Architecture Of The Western World by Michael Raeburn

915691bba639387.jpg Author Michael Raeburn
Isbn 978-0856130595
File size 74.7 MB
Year 1984
Pages 304
Language English
File format PDF
Category architecture


\ \ originally \ published \ \ at $40.00 \ \ \ \ \ ARCHITECTURE \ OF THE WESTERN WOILD ^ Edited by Michael Raeburn With a foreword by Sir Hugh Casson This history of western architecture extends well beyond merely surveying major buildings and styles: it new ways of The expert introduces the reader to seeing and understanding them. contributors look at the buildings of each era from ancient Greece to the present day, tracing the development of architecture within each period in turn. For example, they examine the masterpieces • of Chartres Cathedral in the light of advances in medieval technology, and the houses of Frank Lloyd Wright in the context of the social and aesthetic upheavals of the early twentieth century. Attention is also paid to the often neglected aspects of vernacular houses and town planning. The history that emerges is thoughtfully and refreshingly told in a clear visual and factual style. It provides an authoritative reference book and a stimulating guide to a real appreciation and understanding of the buildings around us. Over 400 carefully selected color and black and white photographs complement the text and in themselves present a visual record of architectural history. Specially commissioned drawings analyze in detail the construction of several major monuments and give explanatory accounts of key technological developments, such as the vaults and arches of Roman times and the combination of glass and steel in the nineteenth century. Front cover: The Guggenheim Museum, New York, designed in 1942 by Frank Lloyd Wright, and completed in I960. Photo Angelo Hornak Back cover: Fourteenth-century fan vaulting of the cloisters of Gloucester Cathedral. Photo Angela Hornak 1 11 » '. Jwm^, BOSTOtg PUBLIC tlBRARY i ARCHITECTURE OF THE WESTERN WORLD -i:*JL \ > ARCHITECTURE OF THE WESTERN WORLD I t I Edited and with an introduction by Michael Raeburn 'V -^^r^ I ^C Foreword by Sir Hugh Casson Individual chapters by J.]. Coulton, Michael Grant Nicola Coldstream, Bruce Boucher Neil MacGregor, John Maule .*»• Charles McKean McKean If S^ CRESCENT BOOKS New York ^-^ Half title page: Roman stele portraying an architect holding the instruments of his profession. Title page: The Piazza del Popolo, at Ascoli Piceno in central Italy, is a classic example of Renaissance town planning in its attempt to impose a rational uniformity onto a chaotic medieval commercial centre (which itself was the site of the ancient forum). Clearly demonstrating Alherti's architectural dominated by the church and palazzo, while the loggia, built principles, the piazza is round it in the early years alt of the sixteenth century, serves to disguise the irregularities of the older buildings. © 1980 by Orbis Publishing; Limited I'irst I'^nglish edition published by Orbis Publishing Limited, London 1980 All rij;hts reserved This 1984 edition is published by Creseent Books, distributed b\' (^rown Publishers, Ine. h j; f e d Printed in Italy e b a CONTENTS 7 FOREWORD Sir 9 Hugh Casson INTRODUCTION Michael Raeburn 41 GREEK ARCHITECTURE J.J. 61 Coulton ROMAN ARCHITECTURE Michael (irant 81 THE MIDDLE AGES Nicola Coldstream 129 THE RENAISSANCE Bruce Boucher t6i baroque, rococo AND CLASSICISM Neil 201 MacGregor THE FIRST INDUSTRIAL AGE John Maule McKean 245 THE TWENTIETH CENTURY Charles 290 McKean GLOSSARY compiled by Michael Raeburn 295 FURTHER READING 297 ACKNOWLEDGMFNTS 298 INDEX — FOREWORD by A view throii'^h the gateway into the northern forecourt of Kirby Hall, Northamptonshire, England. Kirhy ivas built largely in the iS70s, but this gate and the facade behind icere probably executed in 16^8—40 bv the stoneniaso)! Nicholas Stone The broken pediment with a coat- the Elder. of-arms and the mouldings of the uindoics on the north facade itself recall aspects of Inigo Jones's architecture as well as designs published by the sixteenth-centiny architect, Serlio. Kirby has been unlived end of the eighteenth century. in since the Sir Hugh Casson it has been said, begins at home. That is the place where we feel at where the roots grow from which we draw our moral and cultural strength. Architecture, ease, Not surprisingly therefore the beginnings of architecture — like the structural — are usually ingenuity of the birds and insects that preceded our own efforts respectful of climate and terrain, firmly practical, but anonymous, deeply touched always with creative imagination. These qualities, often overlooked by those historians who are the prisoners of prejudice or dogma, or who prefer (in Rudofsky's phrase) the company of buildings from the Social Register, are eternally valid, as the examples in all shapes, sizes and uses illustrated on the following pages so clearly show. From these we can see and understand that all man-made buildings, whether as humble as a hut or as imposing as a palace, must stand upon the double foundation of function and symbolism; they must be subject first to the parameters of human needs, of climate and current technology (all usually calculable), and secondly to which is physiological, moral, backward- or forward-looking the imagery fortunately so difficult to predict, and thus ensures so endless a variety of form. the discipline of proportion and But this is not all. The articulation of space fashion, privilege or politics influences of State and Church, of geometry; the are all elements in the history of architecture which must be analysed and assessed if that architecture is to be fully enjoyed. In such turbulent currents we all need guidance from experts, from scholars who can infuse their learning with perceptive passion, and who can interpret for us in detail the references and subcodes by which the development of architecture has throughout the centuries been enricheci. Such are the experts who contribute to these pages and thus also to our knowledge and after that to our understanding. For in architecture- as in everything else the more we know, the more we will be rewarded. In commending most warmly this historical review of the buildings of the add a warning postscript? Architecture, it must be western world may remembered, cannot properly be appreciated on the printed page, however lively or knowledgeable, nor even in fact by the eye alone. It has to be experienced by all four indeed if you include (as would) the senses and in all its three dimensions the dimension of time. The purpose of this book, therefore, isnot just to inform, to delight or even just to open the eyes a little wider to the familiar (and thus so often to the unseen). It is an invitation to all of us to go out and to explore the buildings and spaces that surround us, and to experience them for ourselves as often as we can. — — — — — 1 — I . INTRODUCTION Miiny of tijc c'leitu'iils that make iij) BorroDiiiii, in the i'.olle'^e of the Idith in Koine. I Looking through the pictures the lan^ua^e of ivestern drchitcctttrc cm he see>i the Chapel of the Three Kiii^is, iG6z-^, by in of the Propagation he (ireek Orders appear in the use of tiveh'e Ionic pilasters to support an entablature that breaks forirard over the capitals ami ciirres iiround the corners. The use of intersecting equilateral triangles to dictate the plan of the chapel, to define the vault (Trinity, and to point the Three Kings), is symbolism derived from Gothic architecture, while the undulating walls and marked diagonals activate the space, enhancing beauty with life. symmetry with movement book, the reader will appreciate the rich variety of buildings within the western tradition, but the variety is less remarkable than the continuity, the essential unity of this tradition. The same architectural forms and the same language of criticism have kept reappearing, to be reinterpreted by succeeding generations, hi music the thread leading from antiquity was broken, and Renaissance musicians had to reconstruct what they believed the system of the ancients to have been; but in architecture not only was there a living tradition of building there was was also a theoretical the treatise On in this and many actual survivals of classical architecture, work preserved intact from the ancient world. This Architecture written in retirement by the engineer and architect Vitruvius Pollio. The ideas Vitruvius expressed and the terms he used basis for much still Roman military form, even today, the architectural theorizing and controversy. In the Hrst place he recognized that there are three different requirements of a building: that it should it must have a practical function (iitilitas), be structurally sound (firmitas), that should be beautiful {I'enustas). Separate histories could be, and have been, written about each of these three aspects, but the authors of this book will show how the final form of a building depends on all three, though at different times one strand, the technological, the social or the aesthetic may be dominant. Our aim is to enable the reader to enjoy more fully the experience of looking at buildings, being in them and moving through them, by a better understanding of and that it the language of architecture. Vitruvius' book is in many ways maddening, but it does provide a constant thread through architectural history. It was written principally about Cireek architecture, and the parts devoted to architecture rather than military engineering are translated from works by Greek theorists, which Vitruvius did nor fully understand. He muddled together ideas from different sources, even when they it is in part his very obscurity, his openness to contradicted each other, but reinterpretation, that has ensured his survival. I'he most important themes that book are the definitions of the classical Orders (seep. 43), theories on a modular system, on simple geometry and on the human of proportion based derive from his body, and aesthetic definitions relating to harmon\ and proportions such as 'disposition', 'distribution', 'symmetry' and 'eurhythmy'. Over fifty manuscript copies of the book have survived from the Middle Ages, and it seems certain that it was used as a textbook by medieval architects, largely for the geometrical ideas it contains. INTRODUCTION lo In the early Renaissance Brunelleschi and Alberti compared Vitriivius' rules with existing ruins of Roman buildings, and De Re Alberti's influential treatise was more or catoria Vitruvius. Alberti Roman of the is less a Aedifi- rewriting of scathing about some architect's stupidities, but the spread and development of Renais- sance architecture would have been unthinkable without his theoretical Even the in mid-nineteenth thinker "progressive and basis. century architect a like drawings or models, except for tion than The extraordinary the design of details. Greek temple form from the western Mediterranean to the Turkish coast must be due very largely to the widespread diffusion of these rules of proportion. The development of txTodimensional representation of groundplans and elevations was also extremely important, though as a medium of transmission it has often proved unreliable. In unity of the particular, it has often concentrated de- form and multiplied examples. The architect was bewildered, but the painstaking illustrations ensured that whatever pattern he followed he could follow correctly, at least so far as the exterior The development was concerned. of photography has, anything, increased confusion. Modern Movement pioneering the spatial concept, the colour, the scale, velopments book Der Stil with a discussion of symmetry and eurhythmy, and Le Corbusier's buildings, since the interior space Modular, published in 1950, is an attempt to create a new, more flexible scale of proportions based on the human figure, to ideas that coidd be represented by simple periodicals has speeded up the drawings have often been most cation of much more exterior the so is but difficult to represent, of new influential. of buildings sometimes led to imitations that have misjudged almost every factor - the siting, Gottfried Semper was able to start his on if ideal- photographs black-and-white ized The even the materials. At the same time, the extensive publication of photographs, drawings plans, and specifications in communi- new ideas between architects; new developments and new move- but supersede the Vitruvian system codified by During the Middle Ages geometrical rules and drawings of details were both the Renaissance. used; but with the invention of printing speed that the revolutionary architect has many more found Treatises and theoretical works ha\e been means ideas, and one only architectural of the handing on medium of transmission has often dictated the even- is much lively often wildly inappropriate detail, especi- northern Europe and ally in Spanish in of lands, can be attributed to unsophisticated the actual study of other buildings, copying from these books. Where faithful tual form. ideas The most obvious source became and architectural treatises widely available, and would — and — then the study of models and of two- copying dimensional produce a sterile architecture, the misunderstandings and accretions often produced new authentic local styles. From the middle of the eighteenth century books began to be produced which illustrated representations, the finally adoption of rules or systems. The rules of proportion developed by the Greeks, like complex systems of geometry in the Gothic period, were used the often developed principally for practical purposes. Where no fixed standards of measurement, rules were likely to prove a far more effective means of accurate communicathere were not elsewhere did just the prevailing style of the time, all periods and all peoples, and the museum mentality of the nine- but the styles of teenth century classified, sub-classified These illustrations demonstrate ways in which two-dimensional representations of architecture hare been important in solving technical problems; in disseminating desi}>,ns; in tntliiencinii taste; ?i*r CM yrr ^nm la and to l he draicin{>,s in p» rcf Aim ioer's 'Der Stil' ( ;.SY)0-6?j shows the use of colour in a moulding of the \ 2. 'Theseion' at Athens. Semper wanted to get Riiiht 1 i~7n'isiL"^fi^'«fw above: This 'Doric' door and appear window Muet's version (164s) of Palladio's 'First Book of .Architecture', in l.e thoufih not III WilLidio's ori^innil. I he Italian away from the slavish copying of old styles, and by analysing the formative elements find a new style that was appropriate to own time. to his INTRODUCTION n oizcn responsible for the design and for supervising the various contractors, and were given the credit for the that they Roman authorship of the buildings. In more in the Middle Ages, was moved HrniK' from his times, and even architect tile place as an artist Arts — —trained in the Liberal to a place as a technician — trained the Mechanical Arts. Buildings of these in periods are more often assigned to their patron than to their architect, and in some cases the patron took a leading role in the supervision of the construction. The roof of the abbey church at St Denis (1140s), needed timbers over metres {^5 10 feet) long for the tie-beams, and Abbot Suger, patron of the building, when informed by his master carpenters and his foresters that such long timbers were unobtainable near at hand, himself led a search through 'Towards the first hour we found one timber adequate to the measure. Why say more? By the ninth hour or sooner, we had, through the thickets, the depths of the forest and the dense, thorny the woods. tangles, so marked down twelve timbers many were (for necessary) to the astonish- ment of all. However, the names of many of the .' . . medieval master builders are known to us, payments made to them show that they were very highly regarded. They were in a real sense architectand details of engineers, masters of their craft, but the idea of the artist as such did not exist then. The abbe\s that the master scale of the great cathedrals, was such seldom saw their plans fully carried out, and there was clearly no and castles builders sense of their plan being in itself a work of which nothing could be added and from which nothing could be taken away. Throughout the Middle Ages the indi\idual building was often treated more like a whole complex, with plans being modified and modernized as it grev\', the whole subordinated to a concept, some- art, to THE ARCHITECT The role of many ways the modern different architect in the past, t ri is in from that of the akhough of self-assertion architect the essential angular relationship of patron -architect the military aspiring to be an artist, and engineer some reasons he gives for needing this breadth of knowledge are rather for instance, sLirprising: music, necessary is primarily constructor remains unchanged. Vitruvius make demanded are under equal tension, so that of the architect that he should have both imagination and training and that, as well as understanding both the practical and theoretical aspects of construction, he should be versed in letters, drawing, the use of geometrical instruments, optics, arithmetic, histor\, philosophy, music, astronomy. There is medicine, law and something here of the of the to sure that both ropes of a catapult it will times worked industry recognition than less social ancient Cireece. There the names of preserveci, many and it architects seems that have been the\" were reveals a wonderfully complex vsorkmen, when in all with the restrictive rich in whole category times were good, indulging where reverberators known as echc'ia were used. Most Roman architects were probably trained as engineers and architects to a social structure, with the masons they received that specific building, of building. Studs of the medieval building shoot straight, but also to judge theatre acoustics, ou,t for sometimes applicable or practice, architect-engineers kinds of master winning rewards and earning great respect for work, but not the artist's laurels. The final accolade went to the ecclesiastical, municipal, noble or royal patron and to the Cliurch, the township, the d)nasty or the their C rown. It was 111 Itals, before the Renaissance, INTRODUCTION that the change began to take phtce. 13 The painter Giotto was 1334 appointed master mason to the cathedral and city of — Florence, and he designed the campanile Giotto's tower. By the middle of the in following century the humanist style was established in Italy and the architect was established as an artist. many of the From now on had artist-architects no specific architectural training at all, cer- through the craft-guild system of the Middle Ages, although in places where the Italian Renaissance style was tainly not not yet adopted architectural Jx'ft: I work was he fiftccnlh-iCiiltny linihcr roof ni is richly decorated with Ciurston, En^liiiid, tracery panels Right: and carved The bridge at figures of angels. Coalbrookdate, England. 1779, shoived both architects and engineers the structural possibilities of iron. Below: Lav brothers budding the church at Schomiu in the fifteenth ccnluiy under the supen'ision of the master mason with his rule and square. They are shown quarrying and transporting stone, using a crane to position a block of inasoniy, mi.xing cement, can-ing mouldings, and resting from their labours. hands of surveyors and of masons. Many of the earliest English books on architecture were designed for use by surveyors and illustrate still the in master the mathematical instruments they needed, but was the proliferation of architectural it made literature that it possible for the amateur to design buildings. The same basic knowledge was now in the hands ot gentleman-amateur and literate mason, builder or carpenter alike. The ished, of had not vanshould be remembered that architect-engineer and the it greatest three Baroque, two virtuosi of — Borromini the — and Guarini were trained in the Gothic tradition, and the other, Balthasar Neumann, was a military engineer. Neumann's Vierzehnwas com- heiligen (1742-72) (see p. 178), same decade that the pleted in the iron bridge at Coalbrookdale (1779) was erected, cast by Abraham Darby III and de- signed by the archuect T.F. Pntch.ird. lor the second half of the eighteenth century new and unprecedented dexelopThe British nidustrial rexohition brought into being a new class of sav\' a mciit. — This industrial architecture. building could not be catered for by the traditional methods used nor did it call gentlemanK architecture. for dwellings, for a display of INTRODUCTION 14 so was the engineers themselves who it stepped into the breach. Although when Schinkel, K.F. German the architect, was the work of the engineers which impressed him far more than the work of the architects, in the whole nineteenth-century cult of the Middle Ages the idea of the medieval architect-engineer was not revived. On the visiteci Britain in 1826 it contrary, the Gothicists were largely re- sponsible for the myth of medieval archi- immaculate conception from the self-effacing hand of tecture springing in a parallel the anonymous brother The or lay craftsmen. actual metre-wide gap between the hotel and the train-shed Station in London at St Pancras (see p. 215) perfectly represents the irreconcilable gap between and engineers architect The amateur architects. survived through the nine- still there a confusion. is rows of pseudo-vernacular suburban houses and the man masterminding the planning of a new airport, a new national theatre or even a new metropolis. Yet same time many great at the been made by the is name men who a particularly strong feeling for archi- which the architect has not played a dominant role, for buildings which are 'organic', for those which are not conformist, which show an imaginative handling of space, which relate to their natural or urban environment and to their tecture in social function. Greater interest shown the between traditional local styles. architectural grown in numbers to the registered architects in Britain, handling some £3,300 million worth of building work, and more than 60,000 practising architects in the USA. An important part of the engineering industry is also engaged construction. On a humbler level, hardly any building job can be undertaken without an architect to supply drawings to obtain in the necessary official permissions. we If all is being kinds outside especially, indigenous building styles of builder designing the houses he built in profession has of in architecture main western tradition and, western Europe. extent that there were by 1975 over 25,000 did not even go by of architect. At the present there rewards of speculative building and the new guild system of professional bodies killed off not only the amateur architect but also the master In the present century the architectural contri- butions to the history of architecture have in the local the too broad is executes draw- ings for teenth century, but, increasingly, official restrictions, The term man who that covers the Vernacular and the main vernacular tradition; draw to dis- a between 'architecture' and 'mere building' begs the question. It might perhaps be compared to folk music. In its more primitive forms it does not conform to any of the rules, the basic premises of mainstream architecture (in music the diatonic system), but can react upon it a period receptive to most fruitful ments. way and is by general influenced most Its its it, qualities, in a itself changed and stylistic develop- significant feature, could at least suggest a definition, which is that look back at the education Vitru vius recom- the contribution of the individual, whether mended his an for architect, it is not so inappropriate: knowledge of letters, ac- cording to the Roman architect, was re- name is known or not, is always less than the overriding features of the local style. A building whose individuality already quired to keep good records; philosophy to transcends improve the architect's character and keep him free from avarice; law to understand the regulations concerning light, noise, drainage and water supply, to be able to draw up fair contracts and to avoid liti- moved away from the essence of the vernacular. The factors which give verna- gation; medicine to be able to take considerations of climate and health into account; optics and music were required for cular the 2? that their diameter should he four times cm lighting and acoustics; his- tory to justify by precedent the designs of Wright's design. One soundness. Wright described his finished colonnade as creating 'the sense of physical weight dissolved in sluice'. Far right: I he form of this simple modern building, the studio at Charterhouse school, Surrey, England, by demonstrates its James Dartford, /9i(S', structural system: the pillars of the concrete frame are exposed in the of the loiver storey, and the brackets supporting the cantilevered upper storey are ii'alls while the ivide expanses of plaiiilv visible, window indicate that the walls do not bear this local architecture its has style form are social STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS The phssical stahilit)' on the materials used of a liiuldiiig depends aiul the structural Rough masonry walls need and the roof system they support has to be based on a beam which exerts pressure straight downwards through s\steni adopted. to be thick, the walls (top left). The cruck (top of wooden frame, centre), the simplest type is supports which meet formed of two curved at the point of the opposing weight of each one holding the other one up. In the box frame (top right) the mam roof, the mdependent self-supportmg members, but with the mam beams form rigid frame which absorbs the internal posts are not stresses within relies for stabilitx on the form and weight of its wedge-shaped voussoirs, each one transferring its own weight and the weight it supports to the one below it. VCliere the arch springs from the pier, part of the weight of the voussoirs pushes outwards and the walls need to be organization, climate, available materials \ery strong to resist this lateral thrust. and available skills in using them. Formal and decorative traditions will certainly play their part, but similarities in forms reduced the \olume of the solid used in different areas where no question of influence can arise suggest that this secondary consideration. It is a would be short space to give an a it. The stone arch The in\enri\eness of Ciothic engineers w.ill, creating a rib-cage of slender piers and arches which support the \ault and the glass rilled knowledge of (y in) column was erected and loaded with gravel and cement to demonstrate its structural architecture architecture, tinction in down the load of the building. without architects, is not easy to define, or, rather, it is hard to draw a clear line the combined the skills of and engineer. Each of the dendriform columns of the Johnson Wax Building {!')}(>-')) at Racine, Wisconsin, USA, was designed to carry a load of 12 tonnes (12 tons), hut Building Code regulations laid Right: t.L. Wright architect w.dls. rhe thing buttresses lean on the walls, counter-balancing the lateral thrust of the vault. adopted; while drawing, geometry (survey- impossible ing) and arithmetic (calculating) arc selfexplanatory; astronomy was only requned for clock-makers, it is a far cry from the indication of the detailed development of (far right, homo any of the hundreds of separate local traditions in the western world, each derived from its own particular circum- and protection are entireb separated, the outside non-load-beanng wails being m.ide up ot glass and inrill panels. I his more And an universalis of the Renaissance. after all that, inventive artist, is the architect to be responsible for the renewal of our environment? Of course in a stances, but in discussing the materials used in building they will be related where possible to vernacular usage. In the steel .\nd reinforced concrete frame bottom) the functions of support specialized application of building materials leads to greater econonn in their use. Masonry itself support a roof truss of wood, a simple frame structure, clad with tiles icalls or thatch. The strong tie-beam increases the stability of the walls. Cross-section of a Romanesque church CWiirzburg), shouting the thick containing walls of solid masonry (shaded) and the supporting structure of piers and arches. A simple cottage formed of three crinks. The rest of the frame of roof and walls is supported on these criicks. and the spaces between are filled with wattle and daub. The Gothic masonry frame (Reims) avoids form in which the weight of stone makes it relatively weak; thus the the lintel, a vertical emphasis is a structural necessity. upper storey in a box frame improved the stability of the main beams, as pressure U'as exerted on them beyond the points at A jettied which they were supported from below. Reinforced concrete is strong as both beam and column, but is especially effective if used to form a continuous frame with rigid joints, supporting floors, roof and glass ualls. BUILDING To TECHNOLOGY may need reinforcement view the history of architecture simply branch of the history of technology must lead to a distortion of values, but it as a nevertheless impossible to appreciate is the work of architects without at least a basic understanding of the properties of building materials, physical the laws which govern the stability of a building and the means by which it can stand up to climate and weather. The vast majority of binldings consist of walls surrounding an interior space or spaces, with some sort of roof as a covering. The materials of which the building is made serve two functions — to support the structure and to enclose the space. Where the building meets the ground there generally an intermediate layer built into the ground as a foundation, is down and on the soundness of this the ultimate stability of the building may well depend. The foundation serves to transfer the load of the building to the geological substructure on which it rests. A careful examination must first be made of the terrain, which to prevent sub- and the type of foundation sidence, is from the height of any wall how thick should be and many medieval then determined by the structural system accordingly', of the building and by the nature of the buildings, ground. Normally, stand on very inadequate foundations. wall construction, a building if is of solid- foundation the will it how to make the foundation although York Minster among them, Masonry has generally been used to follow the line of the wall and be dug Jeep build solid walls, which both carry the enough whole load of the building in themselves and also provide the protective envelope to the interior. As long as the material to rest In the case of a on absolutely firm ground. frame construction, where the load of a building is concentrated at around the base, the founoften be in the form of piles certain points they dation will forces, driven deep down into the substructure, wooden-framed builtiings are on continuous stone or brick foundations. Where the ground is soft or marshy the foundations may be built as a are made of will and they remain subject to lateral forces, remain crushing resist and not masonry walls vertical although will also built exerting lateral forces (pushing the wall complete layer, like a raft (sometimes supported on piles), beneath the whole building, without to it distribute resting on the load a solid basis. evenly Many of the buildings of Venice are supported on form of raft foundation. The Greeks and Romans generally devoted much care to foundations, and in the Middle Ages a journeyman had to 'know a special outwards stable. If at the covered by a vault top), the wall will need to be supported by buttresses or by greater thickness. The greatest danger masonry wall is that beams of floors and ceilings may often add stability by acting as tie-beams and by helping to of instability in a of buckling outwards, and rhc transfer the load of the building vertically down the walls. Openings in a solid wall may be either straight-topped on the postand-lintel principle — although in a heavy

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