Art in Motion: Musical and Athletic Motor Learning and Performance by Adina Mornell

495a7b9822b6be0-261x361.jpg Author Adina Mornell
Isbn 9783631582725
File size 36MB
Year 2010
Pages 264
Language English
File format PDF
Category art


Art in (Ed.) Art in Motion Motion Art in Motion • Musical & Athletic Motor Learning & Performance Art in Motion miH Him Musical & Athletic Motor Learning & Performance (Ed.) PETER LANG Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften Bibliographic Information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data is available on the internet at Editor: Adina Mornell Cover Art: Detlef Levin (Cantabile e libero, oil on canvas) Reviewer: Kelly O’Kane Book Design: Capdance ( ‘For the Eye to Dance is Much Delight’ E-ISBN 978-3-653-05166-7 (E-Book) DOI 10.3726/978-3-653-05166-7 ISBN 978-3-631-58272-5 © Peter Lang GmbH Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften Frankfurt am Main 2009 All rights reserved. All parts of this publication are protected by copyright. Any utilisation outside the strict limits of the copyright law, without the permission of the publisher, is forbidden and liable to prosecution. This applies in particular to reproductions, translations, microfilming, and storage and processing in electronic retrieval systems. • Table of Contents Foreword Georg Schulz Preface Robert Höldrich Art and Thought in Motion Adina Mornell 7 7 7 7 8 11 Strategies for Pianist Improvisers Walter Norris 19 I 37 Thought Set in Motion Matthias Weigelt & Tino Stöckel Principles of Practice for the Development of Skilled Actions: Implications for Training and Instruction in Music Richard A. Schmidt 41 I 68 Thought Set in Motion Mona Silli Playing Beyond the Limits of Health: Loss and Regain of Hand Control in Professional Musicians Suffering from Musicians’ Cramp Victor Candia 71 I 7 5 Thought Set in Motion Elisabeth Grabner Attentional and Motivational Influences on Motor Performance and Learning Gabriele Wulf & Rebecca Lewthwaite I Thought Set in Motion Mona Silli 91 95 118 6 Him 7 7 7 Thought Set in Motion Klaus Rom 143 The Role of Anticipatory Processes in Simulator Based Training of Complex Psychomotor Skills K. Wolfgang Kallus 147 I 158 Thought Set in Motion Adina Mornell The Architecture of Motion Thomas Schack 161 I 188 Thought Set in Motion Christian Frauscher Teaching Music Physiology and Motor Learning Processes at a University: Experience and Evaluation Horst Hildebrandt 191 I 7 • Beating Time: The Role of Kinaesthetic Learning in the Development of Mental Representations for Music Jane Ginsborg 121 I 7 Art in Motion miH Thought Set in Motion Susanne Herwelly & K. Wolfgang Kallus 223 Perceptual and Attentional Influences on Bimanual Coordination Charles H. Shea, Attila J. Kovacs & John J. Buchanan 227 I Thought Set in Motion Adina Mornell Contributors 254 257 • Georg Schulz 7 Foreword The University of Music and Performing Arts Graz (KUG) organizes lecture series and symposiums featuring experts from around the world. These events both facilitate a direct exchange of ideas between our international guests and our resident professionals, as well as provide our junior scientists with a communicative forum in which to present their research results. Graz has thus become a location for serious scholarship, and our university has established itself within the scientific community. Art in Motion is a prime example of breathing life into the strategic policy put forth in our three-year development plan for the years 2009 to 2012: here written theory became live experience. Participants of all academic standings, from diverse nations of both the American and European continents, brought knowledge to discussions that grappled with important research questions and crossed disciplinary lines. This book goes far beyond the academic proceedings one usually expects from a symposium. The aim of this publication is not only to present the content of the talks, refined and revised after feedback received in Graz, but it also aims to reflect the interdisciplinary discussions that ensued during the course of the event. I personally appreciate and acclaim the effort made here to provide practical examples as to how the presented information can “cross over” to the other side: from sports to music or from music to sports. Of the basic responsibilities and missions of any university, one of the most important is to provide the public with a lasting record of the scientific and academic discourse that takes place within its walls. Anchored in the stated goals of our institution is a strong emphasis upon this kind of work; we are committed to making a substantial contribution to the scientific community as well as to future generations of music teachers and performers through publications such as this one. I wish to extend my personal gratitude to Professor Mornell and her team for their tireless dedication to this project. Both their organization of the symposium and the conceptualization of this book serve to establish performance research as one of the primary fields of scientific exploration at the KUG. Georg Schulz Rector, University of Music and Performing Arts Graz Him 8 Art in Motion miH • Preface During the last few years, a new discourse has come into being on the university scene in Europe. This discourse, distinct from conventional scientific research, increasingly appreciates artistic works and reflects an independent path of understanding, and consequently, broadens the definition of what research stands for. The definition process, however, is far from complete. Catchwords such as “artistic research,” “practicebased art research,” “practice as research,” “art as research,” or “research/ creation” are topical in current discussions. The Austrian legislature has identified this kind of research, known as the “development and unfolding of the arts,” as a key mission of Austrian universities of the arts, and has put it on a level equal to traditional scientific research. Even national advancement institutions such as the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) have responded to this development and are currently preparing special advancement programs for artistic research. However, what is “artistic research?” Even though the meaning of this or of other terms in use has not been precisely defined, the main characteristics can still be outlined. These days it becomes evident that many artistic activities share some structural similarities with scientific research, and integrate their results into the conceptualization of works of art and the development of new forms of art. This form of artistic activities is less work-oriented but focuses on the processes of creation of art. As proof of this concept, the work of art itself, be it a concert, a stage production, or a composition, is surely to be found at the end of this process in many cases. In the context of artistic research, however, it does not really gain importance as original subjective work, but rather constitutes an instantiation of a concept applicable intersubjectively in principle. Although artistic methods are genre-specific and are realized in concrete art productions mostly in an individual and subjective way, the creative process and its reception can be reflected and documented intersubjectively. Owing to this intersubjectivity, artistic research, in contrast to traditional scientific research (e.g., literary studies, art history, or musicology) brings about a gain of knowledge which is nourished by the interaction between artistic practice and its reflection, and by scientific methods whose results are made available to the artistic discourse and scientific research. Artistic research often leads to the formulation of scientific questions, as in music performance research, or to technological innovations in the framework of the development of art forms like media • Robert Höldrich 9 art or computer music. Primarily, however, it stands for the production of artistic knowledge enhanced by the richness of its methods. Such necessary richness of methods requires a paradigmatic change in the conception of this kind of research work and also in university education. In most cases, the exclusive mission of artistic education – at least in Europe – has been individual “mastery” in the respective discipline and often uses very pragmatic solutions to the obstacles that occur in its path. It hardly pays attention to questions regarding the production of knowledge and the methods involved, from establishing hypotheses to the conception of appropriate “experiments.” For science, dealing with the subjectivity of artistic work and its valuation and the lack of recognized methods for objectivation and documentation of artistic processes is the greatest challenge. This calls for cooperation between interdisciplinary teams which places great demands on the artists and scientists involved, i.e., the mutual understanding of the modes of practice and methods of the other disciplines, the knowledge of its possibilities and limits, the development of a common vocabulary as a basis for interdisciplinary relevant research programs, and in particular, the understanding that the combination of artistic practice and scientific research constitutes a source of novel findings for both worlds. Is there a better place for such research programs in the area of conflict between art and science than a university of the arts? The University of Music and Performing Arts Graz considers itself lucky to have a research project like “Art in Motion” which examines this interface between practice and research in exchange with the international community. My appreciation and special debt of gratitude are owed to the project manager of “Art in Motion” and editor of this book, Adina Mornell! Robert Höldrich Vice Rector of Arts and Research University of Music and Performing Arts Graz Him 10 Not Art in Motion miH • • Adina Mornell 11 Art and Thought in Motion Recently I found myself at an international symposium on music pedagogy being affectionately introduced as the odd duck. The organizer began with a few words about my stage experience as a classical concert pianist, and went on to describe my academic career as professor of instrumental and vocal pedagogy, but these two elements of my biography were not surprising. It was my third profession, that of scientist, that he was presenting as something … well … suspicious. “And she is a psychologist who studies physiology and motor learning,” he continued, picking up speed, “working with people in the sports sciences …” I felt the pressure of many eyes turning towards and focusing on me. Perhaps the others were trying to figure out how all of that fit into one 5 foot 2 package, when the announcer concluded “and conducting empirical research, collecting and analyzing data.” It was then that I heard an unidentifiable sound, perhaps a murmur, in the audience. Astonishment? Disdain? Skepticism? Nervousness? Maybe I should have worn a white lab coat. Was it my own imagination, or did the rest of this colorful crowd of musicians and music teachers feel that something set me apart from them? I felt their apprehension, their distrust. The majority of musicians just aren’t certain that art and science mix. Of course they do. About two years ago, I had quite a wonderful experience when I approached top researchers in the field of athletics, psychology, expertise, human factors, aviation and music. World famous professors, some of whom had not corresponded with me before, answered my emails within hours or welcomed me into their offices. Their response to my inquiry about transferring motor learning research to musicians didn’t begin with surprise, but rather with phrases such as “I’ve always wanted to study that.” No hesitation, no muttering under their breath, no sizing me up. Within minutes (or sentences) we had reached common ground, agreed that musicians execute some of the most complex motor skills Homo sapiens can perform, and that many disciplines had developed some brilliant learning, training, and performing strategies that deserved to be exchanged. Rather quickly I had a consensus from both the arts and science “camps,” that this form of research needed a jump-start, and would greatly profit from an exchange of ideas and methods. To be honest, I know that I wasn’t born with this kind of openness for interdisciplinary work. Nor did I display a knack for transferring knowledge from Him 12 Art in Motion miH • one sandbox to another at an early age. On the school playground, there were in fact very few games that I participated in at all. I was inevitably the last one chosen for the volleyball team. No surprise: I hid my hands behind my back when the ball came towards me. All those hours of piano practice about to be ruined by a broken finger or two, no thank you! In those days, I was still weighed down by myths and stereotypes: I thought that physical training requires mindless, monotone exercise, and that musicians are all essentially a creative species – even though much of what I was actually doing at the piano back then was repetitive practice, without a hint of experimentation. As with most skills, whether piano playing or gymnastics, practice patterns are set at an early age and very little is modified after that, especially if one is fairly successful. Indeed, this is one of the major problems in both musical and sports pedagogy. Since students learning to teach through university courses have reached their own certain level of expertise in their craft, they tend to believe that the training methods used by their teachers on them must have been effective and are therefore worth perpetuating. As for me, after decades of the same practice rituals, the point came at which I became dissatisfied with practice, practice, practice. Hours, days, years of effort produced reasonably good but not always reliable results. I started to ask the question: Is there more to a musician’s life than this? Exposure to new ideas was the first step in a different direction. My piano teachers had neither encouraged me to study books written for people in other professions, nor given me hints about how to think conceptually about practice. Looking back, I can forgive them, because they hadn’t been taught to think this way either. The act of reading Zen in the Art of Archery (Herrigel, 1948), one of the first non-music related books to be passed around the locker room of conservatories, isn’t enough. One may need specific instructions about how to apply the interesting content of such a book, in this case about mental training, to one’s own instrumental practice. For example, in order to transfer an exercise from sports to music or vice versa, one first has to recognize the basic principles or concepts underlying the human behavior pattern being addressed. Studied from a meta-level or bird’s eye view, one must ask the questions: What is the goal of this exercise? What elements of motor movement, cognition • Adina Mornell 13 (mental representation), and/or emotion are being addressed? What is the method being applied? How can this same method be used for my instrument, my task, or my challenge? Without these interim steps of abstraction and structural analysis, no transfer is possible and no new behavior likely. From my experience working with highly skilled music students, who find it difficult to squeeze out an hour or two away from their practice to attend a lecture, I know how difficult these tasks of abstraction and analysis are. Most student learning takes place on a procedural level, i.e., through repetition. For them, the word “analysis” is associated with music theory, not with a comprehensive look at their own behavior. It’s comfortable to sit back and listen to someone describe a new or unusual exercise, nod in agreement, and then go back to the practice room and shift back into the old work mode with no change whatsoever. It takes creative energy in a several step process to transfer ideas from one discipline to another. And yet, when new forms of practice yield unexpected and stable results, one can become addicted to doing something “new,” although old habits remain hard to break and will continue to surface now and again. Unfortunately, it’s part of human nature to be resistant to change. Homeostasis, or staying the same, saves energy, which reduces danger to the organism. This may be a good strategy for survival in the wilderness, yet counterproductive for someone training for the concert stage or the Olympics! And in addition to our biology, we are not socialized to look for new angles to the musician’s everyday challenges, to “think outside the box.” Musicians are taught that, when in doubt, do what those before us did: keep working, practice more. The drive to go beyond the natural “law” of least effort (Ericsson, 2002, p. 49), which is the ability to find and apply new practice strategies, may be an explanation for why some athletes and musicians are great and others are just good. Some continue to strive for even higher goals, experimenting with new methods, while others remain fixed on that which they have already accomplished or what they know can be done. Kaizen, Japanese for “the process of continual self-improvement,” may be known to those studying Japanese management culture, or to some athletes (Goodgame, 2000), yet is rarely discussed in connection with musicians. But in our times of global competition and flawless recordings available online, no one can afford to stand still – especially not artists. Him 14 Art in Motion miH • I am convinced that someday soon experts in all fields will know about principles of motor learning: they will understand what mental representations are and how to modify them, comprehend anticipatory processes, be able to optimize attention, increase self-efficacy, be aware of health issues, and teach following generations in such a way that they don’t develop performance anxiety and stage fright in the ways previous generations have. Even musicians will become interested in innovation and interact and learn from one another instead of isolating themselves and practicing repetitive exercises until their muscles ache. My students do respond positively after trying out my sometimes crazy games, aimed at having them experience alternative learning strategies, or after listening to me play the piano for them, demonstrating scientific practice techniques through music. And yes, there was indeed a spontaneous roar of applause after my presentation at the symposium mentioned at the start of this chapter, and enthusiastic and often personal comments to me during the following coffee break. People may be stubborn by nature, but their brains are built to appreciate novelty, and they are intellectually and emotionally charged to discover something new. In this spirit, I hope you will enjoy this book. A brief reader’s guide Now that you are familiar with the agenda and mind-set of this book, here is a brief description of the themes that you will encounter in the main chapters of this book: The overture is provided by Walter Norris’ essay, which I would 7 like to call philosophical pedagogy. Here are some elements of his very personal approach to motor learning at the piano, developed over decades of practicing performing both jazz and classical music. Richard Schmidt’s basic research in the field of motor learning has 7 shaped the work of generations of sports scientists, and now he has the chance to influence a new population, that of musicians, committed to understanding the principles he has unearthed. 7 Victor Candia brings his background as a musician and neuroscientist to the challenge of deciphering a very mystifying yet terrifying illness that befalls virtuosos: musicians’ cramp. • Adina Mornell 15 Gabriele Wulf and Rebecca Lewthwaite have teamed up here, 7 combining their individual expertise to tackle two of the most essential issues in both sports and music: attention and motivation. 7 Jane Ginsborg picks up the discussion of mental representations that has been running through many of the previous chapters. Her study looked at singers – a group of musicians one would least associate with motor learning, since their body is their instrument and their technique is hidden from the observer. 7 Quite the opposite is the case with pilots, whose success and failure, as presented in K. Wolfgang Kallus’ chapter, is highly visible to the public. Here the role of practice and anticipatory processes in the psychophysiology of performance is explored. 7 Thomas Schack uses the topics of motor leaning and mental representation to create a model of cognitive architecture for human motor performance. His findings have important implications for development of mental practice methods, something that is a major theme in the prevention of injuries. Musicians’ medicine and music physiology are central to Horst 7 Hildebrandt’s work. Training intervention in the form of (self-) instruction is the focus of his research and the courses he offers to musicians at his university. The final pages of this book return to empirical motor learning 7 research. Charles Shea looks at the integration of information provided to the performer about both perception and motor movement. He uses scientific measurement to analyze motor feats often attributed to intuitive approaches such as those described by Norris. • I To provide a synthesis of theory and practice, as well as a juxtaposition of music and sports, writers from diverse walks of life were invited to react to the main chapters. Their essays are called Thought Set in Motion, and offer some additional perspectives through which to view or reflect on the themes presented. Him 16 Art in Motion miH • Sources of inspiration, catalysts, and helping hands My special gratitude goes to Gabriele Wulf for her assistance, inviting and motivating several of the world-class specialists involved in this book to participate in this project. Kelly O’Kane’s contribution should also be lauded. Beyond proofreading and unifying the language and style of the book, he was our test screener for coherence and understandability. Mona Silli, Elisabeth Kappel and Daniela Hölbling provided support along the two year road we traveled from the initial point of inspiration, through the symposium, and on to this publication. I also wish to mention two people who were instrumental in the financing of this endeavor through the appropriate grant proposals: Sieglinde Roth and Robert Höldrich. Their professional help and personal interest was invaluable. In addition to receiving funds from the University of Music and Performing Arts Graz, endorsed by both the present and former presidents, Georg Schulz and Otto Kolleritsch, this project was supported by the Mayor of Graz, Siegfried Nagel, the City of Graz, and the Department of Science of the State of Stryia, Land Steiermark. This publication was made possible by a grant from the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science and Research. Yet neither the symposium nor the book would have materialized without the support, encouragement, and advice of Detlef Levin, who served as the aesthetic leader of the project – the eye leading the ears, so to speak – and who continually provides an example for me in his approach to life and art. Each and every of the 19 authors have contributed their own enthusiasm and openness, which is why this book offers so much food for thought. It’s meant to pose questions rather than deliver answers. If it does so, and inspires interdisciplinary, interdepartmental exchange and research projects, then we will all have reached our goal. Adina Mornell Graz, in May 2009 • Adina Mornell 17 References Ericsson, K. A. (2002). Attaining excellence through deliberate practice: Insights from the study of expert performance. In M. Ferrari (Ed.), The pursuit of excellence through education (pp. 21-55). Mahway, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Goodgame, D. (2000). The game of risk: How the best golfer in the world got even better. Time, 156(7), 38-44. Herrigel, E. (original German: 1948, English translation: 1953) Zen in the Art of Archery. New York: Pantheon Books. Him 18 Not ju s t Art in Motion miH •

Author Adina Mornell Isbn 9783631582725 File size 36MB Year 2010 Pages 264 Language English File format PDF Category Art Book Description: FacebookTwitterGoogle+TumblrDiggMySpaceShare Musicians tend to believe that the mystery of their art cannot be objectively studied, quantified, or explained. As a result, the term «motor learning» is rarely used in connection with musicians, and an empirical approach to musical performance is more the exception than the rule. Sports scientists, however, show a great interest in musicians because of their advanced skill level and the attentional and emotional demands of the concert stage. This work combines knowledge across disciplines. Advances toward an understanding of human behavior and cognition offer clues to strategies of motor learning and performance that promote the well-being of musicians and athletes. This book provides a forum for an interdisciplinary exchange of research, laying the groundwork for future projects.     Download (36MB) Playing to the Camera: Musicians and Musical Performance in Documentary Cinema Music and Dyslexia: A Positive Approach New Perspectives in Music Education in Slovenia A Pianist’s Dictionary Distributed Creativity Load more posts

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