a guide they can use in their free time to educate themselves and practice figure drawing to become skilled costume designers. I tried to make this book instructional and fundamental. I tried to keep it simple, direct, and straightforward. It is difficult for me to express myself exactly the way I want to in English, so I hope the visual images speak for themselves. The various illustrations demonstrate my step-by-step processes. I have incorporated a number of examples of my costume designs into each subject to give more visual explanations on the topic and to show how to utilize line quality, form, and texture to create facial expressions and body language, and to explore variations in characters and garments. I have tried hard to make this book easily comprehensible and easy to follow. I hope this book is both useful to students and entertaining to casual readers. It can be used as a reminder or as inspiration by college students and professionals who are interested in character drawings for all different types of character creations. I hope this book will help costume design students enjoy the process of figure drawing, and if it helps even a little with design artwork, I will feel rewarded. v Acknowledgments I would like to thank all the professionals and friends who encouraged me to write this book. A special thanks to Bonnie J. Kruger, who introduced me to the Focal Press. Thank you to the Focal Press for your support and understanding. Thanks to all my professors at the Central Academy of Drama in Beijing, China: Hou Qidi, Ma Chi, Xing Dalun, Wang Ren, Li Chang, Zhang Bingyao, Qi Mudong, Zhang Chongqing, He Yunlan, Yie Ming, An Lin, Wang Xiping, Sun Mu, and Li Dequan. You laid the foundation for me to pursue and achieve what I have today. You nurtured and motivated me to start my theatre design career. Your influence has changed my life. Thanks to the professors in the Department of Theatre Arts at Utah State University, Colin B. Johnson, Sid Perkes, and Bruce E. McInroy, for your kindness, advice, and support. You taught me how to survive in the United States and were patient and understanding at all times. I greatly treasure your instruction. Thanks to all my former chairmen with whom I worked: Sid Perks, Bruce A. Levitt, Wesley Van Tassel, and Donald Seay. Thank you for being won- vi derful, understanding leaders and for teaching me discipline and timeliness. Your positivity will always be remembered. Thanks to the UCF Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning computer lab professors and staff for all your great help whenever I needed it for my classes and computer problems. Thanks to the entire faculty and staff in the department of theatre at the University of Central Florida for all your help, support, and kindness. Thanks to my dear friends Xiangyun Jie, Julia Zheng, Helen Huang, Peiran Teng, Dunsi Dai, Liming Tang, HaiBou Yu, Zhang Chongqing, and Rujun Wang for giving me unconditional support and advice. You put a smile on my face when I needed it most. Thank you to my parents for shaping me into the person I am today. A big thank you goes to my daughter, Yingtao Zhang, for all your inspirational ideas and unending support and encouragement. Thanks to my husband, Juli Zhang, for encouraging me and helping me to succeed in my own professional life. Finally, thank you to all my students for your tolerance and for allowing me to be your instructor. Introduction T his book is visually oriented to provide a simple, viewable guide that focuses on the principles and formats of character costume figure drawings. Throughout all the illustrations, you will see dimension and diversity in the characters. Facial expressions, body language, body action, and props are incorporated to clearly characterize each figure. What Makes a Good Theatrical Costume Designer? I would never say that a person who draws beautiful pictures is always a good costume designer. A good costume designer must have many other qualities and capabilities, such as imagination and knowledge in theatre, world history, theatre history, costume history, and literature. The designer must retain good communication and organizational skills; possess research and technical skills like drawing, rendering, computer graphics, costume construction, crafts, millinery, and personnel management; be a good team player; and even be in good health. All these factors make a wonderfully ideal costume designer. Drawing and painting skills are tools for helping a designer develop and express visual images and design concepts. Renderings are not the final product, the final product is the actual stage costume made suitable and proper for the actors. The Importance of Personality and Body Language To capture the impression of a character’s spirit is always a goal when developing character figure drawings. By nature, we all relate to human emotion because we all experience it. Characters are human beings, and human beings all possess personalities. To portray a character’s emotions and personality on paper is a challenge, but well worth the results. When I create costume designs, I try not only to illustrate the costumes, but also to portray a completed characterization. I try to manipulate every body part to build compositional beauty and artistically express the power of a character’s substance. Every gesture, action, facial expression, and accessory will add meaning and entertainment to the design. People say that we should not judge a person by his or her appearance, but when an actor appears on stage, his or her appearance becomes significant. The character’s body language reflects the soul and spirit of the character, and an interesting gesture helps to display the style of the costumes. Using body language to emphasize the personality and status of a character is to give the character an exciting appearance. Character figures enhance and adorn the costume designs, and they communicate with the director, actor, other designers, and the production team. Expressing the personality of the character in your drawings is like the saying, “A picture is worth a thousand words.” vii viii M INTRODUCTION Philosophy for Drawing Drawing human figures should be fun. Nobody was born an innate artist and nobody will become one overnight, but I believe that with some effort, anybody can draw. Although improving your drawing skills requires tremendous effort, enjoying it and being interested will greatly help. When you are driven to do well, you will. Watch, listen, and absorb. To develop a more positive attitude, consider this: Just do it. Work helps. Avoid a pessimistic and sluggish attitude. Desire and dedication are the discipline of a career, and work is the language of that discipline. POSITIVITY! CONFIDENCE! PRACTICE! SUCCESS! 1 Drawing the Figure M y objective in writing this book is to show how to draw figures using a simple and easy drawing method. Specifically, the book is intended to help theatre students improve their drawing skills so that they can give effective design presentations. Most theatre students do not have any solid drawing training, nor do they have any human anatomy or figure-drawing courses in their curricula. Drawing requires a lot of practice and knowledge of the proportions of the human body. I believe that with effort, anybody can draw. Theatre students typically have to do production assignments and work in the shops, helping to build either scenery or costumes for the production. Their time is occupied with those assignments, leaving them little time to improve their drawing skills. That is why I am trying to find a short, easy, and fast way to help them improve their drawing abilities. The methods in this book can be used without a model. However, if theatre students have the opportunity to draw the human figure from live models, they should do so. Drawing live models is a tremendous help in understanding the human body. 1 2 M CHAPTER 1 PROPORTIONS OF THE BODY There are many concepts or methods for measuring the divisions of the human body. The eight-heads-tall figure proportion method is often used by artists or fashion illustrators. Some fashion drawings may use eight-and-a-half- or nine-heads-tall figures to demonstrate the garments, using a slim, sophisticated image. Realism is not intent of fashion designers or illustrators. Rather, their objective is to create a stylized or exaggerated version of reality, which today is a tall, slim, and athletic figure, with a long neck and long legs. Fashion illustrations emphasize the current ideals or trends of fashion beauty. The thin body and specific poses are designed to enhance the garments. Fashion illustrators are creating the images of fashionable products to stimulate customers to purchase the garments. Beautiful illustrations can impress and influence customers to buy and wear the advertised clothing. Costume designs for theatrical productions are quite different from fashion illustrations. The costume designer uses the history of fashion as a reference for creating costumes for many varieties of characters or groups of characters in plays. The characters are everyday-life people: young or old, thin or heavy, short or tall, with different nationalities and particular personalities. Costume design for productions requires creating practical garments that are going to be worn on stage by believable characters who have well-defined personalities. Sometimes a well-defined character costume design can inspire the actors and enhance the design presentation for the production team. In my drawings and designs, I try to emphasize a realistic style of body proportions, but I use slightly exaggerated facial features and body language to create characters with personality. The real creative challenge is how to express personalities of characters. Most of the proportions of the body that I used in this book are based on the theories of proportions used in many other art books. There are fantastic art books from which you can learn about the proportions of the body and about figure drawing techniques, such as Bridgman’s Complete Guide to Drawing from Life, by George B. Bridgman; The Complete Book of Fashion Illustration, by Sharon Lee Tale and Mona Shafer Edwards; The Human Figure: An Anatomy for Artists, by David K. Rubins; Drawing the Head and Figure, by Jack Hamm; and Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain, by Betty Edwards. These books helped me improve my understanding of the human body and taught me how to present the body well. You can study the rules and principles of figure drawing but you have to learn how to use them through practice. To give my characters a realistic appearance, I slightly change the size of the head. Compared to the eight-heads-tall proportions, I enlarge the head to extend outside the usual boundary of the first head area. This enlarges the head in proportion to the top half of the body. I keep the feet within the bottom-half portion of the body. When I start the foundation of a figure, however, I still start with the eight-heads-tall method because it is an even number and easier to divide for calculation purposes. My divisions on the body may differ from other books, but the measurements work for my figure drawings. My primary intent is to have a system that is easy to use. The key for developing a character figure drawing that is in proportion is to keep the top half (from the crotch up to the top of the skull) equal to the bottom half (from the crotch down to the bottom of the feet). The crotch is the main division point. The head can actually be made either a little bigger or smaller. A small head will make the figure look taller or thinner; a bigger head will make the figure look shorter or chubbier. When keeping these measurements in mind, the figure will always look right. I recommend that you use the following steps to create a figure drawing, until you become familiar with body proportions. Refer to Figures 1-1 and 1-2 as you complete these steps. 1. Place two marks on the paper — one on the top portion of the page, one on the bottom portion of the page — to indicate the height of the body. Then draw a vertical line from the top mark to the bottom mark. The composition of the figure should be considered; that is, keeping the figure centered or off-centered, more to the left or to the right side, and so on. These guidelines control the figure height. 2. Draw a mark at the middle point of the vertical line to find the middle point of the body. This mark is where the crotch is located and is also the half-height of the body. I am going to call the area from this mark up the upper half of the body. To me, this mark is the most critical reference point for good proportions of the body. (See Figure 1-1, mark #5.) 3. Divide the upper body from the top mark to the crotch line into four equal parts. This creates five marks but four portions. Number all the marks: The very top mark, mark #1, is the top of the skull; we won’t use mark #2; mark #3 is the armpit; mark #4 is the waistline; and mark #5 is the half-body mark (it is also the crotch, pelvis, or hipline). The very bottom mark drawn in step 1 is mark #6. I will refer by numbers to these six marks extensively in the discussion that follows. 4. Make the head bigger compared to mark #2 (usually considered the chin in measurement Drawing the Figure M 3 systems used in other drawing books). The head will be increased by adding a distance approximately the size of a chin from mark #2 down (see letter A on the sketch in Figure 1-1). This shortens the neck. Fashion drawings usually are just the opposite, showing a longer neck. The mark at letter A is going to be the bottom of the chin. 5. Draw an egg-shaped frame between the top mark and the chin mark, A, to indicate the shape of the head. into four equal parts. The first mark is the top of the pelvis (see letter G in Figure 1-1). The male pelvis width is different from the female. The female hip width is usually wider than her shoulders. The male hip width is less wide than the shoulders. For both males and females, the width of the top of the pelvis 1-1 Proportion of the Body, Marks A through H The top of the skull 6. Divide the distance between mark #2 and the armpit line (mark #3) in half and mark it as letter B; this mark is going to be the shoulder line or collarbone. Generally speaking, the width of the shoulders is a measurement about two heads wide for females and two-and-a-half heads wide for males. Measure the width of the shoulders and add two marks (see letter C in Figure 1-1). 7. Divide the distance between mark #2 and the shoulder line, B, in half and add another mark. This mark helps to establish the shoulder-slope line (see letter D in Figure 1-1). Look at the sketch and review this in detail. Chin Shoulder slope Shoulder line Armpit Waistline 1/2 height of the body Crotch or hipline 8. Divide the distance between the armpit (mark #3) and the waistline (mark #4) into four equal parts. Now you have drawn three marks to create four parts. The first mark from the top of this group is the bustline (see letter E in Figure 1-1); this mark usually refers to the nipples position or bustline. The third mark from the top is the bottom of the rib cage (see letter F in Figure 1-1). The second mark is not used. 9. Divide the distance between the waistline (mark #4) and the crotch or hipline (mark #5) usually equals the width of the bottom of the rib cage or chest. The bottom of the pelvis/ hipline/crotch line is wider than width of the the top of the pelvis (see letter H in Figure 1-1). The hipline’s width will depend on whether you are drawing a female or male. The other two marks are not used. The bottom of the feet The width of the shoulders Bustline The bottom of the rib cage The width of the top of the pelvis The width of the bottom of the pelvis or hipline 4 M CHAPTER 1 10. Treat the chest/rib cage as a tapered box (refer to Figure 1-2). Connect the shoulder line with the bottom of the rib cage to make a tapereddown box. The shoulder should be wider than the bottom of the rib cage. Keep both sides of the body symmetrical with the body centerline. The pit of the neck is at the middle of the shoulder line — it is the body centerline. 11. Treat the pelvis as a tapered-up box. Connect the top of the pelvis line with the bottom of the pelvis line (mark #5, also the hipline/ crotch line) to draw a tapered-up box. The female hipline is wider than the male hipline. 12. The area from the crotch down will be for the legs and feet. The legs join the pelvis at the hipline. Before starting to draw the legs, 1-2 Proportion of the Body, Marks I through M The pit of the neck is at the body centerline. The pit of the neck Chin Chest Shoulder line Armpit Bustline Waistline Pelvis The elbow is at 1/2 the length of the arm. Crotch or hipline Fingertip line The kneecap is at 1/2 the length of the leg. Ankle Kneecap Ankle Feet divide the distance between mark #5 (crotch line) and mark #6 (the bottom of the feet) into four equal parts. Then mark them from the top down (see letters I, J, and K in Figure 1-2). 13. Divide the distance between K and mark #6 into three equal parts. The feet are drawn in the bottom third (see letter L in Figure 1-2). 14. Draw two lines from both corners of mark #5 (hipline/crotch) down to letter L to indicate the legs. Keep them symmetrical. Then divide these two lines in half; the middle marks on these two lines are the knee positions (see letter M in Figure 1-2). This method of drawing leg length avoids the leggy look of fashionillustration figures. Our objective is to create a realistic look corresponding to the actors, rather than a fashion ideal. 15. The arms join to the chest at the shoulder line. In human anatomy theory, the upper arm from the shoulder to the elbow is longer than the distance from the elbow to wrist. In my method, I treat them as two equal parts in length for an easy calculation ratio. When the arm is hanging down, the elbow usually lines up with the waistline. The measurement from the shoulder to the elbow should equal the measurement from the elbow to the wrist. From the elbow joint, measure down to indicate the placement of the wrist. 16. Add hands to the wrists. The fingertips usually stop at letter I (the fifth head in other books). Asian people often have shorter arms, African people usually have longer arms, and Caucasians often have arms that are longer than Asians’ but shorter than Africans’. There are many variations and exceptions to any racial generality. Drawing the Figure M 5 17. As shown in Figure 1-3, contour the body according to the basic bone/stick structure (see the section, “Contouring the Stick Figure”). Figures 1-4 and 1-5 show the contouring lines for the male and female body, respectively. The proportions of the body, either seven- or eight-heads tall, work only for the body standing in a straight position. When the body is bending or the head is facing up or down, you cannot apply the measurements to the body because of foreshortening. 1-3 Proportions of the Body, Stick Structure, Front and Back Views Front View Back View The body measurement methods used in this book are not the only methods you should follow, but I recommend you use my system as a guide or reference for drawing stage costumes. 1-4 Contouring Lines for the Male Body, Front and Back Views Front View Back View 6 M CHAPTER 1 1-5 Contouring Lines for the Female Body, Front and Back Views Front View Back View THE BASIC BONE STRUCTURE OF THE BODY The bone structure in this book is symbolic and abstract. It is not my intention to copy the real human skeleton. My objective in using a simple and abstract bone structure is to make it easier to draw and understand, and easier to obtain the proper proportions of the figures. The shape of the human body is complex. To draw it well, you need to spend extensive time studying bones and muscles. Unfortunately, in most cases, theatre students don’t have a long time to study the human anatomy. The simplified abstract bone structure used here is going to help students to better understand the human body and its movements (see Figure 1-6). The skeleton dominates and directs all surfaces of the body, and the bone joints determine and dominate all the movements of the body. We must discuss the basic bone structure of the human body to understand body movements. To keep it clear and simple, my discussion is focused on the basic length and width of the outer edges of the skeleton, and on the major joints of the skeleton. The outer edges of the skeleton include the outline of the skull and the outline, or frame, of the chest and pelvis masses. The major joints include the spine, shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip/leg, knee, and ankle. In real life, the chest and pelvis are irregular shapes. In this book, I am going to use either boxes or abstract shapes to demonstrate the body parts. Small circles will be used for each joint. Abstract sticks will be used for the length of the bone. The length of the bones between the forearm and upper arm, and between the lower leg and thigh, may differ in real skeletons, but I will make them equal distances here because it will be easier to calculate the proportion ratio. Drawing the Figure M 7 The Joints of the Body Joints connect or hinge together two things. There are many joints on the human body. The spine joins the head mass, chest mass, and pelvis mass. The collarbone, shoulder blade, and arm are joined together at the shoulder and connected with the chest as a unit. Joints are capable of moving in many directions within their limitations. Each arm has its own joints: shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger. Each leg also has its joints: hip, knee, ankle, and toe. Each joint directs body movements. In figure drawing, when joints are in the correct positions, they will show comfortable movements and body rhythm with natu- 1-6 The Abstract Skeleton of the Body and Its Joints ral expressiveness as a whole. Incorrect positions will make the figures seem stiff or lopsided. Through our experiences during our daily activities, we know how joints work. But showing the joints properly through drawing is critical and requires practice. The bone joints allow us to move our body parts comfortably and also inform us of the limitations of our joints. Consider and study how your own joints work; practice stick figure drawings to analyze the joint functions and limitations in different positions. The Head, Chest, and Pelvis Front View Side View Back View There are three major masses of the human body — the head, chest, and pelvis. They are joined together by the spine, which controls the movements and turning directions of the head, chest, and pelvis. The significant fact here is that these three masses are able to move independently of one another (see Figure 1-7). Making the three masses move in different directions will add dramatic excitement and personality to the figure. When the body moves, the balance has to be maintained. The proper angles between the body masses maintain this balance. The neck area of the spine usually has more flexibility than the lumbar spine. The flexible spine allows the head, chest, and pelvis to face up, down, or sideways, or to turn around. When each mass faces in different directions, you will see twisting movements. When the body is in action, the body centerline becomes curved. This line can also be called the action line. When the body bends or twists, it creates angles or curves between each mass. If the body is in standing position, you will see the level of each mass forming a 90-degree right angle to the spine — the centerline of the body. When the body bends forward, it brings the front of the chest and the front 8 M CHAPTER 1 of the pelvis close together to form an angle, while stretching the distance between the back of the chest and pelvis, forming a curved line. When the body bends to either side, it brings one side of the chest and one side of the pelvis close together, forming an angle between them, and stretches the dis- tance between the other side of the chest and pelvis, forming a curved line. You will see the same pattern when the body bends backward. When the body is in a twisting position, the body centerline and the outline of the body become curvy lines rather than sharp angles. The three masses can be turned and twisted in different directions within spine limitations, but the chest and pelvis always move in opposite directions from each other in order to keep the body in balance; otherwise, the body would fall. A small turn of the body gives some action to the figure. A full or exaggerated turn or twisting of the 1-7 The Body Masses and Their Movements The head, chest, and pelvis are joined together by the spine and move independently of one another. Make the blocks move in different directions to add dramatic excitement and personality to the figure. Drawing the Figure M 9 body increases the dramatic action and attitude of the character, and gives a loud or screaming emotional statement. Try to manipulate these three masses by turning them in different directions, allowing them to speak for your characters’ actions. When you make the three masses face different directions (see Figure 1-8), you will immediately see your character alive and active. It is essential in character drawing to es- tablish the relationships of the head to the torso, the head to the neck, the head to the chest, and the chest to the pelvis. These relationships portray a great deal of the personality of the character. 1-8 Turning the Three Body Masses This side of the body is stretched. This side of the body is stretched. This side of the body forms an angle. Body bending forward When the body is in a twisting position, the body centerline becomes curvy rather than angular. This side of the body forms an angle. This side of the body forms an angle. Body bending backward Body bending to the side Body in a twisting position 10 M CHAPTER 1 The Relationships between the Limbs and Body Masses We have discussed how the arms are joined to the chest, and how the legs are joined to the hipbone/ pelvis. Therefore, when the chest and pelvis move in different directions, the arms should follow the chest as a unit, and the legs should follow the pelvis as a unit. The limbs cannot be considered as separate objects from their units (see Figure 1-9). For example, when the body is in an erect standing position, the chest and pelvis masses are in horizontal lines parallel to each other. The joints of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist as well as the joints of the hip, knee, and ankle will be parallel to their units. But when the chest moves in a direction that makes the right side of the shoulder higher than the left side, the right shoulder and arm will go higher as well. When many students draw this position, they draw the arms at the same level. They forget the arms are connected to the chest mass. Arm and leg movements also partially control the levels of the chest and pelvis. When one arm rises higher than the other arm, the shoulder of the rising arm will go higher. When one leg supports the weight of the body, this leg will push this side of the pelvis higher and in a tilted position. The pelvis can be pushed up because the flexible lumbar spine allows the pelvis to be tilted. The relaxed-leg side of the pelvis line and hipline will be dropped. The nonsupporting leg usually steps forward, keeping a relaxed or bending position to compensate for the length of the weighted leg and the drop of the pelvis mass. Most costume designers create their figures for designing costumes without live models. They draw the figures from their heads or from reference books or magazines. Once you understand how the human structure and joints work, you will feel at ease and comfortable with your drawings. You will be able to create your own characters of motion in a variety of positions in order to demonstrate the costumes and personalities of the roles in the play. THE BALANCE OF THE BODY The human body is uniquely and symmetrically balanced. The human body also has a natural balance ability. The weight of the body often swings back and forth from one leg to the other when the body is walking. When the body is turning or twisting, it creates angles and curves in order to keep the body balanced. This principle is like the balance in a sculptured object. If the bottom portion of the sculpture leans to one side, then the top portion of the sculpture must lean in the opposite direction to maintain the balance of the whole piece. To create a more sophisticated sense of movements or actions, define the body language by employing twisted angles and curves faced in different directions. To keep the body well-balanced, locate the center of gravity for the figure. These are the important elements in helping us understand and draw human figures. Keep the movement liquid and the balance solid. Weight on Both Legs The spine is the centerline of the body, from where all body parts are symmetrically balanced. The joints of the body are lined up and parallel to each other. Due to the force of gravity, no matter how the body moves, there is always a center of gravity line from the pit of the neck directly down to the ground. This gravity line will never change to curved or angled, but the body centerline will change to curved when the body is in action. Drawing the Figure M 11 1-9 The Relationships between the Limbs and the Three Masses The chest and arms move as a unit. When the body is in action, the body centerline becomes curved. The spine controls the movements and turning directions of the head, chest, and pelvis. The arm and leg movements control the levels of the chest and pelvis. The weight-supporting leg pushes the pelvis in a tilted position. The pelvis and legs move as a unit. 12 M CHAPTER 1 When the body is standing straight, all body weight is distributed equally on two legs (see Figure 1-10). The body centerline is straight. The center of gravity line overlaps with the body centerline, starting from the pit of the neck and extending directly down between the middle of the two feet to the ground, whether the feet are in a closed or open position. All the horizontal lines (the shoulder line, bustline, waistline, pelvis line, hipline) are parallel to the ground and form 90-degree angles with the body centerline. Figures 1-11 through 1-16 are design samples showing weight on both legs. 1-10 Weight on Both Legs The pit of the neck is the center of gravity line and the body centerline. The crotch is at 1/2 the height of the body. The elbow is at 1/2 the length of the arm. The kneecap is at 1/2 the length of the leg. The center of gravity line falls midway between the feet. The weight on both legs All the horizontal body lines are parallel to the ground and form 90-degree angles with the center of gravity line.

Author Tan Huaixiang Isbn 9780240805344 File size 17 Mb Year 2004 Pages 304 Language English File format PDF Category Drawing Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare This book is very detailed in showing how to draw the human figure and facial features… it has greatly improved my ability to draw for costume and fashion. I’d recommend this book to anyone who needs a little help with drawing a human form with garments and attitude. It made a HUGE difference for me.     Download (17 Mb) Draw Cartoon People In 4 Easy Steps: Then Write A Story (drawing In 4 Easy Steps) By Stephanie Labaff How to Draw What You See, 35th Anniversary Edition Force: Dynamic Life Drawing for Animators How To Draw Amazing Animals (smithsonian Drawing Books) Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain, 4th edition Load more posts

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